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Zagazaena

(65 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town on Syrtis Major (modern Gulf of Sidra in Libya); Tab. Peut. 8,1; Ptol. 4,3,14: Σακάμαζα/ Sakámaza or Σακάζαμα κώμη/ Sakázama kṓmē; Geogr. Rav. 37,33: Zacassama; 89,33: Zacasama; Guido, Geographica 133,25: Zacasama. It may be that Z. can be located on the ruins of Ras Bergavad to the west of Ad Turrem (modern Lubrik). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2219 f.

Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Ptolemais

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαίς; Ptolemaís). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4]; presumably married to a descendant of the pharaoh Nectanebus [2]; from 298 BC betrothed, and from 287 married to Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. PP VI 14565. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Das Haus des Nektanebis und das Haus des Ptolemaios, in: AncSoc 25, 1994, 111-117  J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 30 ff. 74 f. [German version] [2] P. from Cyrene Ancient scholar of m…

Leptis Magna

(813 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Africa | Wine | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Λέπτις μεγάλη, Léptis megálē, Punic Lpqj) ([1. 39-48]). [German version] A. History Originally settled by Phoenicians, the modern Lebda in Libya ([2. 36f., 74]; Sall. Iug. 78,1; 4; Sil. Pun. 3,256; Plin. HN 5,76?). Frequently given the epithet Megálē/ Magna (‘great’), to differentiate it from Leptis Minor (Plin. HN 5,27; Ptol. 4,3,13; Stadiasmus maris magni 93; Sol. 27,8; Tab. Pe…

Zamazii

(61 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζαμάζιοι/ Zamázioi). Ethnic group which, together with the Salathi and Daphnitae as well as the Aroccae, Cetiani and Nigritae, lived between the Mandron and Sagapola mountains in the interior of Libya (Ptol. 4,6,18), perhaps in the valleys of the central Atlas mountains. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 241 H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2309.

Thugga

(250 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Punic Tbgg). Punicized [1. 258-261] Numidian city in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3.]; Ptol. 4,3,29;  Procop. Aed. 6,5,15), about 100 km west-southwest of Carthage, modern Dougga, with significant ancient remains from the Punic, Numidian and Roman periods (e.g. the Hellenistic-Numidian mausoleum of ṭbn; [3. 157 f.]). In 307 BC, T. was apparently conquered by one of Agathocles' [2] officers (Diod. Sic. 20,57,4: Τῶκαι/ Tôkai). Between 146 and 46 BC, T. was part of the Numidian kingdom (Numid…

Tagaste

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian settlement in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]), whose Punic past is to date attested only by a Neo-Punic inscription [1], modern Souk-Ahras in Algeria (It. Ant. 44,6; oppidum Tagesense: Plin.  HN 5,30?). T. was a municipium ( ordo, decuriones: ILAlg 1, 875; 880), and a bishopric as early as the 3rd cent. AD; birthplace of Augustinus. Inscriptions: ILAlg 1, 866-927; Bull. archéologique du Comité des trauvaux historiques 1932-1933, 476 f.; 1934-1935, 227-229; 351 f.; 362; RIL 524-529. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J.-B. Chabot, Punica, in: Jour…

Gillium

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, situated west of  Thubursicum Bure, modern Henchir Frass. Inscriptions: Revue Tunisienne 6, 1899, 447 (new Punic); CIL VIII suppl. 4, 26222-26236 ( decuriones Gillitani, 3rd cent. AD). Victor Tonnennensis mentions an abbot of the monasterium Gillense or Gillitanum (Chron. min. II p. 203, 553,1; 204, 557,2) for the years 553 and 557. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun (1:50 000), sheet 32, no. 11.

Altava

(189 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Africa | Limes City in  Mauretania Caesariensis, 33 km east of Tlemcen by what is today Ouled Mimoun (Lamoricière), in a strategically important location (CIL VIII 9834 f.). Likely a Berber settlement originally [1. 545 f.], A. came under Punic influence. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD, A. was included in the defence system of the Mauretanian   limes . The   civitas A. was administered from a ( prior) princepscivitatis (Libyan: gld or gldt?) and   decemprimi [2. 208]. Furthermore, a   rex sacrorum (Punic dr…

Vallis

(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3];  It. Ant. 25,4; 48,9; 49,1; 51,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3 f.) some 60 km to the southwest of Carthage, modern Sidi-Mediene, with significant ancient remains (city wall, temple); an indigenous community, in which evidently a Roman pagus was established, then a municipium , in the 3rd cent. a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1272-1294; 2, 10612; Suppl. 1, 14770-14790; 3, 22004; 4, 25827-25833; [1. 1279- 1282]; AE 1934, 31. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin (ed.), Inscriptions latines de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, s…

Atlas

(511 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
(Ἄτλας; Átlas). [German version] [1] Name of the north-west African Tertiary folded mountain range Name of the north-west African Tertiary folded mountain range. From the two Mediterranean coastal mountain ranges of the Rif A. and the Tell A. the Middle A. branches off in Morocco; the High A. rises in the south, which on the east borders the Sahara A. The Anti A., which extends south of the High A., do not belong to the Tertiary mountain range of the A.; Rif A., Middle A. and High A. enclose the Moroccan mese…

Tigisis

(85 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Fortified city in Numidia (Numidae; Tab. Peut. 3,5) on a hill dominating the Plain of Bahiret et-Touila to the southeast of Cirta, modern Aïn el-Bordj. Initially part of the colonia of Cirta, T. later became independent ( curator, ordo are recorded). Bishops are recorded from 305 onwards (Aug. Epist. 43; Aug. contra Cresconium 3,27,30). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 4817-4819; 2, 10162f.; 10819-10826; Suppl. 2, 18764-18782; AE 1957, 175. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 17, No.340  F. Windberg, s.v. T. (1), RE 6 A, 957.

Zigua

(98 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis at the foot of Djebel Zaghouan. Some 30 neo-Punic stelai attest to the cult of Saturnus/Baal Hamon (Baal). One of these stelai bears a neo-Punic inscription (Répertoire d'épigraphie sémitique II, 598). Neo-Punic graves also indicate the Punic past of the city. In the Roman period a well installation supplied the great Aqueduct of Carthage (cf. CIL VIII 1, 895-905; 2, 10523 f.; Suppl. 1, 12424-12431; AE 1984, 739?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 35, Nr. 104 M. Leglay, Saturne africain: monuments, vol. 1, 1961, …

Triton

(545 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Τρίτων/ Trítōn, Latin Triton). [German version] [1] Sea deity Sea deity with the upper body of a human and the tail of a fish, sometimes also as an ichthyocentaur with the forelegs of a horse (Tzetz. Lycophr. 34; 886), son of Poseidon and Amphitrite (Hes. Theog. 930-933), who stirs up the waters with his conch shell and calms them again (Verg. Aen. 10,209-212; Ov. Met. 1,330-342). Like the related sea gods  Glaucus [1], Halios geron, Nereus, Phorcys [1] and Proteus, T. in particular is a figure of liter…

Suthul

(83 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian town (Numidae). Storage place of Iugurtha's treasures, which the legatus A. Postumius (cf. Postumius [I 9]), acting as pro-praetor, wanted to seize (Sall. Iug. 37,3; 38,2). S. lay on top of a steep "mountain" and was "surrounded by a muddy plain" (Sall. Iug. 37,4). According to Oros. Hist. 5,15,6, "the royal treasures lay near the town of Calama". However, since S. cannot be identified with Calama, its location remains unknown. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography E. Honigmann, s.v. S., RE 4 A, 989.

Lambafundi

(130 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Numidia between Lambaesis and Thamugadi, modern Henchir Touchine (CIL VIII 1, 2438 = Suppl. 2, 17941 [ saltus? La] m[ b] afundensium; Tab. Peut. 3,3: Lambafudi; Geogr. Rav. 39,40: Lambafudin). The following designations of origin may be attributable to the episcopal see of L.: Lampuensis ( plebs) (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 411, 1,133,292), Iamfuensis (Not. episcoporum Numidiae 87a), Lamfuensis (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 525; [2. 647]). In Procop. Aed. 6,7,10, a Numidian town newly fortified by Iustinianus is named as Λαμφουαομβά/ Lamphoua…

Cartennae

(103 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Καρτέννα[ι], Κάρτιν[ν]α; Karténna[i], Kártin[n]a). Probably a Punic town in the later Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Ténès (sources: Mela 1,31; Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,4; It. Ant. 14,2; Aug. Epist. 93,20-22; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia 47; Geogr. Rav. 40,46; 88,9). In around 30 BC, C. admitted a colonia of veterans. C. was important as a harbour town, not least as a landing place for the vexillationes, deployed in the battles against the Mauri. Inscriptions: CIL V…

Avitta Bibba

(115 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἀουΐττα; Aouítta). City in Africa proconsularis, on the connecting road running from west to east between Agbia and Pupput; today Henchir Bou Ftis. (Plin. HN 5,30 oppidum Avittense; Ptol. 4,3,31; Tab. Peut. 5,4). The Punic influence is demonstrated by the constitution of the city which had sufetes (CIL VIII 1, 797). A. was a municipium (CIL VIII 1, 799; 800; 1177) from the time of Hadrian (AD 117-138). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 796-813; 1177; Suppl. 1, 12265-12284; Suppl. 4, 23875; Inscr. latines de la Tunisie 670-675; AE 1989, 290 no. 893.  Sufetes Huß, Werner (Bamberg) B…

Novar

(94 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Caesariensis between Sitifis and Cuicul, modern Beni Fouda or Sillègue. Saturnus (27 steles of the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD) was the focus of its cultic life. The genius of N. (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20429; 20430), Ceres [1. 403] and Mercury (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20431) were also worshipped. Other inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20431-20483. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Poulle, in: Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique de Constantine 19, 1878, 402ff. AAA, sheet 16, no. 216  E. Lipiński, s.v. N., DCPP, 315-317.

Zabe

(65 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζάβη/ Zábē). Moorish region ( chṓra), Mauritanía hē prṓtē ('First Mauretania') as a Byzantine province, beyond the Aurès mountains, probably the area of Chott el-Hodna (in Algeria): Procop. Vand. 2,20,30. Sitifis was the mētrópolis [2] of this region. Not identical with the city of Zabi (It. Ant. 30,3). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. Courtois, Les Vandales et l'Afrique, 1955 H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2203 f.
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