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Rusaddir

(159 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Punic Rš dr). Originally the name of the 'Great Cape' ( rš dr) of Tres Forcas, then of the city of R., modern Melilla (Spanish enclave within Morocco). Sources: Mela 1,29: wrongly Rusigada; Rhysaddir: Plin. HN 5,18; Ῥυσσάδειρον/ Rhyssádeiron, Ptol. 4,1,7; Rusadder colonia: It. Ant. 11,3 f. The oldest evidence of Carthaginian settlement (3rd cent. BC) has been found in the necropolis of Cerro de San Lorenzo. R. has also yielded a neo-P…

Cuicul

(179 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae Small Berber town in Numidia between Cirta and Sitifis, now Djemila. Attested forms of the name: Κοúλκουα, Ptol. 4,3,29; Cuiculi, It. Ant. 29,1; Culchul, Tab. Peut. 2,4; Chulchul, Geogr. Rav. 39,25. A veteran colony was established under Nerva (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20713) which contributed substantially to C.'s upswing. In the 5th cent., C.'s importance declined. Significant ruins have survived: temples (Venus Genetrix, Liber, Saturnus, Frugifer, Gens Septi…

Metagonium

(197 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Μεταγώνιον; Metagṓnion). [German version] [1] Promontory in Mauretania Tingitana Promontory in Mauretania Tingitana, east of Rusaddir and west of the mouth of the Mulucha (Str. 17,3,6.9; Ptol. 4,1,7), modern Cabo de Agua. The name Metagōnîtai (Μεταγωνῖται, in Pol. 3,33,13 and Ptol. 4,1,10) does not appear to be derived from this promontory. The Metagonitae probably inhabited Libyan towns and localities lying between Cape Spartel and Ceuta ([1. 36], otherwise [2. 97]), but not Libyo-Phoenician cities; cf. also Pol. 3,33,12 (τὰ Μεταγώνια τῆς Λιβύης; tà Metag?nia tês Liby?s) and S…

Zulil

(140 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Punic šlyt). City in Mauretania Tingitana to the southwest of  Tingis (modern Tangiers), modern Asilah or Dchar Djedid. Z. was a Phoenician or Punic foundation. In the time of the Moorish kings, Z. minted coins with Punic legends [1. 188 f.] and was in active contact with the Iberian Peninsula. Augustus resettled the inhabitants of Z. to Spain in order to make space for his veterans (Mela 2,96). According to Plin. HN 5,2, Z. was under the control of the proconsul Baeticae (Strab. 3,1,8; 17,3,6: Ζῆλις/ Zêlis; Ptol. 4,…

Calceus Herculis

(84 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Oasis west of the Aurès mountains, nowadays probably El-Kantara (north of Biskra). The road from Lambaesis to the Numidian limes went through C. (Tab. Peut. 3,5). This strategically important location was, in the 2nd and 3rd cent., garrison to archers and camel-riders from Emesa and Palmyra, who introduced their native gods to C.H.: CIL VIII 1, 2502, 2505, 2515; Suppl. 2, 18007f. Further inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2496-2515; Suppl. 2, 18004-18012; AE 1992, 522f. no. 1848-1854. Huß, Werner (Bamberg)

Marmarica

(468 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μαρμαρική; Marmarikḗ). Region on the north coast of Africa between Egypt and the Cyrenaica. The borders of M. varied over time: during the time of the 30th dynasty (380-342 BC), the region of the Marmaridae stretched from the border of the Libyan district (near Apis) to the west (Ps.-Scyl. 108 [GGM 1,82-84]). According to Ptol. 4,5,2-4, however, the eastern border of the district of M. ( sic!) only began near Pétras Mégas Limḗn (west of Catabathmus Mégas), i.e. at the westernmost point of Egypt. Ptol. (4,4,2; 5f.) puts the western border of M. to the eas…

Thena

(109 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Punic Tynt?; Θένα/ Théna, Latin Thena, Thenae). Originally probably a Punic city (cf. CIS I 3, 4911 and archaeological finds) in Byzacena (Africa [3];  Str. 17,3,12; 17,3,16; Plin.  HN 5,25), 12 km to the south of Taparura (modern Sfax); end of the Fossa [7] Regia built in 146 BC by Cornelius [I 70] Scipio on the Gulf of Gabes (Syrtis;  cf. [1. 435 note 80]); modern Thyna. The port, probably a colonia from the time of Hadrianus, acquired a certain amount of significance from the 2nd cent. AD onwards. From 255 recorded as a bishopric. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Hus…

Xuchis

(77 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ξοῦχις; Xoûchis). Northern African city (πόλις Λιβύης), recorded by Artemidorus [3] of Ephesus (fr. 16 = GGM 1,576; 1st cent. BC). If X. can be identified with Ζοῦχις/ Zoûchis (Str. 17,3,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ζοῦχις) and Χουζίς/ Chouzís (Ptol. 4,3,41), the town is between the two Syrtes (Syrtis), somewhat inland on a lake which also bore the name X. (probably modern Bahiret el-Biban). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography M. Leglay, s. v. Zuchis, RE 10 A, 856 f.  H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2155 f.

Zagazaena

(65 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town on Syrtis Major (modern Gulf of Sidra in Libya); Tab. Peut. 8,1; Ptol. 4,3,14: Σακάμαζα/ Sakámaza or Σακάζαμα κώμη/ Sakázama kṓmē; Geogr. Rav. 37,33: Zacassama; 89,33: Zacasama; Guido, Geographica 133,25: Zacasama. It may be that Z. can be located on the ruins of Ras Bergavad to the west of Ad Turrem (modern Lubrik). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2219 f.

Zamazii

(61 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζαμάζιοι/ Zamázioi). Ethnic group which, together with the Salathi and Daphnitae as well as the Aroccae, Cetiani and Nigritae, lived between the Mandron and Sagapola mountains in the interior of Libya (Ptol. 4,6,18), perhaps in the valleys of the central Atlas mountains. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 241 H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2309.

Thugga

(250 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Punic Tbgg). Punicized [1. 258-261] Numidian city in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3.]; Ptol. 4,3,29;  Procop. Aed. 6,5,15), about 100 km west-southwest of Carthage, modern Dougga, with significant ancient remains from the Punic, Numidian and Roman periods (e.g. the Hellenistic-Numidian mausoleum of ṭbn; [3. 157 f.]). In 307 BC, T. was apparently conquered by one of Agathocles' [2] officers (Diod. Sic. 20,57,4: Τῶκαι/ Tôkai). Between 146 and 46 BC, T. was part of the Numidian kingdom (Numid…

Tagaste

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian settlement in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]), whose Punic past is to date attested only by a Neo-Punic inscription [1], modern Souk-Ahras in Algeria (It. Ant. 44,6; oppidum Tagesense: Plin.  HN 5,30?). T. was a municipium ( ordo, decuriones: ILAlg 1, 875; 880), and a bishopric as early as the 3rd cent. AD; birthplace of Augustinus. Inscriptions: ILAlg 1, 866-927; Bull. archéologique du Comité des trauvaux historiques 1932-1933, 476 f.; 1934-1935, 227-229; 351 f.; 362; RIL 524-529. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J.-B. Chabot, Punica, in: Jour…

Gillium

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, situated west of  Thubursicum Bure, modern Henchir Frass. Inscriptions: Revue Tunisienne 6, 1899, 447 (new Punic); CIL VIII suppl. 4, 26222-26236 ( decuriones Gillitani, 3rd cent. AD). Victor Tonnennensis mentions an abbot of the monasterium Gillense or Gillitanum (Chron. min. II p. 203, 553,1; 204, 557,2) for the years 553 and 557. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun (1:50 000), sheet 32, no. 11.

Altava

(189 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Africa | Limes City in  Mauretania Caesariensis, 33 km east of Tlemcen by what is today Ouled Mimoun (Lamoricière), in a strategically important location (CIL VIII 9834 f.). Likely a Berber settlement originally [1. 545 f.], A. came under Punic influence. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD, A. was included in the defence system of the Mauretanian   limes . The   civitas A. was administered from a ( prior) princepscivitatis (Libyan: gld or gldt?) and   decemprimi [2. 208]. Furthermore, a   rex sacrorum (Punic dr…

Vallis

(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3];  It. Ant. 25,4; 48,9; 49,1; 51,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3 f.) some 60 km to the southwest of Carthage, modern Sidi-Mediene, with significant ancient remains (city wall, temple); an indigenous community, in which evidently a Roman pagus was established, then a municipium , in the 3rd cent. a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1272-1294; 2, 10612; Suppl. 1, 14770-14790; 3, 22004; 4, 25827-25833; [1. 1279- 1282]; AE 1934, 31. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin (ed.), Inscriptions latines de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, s…

Auzia

(180 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Africa | Coloniae | Limes (Αὐζία; Auzía). Town in  Mauretania Caesariensis, 124 km south-east of Algiers, modern Aumale or Sour el-Ghozlane. Ptol. 4,2,7; It. Ant. 30,6 (Auza); Amm. Marc. 29,5,44; 49 ( Audiense castellum). It is unlikely to be identical with the Αὖζα (Aûza) in Menander of Ephesus FGrH 783 F 3 [1. 52], but probably with the castellum ... cui nomen Auzea (Tac. Ann. 4,25,1). A. was an important road junction near the Mauretanian limes (Not. Dign. occ. 30,17 mentions a praepositus limitis Audiensis).…

Acholla

(143 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni Town in Africa Byzacena, modern Ras Bou Tria [4. 86-89]. For the tradition of the place name [5. 250]; AE 1969/70, 183 no. 633. A. was apparently founded by Phoenician or Phoenician-influenced Maltese [1. 312, 380]. It was 12 miles [2. 5] south of Sullectum and 27 miles south of Thapsus (Tab. Peut. 6,3). In the Third Punic War, A. surrendered to the Romans and from then became part of the populi liberi [3. 374-376]. Archaeological evidence for prosperous   villae (2nd cent. AD; inscriptions and mosaics). Huß…

Niger

(212 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Following a statement by Juba [2] II (FGrH 275 F 38), Plin. HN 5,30 calls the Nigris the boundary between ‘Africa’ and ‘Aethiopia’. But the Nigris is probably not identical with the N., but with the Oued Djedi [1. 248]. Yet we must assume that the great African river N. was known to the Libyans, the Phoenicians and the Greeks. Indeed, noble Nasamones seem to have travelled as far as Timbuktu and hence as far as the Niger (Hdt. 2,32f.; [2. 7]). And a Carthaginian called Mago, who h…

Bagradas

(153 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μακάρας; Makáras, Pol. 1,75,5; 1,86,9; 15,2,8 [1.1085f.]; Βαγράδας; Bagrádas, Str. 17,3,13; Ptol. 4,3,6; 4,3,18; 4,3,31; 6,10; Bagrada: Mela 1,34; Lucan. 4,587; Plin. HN 5,24; cf. 8,37). Today called Ksar Baghai (concerning the name [2. 1311]), the longest river in north-eastern Africa (365 km; Iulius Honorius differs, Cosmographia 47: 318 miles). The B. rises near Thubursicum Numidarum (Iulius Honorius ibid.; Ptol. differs 4,3,18; 6,10) and flows sluggishly (Sil. Pun. 6,140-143) from west-south-west to east-south-east. The…

Tacape

(193 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce (Τακάπη/ Takápē, Latin Tacape). City on the Syrtis Minor, possibly a Phoenician or Punic foundation, modern Gabes in Tunisia. Punic remains are scanty [1. 1261]. T., a 'very large trading centre' (Str. 17,3,17), was 'in the middle of the desert' (Plin. HN 18,188). At the time of Augustus T. was a civitas (Plin. HN 5,25; 18,188), later a colonia (Tab. Peut. 6,5; It. Ant. 59,6). Further evidence: Plin. HN 16,115 (?); Ptol. 4,3,11; Stadiasmus maris magni 106 f.; It. Ant. 48,9 f.; 50,4; 73,5; 74,…

Mascula

(94 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Numidia on the road from Thamugadi to Theveste in the middle of the fertile land of the Musulamii, modern Khenchela (It. Ant. 33,6). M. was under Punic influence [1. 163-177]. In the Severian period (AD 193-235) M. was a municipium CIL VIII 1, 2248. Bishops are attested from 256: Cypr. Sententiae episcoporum 79. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2228-2274; 2, 10184-10188; Suppl. 2, 17668-17719; 3, 22281; 22282; AE 1989, 882. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 M. Leglay, Saturne africain. Monuments 2, 1966. H. Dessau, s.v. M. (1), RE 14, 2064.

Gurza

(82 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa Byzacena, 12 km north-west of  Hadrumetum, modern Kalaa Kebira (for the location cf. Tab. Peut. 6,2: Gurra). G. was under Punic influence. Patronage deeds are extant from the years 12 BC (CIL VIII 1,68) and AD 65 (CIL VIII 1,69). Inscriptions: CIL VI 4,2, 32757; 36277; VIII 1, 68-72; Suppl. 4, 23021. The town attested in Pol. 1,74,13, Γόρζα/Gorza, was not very far from Utica [1. 258].  Patronage Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß. E. Lipiński, s.v. G./Gorza, DCPP, 202.

Cidame

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa ( Cidamus or Cydamus). Chief settlement of the Phazanii at the intersection of the borders of Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, modern Gadames. According to Plin. HN 5,35f., the Phazanii have to be differentiated from the  Garamantes. Between the territories of both of these tribes was Mons Ater, modern Hamada el-Homra. C. -- like  Garama -- was captured in 20 BC by L. Cornelius [I 7] Balbus, proconsul Africae. A vexillatio of the legio III Augusta was stationed in the town [1]. C. played an important role in the S…

Ausum

(101 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Castrum of the Numidian   limes , which was 75 km west-south-west of Biskra; probably the place today known as Sadouri. The military camp protected the area south of the Chott el-Hodna. A. was where the road from Lambaesis met the road that led from Auzia via Doucen to Gemellae. Inscription in honour of  Gordianus (AD 247 [1. 31-33]); it is, however, possible that A. was already in existence before this time. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Carcopino, Le Limes de Numidie et sa garde syrienne, in: Syria 6, 1925 2 AAAlg, folio 48, no. 1 3 J. Baradez, Fossatum Afric…

Equizeto

(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Sitifensis, at a road junction south-west of Sitifis: the modern Ouled-Agla or Lecourbe; in Tab. Peut. 2,1 referred to as Equeheto. The town was a municipium by the time of Alexander Severus at the latest [1. 567 no. 29]. Inscr.: CIL VIII 2, 8810-8825; 9045; 10427-10430; Suppl. 3, 20606; Suppl. 4, 22658,5. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Bull. Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques, 1897. AAAlg, folio 15, no. 91.

Masaesylii

(71 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μασαισύλιοι; Masaisýlioi). West Numidian tribe in Mauretania Caesariensis (between the River Mulucha and Cape Bougaroun): Pol. 3,33,15; Liv. 28,17,5; Str. 17,3,9; Plin. HN 5,19; 52; 21,77. For its localization in Mauretania Tingitana: Plin. HN 5,17; Ptol. 4,2,17. Among the kings of the M. were Syphax (Punic Spq), Vermina (Punic Wrmnd) and Arcobarzanes. Libyes, Libye Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines ... , 1962, 62.

Sasura

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Place in Africa proconsularis, from the time of Diocletianus in the province of Byzacena (Diocletianus, with map), some 18 km to the north of Thysdrus, modern Henchir el-Ksour (Bell. Afr. 75,3; 76,1: oppidum Sarsura; Ptol. 4,3,36: Σασοῦρα/ Sasoûra; Tab. Peut. 6,3: Sassura vicus). Caesar attacked the Pompeians under Caecilius [I 32] and Iuba [1] there in 46 BC and conquered S. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, p. 73, no. 12  J.-B. Chabot (ed.), Recueil des inscriptions libyques, 1940/1, Nr. 43-45.

Nababes

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribe in Mauretania Caesariensis. According to Plin HN 5,21, the river ( flumen) Usar (modern Oued Isser?) separated the gens of the N. from the gens of the Macurebi. In Tab. Peut. 2,2-4, the N. are placed to the south of the Mons Ferratus, the Djurdjura mountain range (Kabylei). They probably belonged to the confederacy of the Quinquegentiani. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 65f.  F. Windberg, s.v. Nabades, RE 16, 1449f.

Garama

(92 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Africa | Limes Main town of the  Garamantes, northeast of Mursuk (Fezzan), modern Djerma. References: Plin. HN 5,36; Ptol. 1,8,5; 10,2; 4,6,30; 8,16,7; Solin. 29,5. L. Cornelius Balbus, procos. Africae, led an expedition in 20 BC that certainly reached Garama. Subsequently, there was a close but sometimes stormy relationship between Garama and Rome. Many archaeological finds attest to this close relationship. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Ch. M. Daniels, Garamantian Excavations..., in: Libya Anti…

Carpis

(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κάρπις; Kárpis). Punic settlement on the western base of the Bon peninsula (probably near Mraïssa). Sources: Plin. HN 5,24; Ptol. 4,3,7; Geogr. Rav. 37,49; 88,39; Guido 132,60). C. rose to become a colonia in around AD 1 (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25417). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 993-998; Suppl. 1, 12454f.; Suppl. 4, 24106f. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 281f. P. Trousset, s.v. C., EB, 1779f.

Numidae, Numidia

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] In the narrower sense, the region that stretches west of the Carthaginian territory between the Tusca and Ampsaga rivers, today part of eastern Algeria. The Greeks interpreted the name of the Libyan people of N. living in this area in the sense of nomádes (νομάδες, ‘people who roam’) and so called this region Nomadía (Νομαδία; [1; 2. 95f.]; Pol. 36,16,7). However, most of the N. had already been settled for a long time. The plateau of N. is bordered in the north by the foothills of the Tell Atlas and in the south by the Sahara Atlas…

Zita

(71 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Tripolitana on the Zarris peninsula, modern Ziane (Ptol. 4,3,12: Ζεῖθα ἄκρα/ Zeîtha ákra; It. Ant. 60,2: Ponte Zita; Tab. Peut. 6,5: Ziza; Geogr. Rav. 37,41: Z.; CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 11002-11016; 4, 22690 = [1. 12]). The name of the city is sometimes derived from the Phoenician word zt ('olive'). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin et al. (eds.), Inscriptions latines d'Afrique, 1923. M. Leglay, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 460 f.

Sitifis

(241 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Rome City in Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Sétif in Algeria (Σίτιφα/ Sítipha, Ptol. 4,2,34; Sitifi, It. Ant. 24,7), from the time of Nerva colonia Nerviana Augusta Martialis veteranorum Sitifensium (cf. CIL VIII 2, 8473 et passim). Before AD 288 S. was a centre of the newly created province of Mauretania Sitifensis. A population of a Punic character also lived in S.. In AD 372 S. was the headquarters of the imperial troops in the campaig…

Barbaria

(144 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Βαρβαρία; Barbaría). Somalian north coast, according to Peripl. M. Erythraei 3; 7 (GGM 1, 261; 263). There were no ports, but good landing places, like Aualites, Malao, Mundu, Mosylon and Aromata. Also cf. Cosmas Indikopleustes (2,26; 29; 45; 48; 49; 50; 64) for the location. The name B. appears to have been preserved in the name of the city Berbera, the old emporium Malao (Ptol. 4,7,10). Behind Opone, today Ras Hafun, the coastal area called Azania started, which ended at  Rhapto…

Pharusii

(90 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαρούσιοι; Pharoúsioi). A nomadic North African people whom Strabo (2,5,33; 17,3,3; 7) always mentions together with the Nigritae (cf. Sall. Iug. 18: Persae; Mela 1,22; 3,103; Plin. HN 5,43: Gymnetes Pharusi; 46: Pharusi, quondam Persae; 6,194: Perusii; Ptol. 4,6,17; Geogr. Rav. 43,10: Paurisi). The P. appear to have partly lived to the west and partly to the south-east of the High Atlas. With their caravans they occasionally reached as far as Cirta (Str. 17,3,7). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Cat. des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 230-232.

Gilda

(61 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Tingitana, north-west of Volubilis, perhaps identifiable with Souk el-Arba of Sidi Slimane. Evidence: Mela 3,107; Ptol. 4,1,13 (Σίλδα; Sílda); It. Ant. 23,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γίλδα; Geogr. Rav. p. 43,3 (?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography M. Euzennat, Les voies romaines du Maroc ..., in: M. Renard (ed.), Hommages à A. Grenier II (Coll. Latomus 58), 1962, 599f.

Althiburus

(209 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Punic 'ltbrš). Native city of Africa proconsularis (other forms of the name [5. 1697]), 37 km south-southeast of El-Kef, today Henchir Medeina. A. had strong Punic elements [4. 295-297; 2. 19-24; 3; 6. 60; 1. 17 f., pl. IV 2]. This could be due partially to the location of A. on the  Carthage   to Theveste road. Cult of  Baal Hamon (without that of  Tinnit), the sacrifice of molk and a tofet. Three   sufetes led the administration. Under Hadrian, A. became municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4. 27769, 27775, 27781), un…

Diana Veteranorum

(118 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Numidia, north-northwest of Lambaesis, mod. Aïn Zana. Documentary evidence: It. Ant. 34,3 ( Diana); 35,4 ( Diana Veteranorum); Tab. Peut. 3,1 ( ad Dianam). The town, which was probably only founded in Roman times, started out as a very simple settlement with a community council (CIL VIII 1, 4587, AD 141) and was only elevated to a municipium in AD 162 (CIL VIII 1, 4589; 4599). From the mid 3rd cent., a bishop resided in Diana Veteranorum (Cypr. epist. 34,1). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 4575-4625; Suppl. 2, 18646-18653; AE 1956, 40-42 no. 124; [1]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) B…

Masices

(191 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μάσικες; Másikes, Μάζικες; Mázikes). Name of several North African peoples (Anon. Cosmographia 1,39 = GLM 88). It corresponds roughly to the modern term ‘Berber’. The M. have been localized in Mauretania Tingitana (south of the territory of the Metagonitae: Ptol. 4,1,10), in Mauretania Caesariensis (CIL VIII 1, 2786; 2, 9613; Ptol. 4,2,19; Provinciarum omnium laterculus Veronensis 14,3 = GLM 129; Amm. Marc. 29,5,17; 21; 25f.; 51; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48) and south of the province of Africa (Liber generationis, Chron. min. 1,107,197: between Afri qui e…

Thapsa

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Θάψα). North African harbour town (Ps.-Scyl. 111; the place name is Punic), probably identical to Rusicade. In the 4th cent. BC, a distinction may possibly have been made between Cape Rusicade and the settlement Th. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, Bl. 8, Nr. 196  H. Treidler, s. v. Th., RE 5 A, 1271 f.

Saldae

(163 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Punic Wars | Punic Wars City and harbour of Mauretania Caesariensis, later of Sitifensis, near the mouth of the Oued Soummam, present-day Bejaïa in Algeria (Ps.-Scyl. 111: Σίδα πόλις/ Sída pólis (?); Ptol. 4,2,9: Σάλδαι κολωνία/ Sáldai kolōnía; It. Ant. 5,2: Saldis; 17,3: Saldis colonia; 31,6: Saldas; 32,3: Saldis; 39,2: Saldis; 39,6: Saldis colonia; 39,7: Saldis; Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Sitifensis 41: Saldae). S. was on the boundary between the kingdom of Juba [2] and the Roman…

Massylii

(251 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μασσύλιοι/ Massýlioi, etc.). An Eastern Numidian tribe, from the east of Cape Bougaroun. References: Hesianax FGrH 763 F 1; Pol. 3,33,15; Strab. 17,3,9; Plin. HN 5,30; Sil. 16,170-172 (who confuses the M. with the Masaesyli); App. Lib. 10,37; 27,110; 46,195. In the second century BC, the territory of the M. sometimes reached from the Mulucha river as far as the Gulf of Sidra (except for the province of Africa). Apart from the ‘suffete’ Zilalsan (Numidian Zllsn), the Massylian kings included Gaia (Numidian Gjj), his son Massinissa (Punic Msnsn), his sons Micipsa (Punic M…

Bulla Regia

(278 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Punic Bbl?). Town in Africa proconsularis in the valley of the Bagradas, today Hammam Daradji, originally a Libyan settlement, came into Carthaginian possession and towards the end of the 150s BC had to be surrendered to  Massinissa, who probably made the regia into a royal capital (App. Lib. 309). In 46 BC it was integrated into the province of Africa nova, in the 1st cent. BC/AD it became an oppidum liberum (Plin. HN 5,22), probably in the time of Vespasian a municipium (Inscr. latines d'Afrique 458; AE 1964, 67 no. 177) and in Hadrian's time a colonia (CIL VIII Suppl. 4…

Sicca Veneria

(340 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Indigenous city of Africa proconsularis on the road from Carthage to Cirta (Plin. HN 5,22; Ptol. 4,3,30; 8,14,9;  It. Ant. 45,1; Tab. Peut. 4,5; Solin. 27,8), modern El-Kef in Tunisia. In 241 BC, SV had to take in the Carthaginian mercenaries who had returned from Sicily (Pol. 1,66 f.; [1. 253 f., 471]). On the basis of the peace treaty of 201 (Punic Wars), SV may have become Numidian. In the war with Iugurtha (111-105 BC), SV was the t…

Volubilis

(585 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Limes City in Mauretania Tingitana in a strategically favourable location 20 km to the north of Meknès (in Morocco); modern Walı̄la. V. was originally probably a Berber settlement, but as an inland city was Punicised relatively early. From the 4th/3rd cents. BC onwards, V. was one of the residences of the Moorish rulers. From no later than the 3rd cent. BC, V. was under the administration of sufetes. Neo-Punic inscription…

Mulucha

(107 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] River in Mauretania, rising in the High Atlas and flowing into the Mediterranean to the east of the western Cape Metagonion [1], modern Moulouya. Initially it divided Mauretania and Numidia (Numidae), from 46 BC the Western Mauretanian kingdom of Bogudes [2] II and the Eastern Mauretanian kingdom of Bocchus [2] II, from AD 42 Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis and from the time of Diocletian (Diocletianus, with map) the dioceses of Hispaniae and Africa. Plin. HN 5,19…

Tisidium

(85 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]; Tab. Peut. 5,4; the oppidum Thisiduense in CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 13188?), modern Krich el-Oued (in Tunisia). In the Jugurthine War (Iugurtha) Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus set out from T.   to punish the city of Vaga for its treachery (Sall. Iug. 62,8; 68,2 f.). In the 2nd cent AD a municipium . Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1267-1271; Suppl. 1, 14763-14765. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet. 27, No. 28  F. Windberg, s.v. T. (1), RE 6 A, 1478 f.

Siga

(151 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars | Punic Wars (neo-Punic Šjgn). City and river port of Mauretania Caesariensis on the Oued Tafna, 4 km to the south of Portus Sigensis, modern Takembrit in Algeria (Ps.-Scylax 111; Pol. 12,1,3; Liv. 28,17,15 f.; Str.  17,3,9; Mela 1,29; Plin. HN 5,19; Ptol. 4,2,2;  It. Ant. 12,8; Steph. Byz. s. v. Σίγαθα/ Sígatha). At first a Punic trading post, later the royal city of Syphax, king of the Masaesyli. In the city (only partially excavated) the cult of Saturnus appears to have supplante…

Nicives

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νίσιβες/ Nísibes). According to Plin. HN 5,29f., the N. were a people in Africa Proconsularis. A boundary stone from the time of Vespasian [1. 289f.] locates them in the ager publicus of Cirta. According to Ptol. 4,3,24 the N. lived in the south of Numidia (Numidae) near the Nattabutae and Miaedioe. Later they were to be found in the region of N'Gaous (Nicivibus), 80 km south of Sétif. For the year AD 411 an episcopus Niciuensis is attested (acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,201). Inscriptions: AE 1969-1970, 696. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. La…

Mimaces

(87 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μίμακες; Mímakes). Libyan nomads living near the Machyni, Machryes and Gephes (between the Tunisian Dorsale and the Chott el-Jerid) (Ptol. 4,3,26 and Steph. Byz. s.v. M. = Philistus of Syracuse). According to Ptol. 4,6,20f., M. also lived in the Libyan interior, not far from the Thála óros (Θάλα ὄρος; the modern Tahela Ohat in the Ahaggar mountains?) and near the Noubai (Νοῦβαι). Libyes, Libye Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines..., 1962, 115, 224 H. Treidler, s.v. Mimakes, RE 15, 1711f.
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