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Zamazii

(61 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζαμάζιοι/ Zamázioi). Ethnic group which, together with the Salathi and Daphnitae as well as the Aroccae, Cetiani and Nigritae, lived between the Mandron and Sagapola mountains in the interior of Libya (Ptol. 4,6,18), perhaps in the valleys of the central Atlas mountains. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 241 H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2309.

Thugga

(250 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Punic Tbgg). Punicized [1. 258-261] Numidian city in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3.]; Ptol. 4,3,29;  Procop. Aed. 6,5,15), about 100 km west-southwest of Carthage, modern Dougga, with significant ancient remains from the Punic, Numidian and Roman periods (e.g. the Hellenistic-Numidian mausoleum of ṭbn; [3. 157 f.]). In 307 BC, T. was apparently conquered by one of Agathocles' [2] officers (Diod. Sic. 20,57,4: Τῶκαι/ Tôkai). Between 146 and 46 BC, T. was part of the Numidian kingdom (Numid…

Tagaste

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian settlement in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]), whose Punic past is to date attested only by a Neo-Punic inscription [1], modern Souk-Ahras in Algeria (It. Ant. 44,6; oppidum Tagesense: Plin.  HN 5,30?). T. was a municipium ( ordo, decuriones: ILAlg 1, 875; 880), and a bishopric as early as the 3rd cent. AD; birthplace of Augustinus. Inscriptions: ILAlg 1, 866-927; Bull. archéologique du Comité des trauvaux historiques 1932-1933, 476 f.; 1934-1935, 227-229; 351 f.; 362; RIL 524-529. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J.-B. Chabot, Punica, in: Jour…

Gillium

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, situated west of  Thubursicum Bure, modern Henchir Frass. Inscriptions: Revue Tunisienne 6, 1899, 447 (new Punic); CIL VIII suppl. 4, 26222-26236 ( decuriones Gillitani, 3rd cent. AD). Victor Tonnennensis mentions an abbot of the monasterium Gillense or Gillitanum (Chron. min. II p. 203, 553,1; 204, 557,2) for the years 553 and 557. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun (1:50 000), sheet 32, no. 11.

Altava

(189 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Africa | Limes City in  Mauretania Caesariensis, 33 km east of Tlemcen by what is today Ouled Mimoun (Lamoricière), in a strategically important location (CIL VIII 9834 f.). Likely a Berber settlement originally [1. 545 f.], A. came under Punic influence. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD, A. was included in the defence system of the Mauretanian   limes . The   civitas A. was administered from a ( prior) princepscivitatis (Libyan: gld or gldt?) and   decemprimi [2. 208]. Furthermore, a   rex sacrorum (Punic dr…

Vallis

(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3];  It. Ant. 25,4; 48,9; 49,1; 51,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3 f.) some 60 km to the southwest of Carthage, modern Sidi-Mediene, with significant ancient remains (city wall, temple); an indigenous community, in which evidently a Roman pagus was established, then a municipium , in the 3rd cent. a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1272-1294; 2, 10612; Suppl. 1, 14770-14790; 3, 22004; 4, 25827-25833; [1. 1279- 1282]; AE 1934, 31. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin (ed.), Inscriptions latines de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, s…

Auzia

(180 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Africa | Coloniae | Limes (Αὐζία; Auzía). Town in  Mauretania Caesariensis, 124 km south-east of Algiers, modern Aumale or Sour el-Ghozlane. Ptol. 4,2,7; It. Ant. 30,6 (Auza); Amm. Marc. 29,5,44; 49 ( Audiense castellum). It is unlikely to be identical with the Αὖζα (Aûza) in Menander of Ephesus FGrH 783 F 3 [1. 52], but probably with the castellum ... cui nomen Auzea (Tac. Ann. 4,25,1). A. was an important road junction near the Mauretanian limes (Not. Dign. occ. 30,17 mentions a praepositus limitis Audiensis).…

Acholla

(143 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni Town in Africa Byzacena, modern Ras Bou Tria [4. 86-89]. For the tradition of the place name [5. 250]; AE 1969/70, 183 no. 633. A. was apparently founded by Phoenician or Phoenician-influenced Maltese [1. 312, 380]. It was 12 miles [2. 5] south of Sullectum and 27 miles south of Thapsus (Tab. Peut. 6,3). In the Third Punic War, A. surrendered to the Romans and from then became part of the populi liberi [3. 374-376]. Archaeological evidence for prosperous   villae (2nd cent. AD; inscriptions and mosaics). Huß…

Niger

(212 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Following a statement by Juba [2] II (FGrH 275 F 38), Plin. HN 5,30 calls the Nigris the boundary between ‘Africa’ and ‘Aethiopia’. But the Nigris is probably not identical with the N., but with the Oued Djedi [1. 248]. Yet we must assume that the great African river N. was known to the Libyans, the Phoenicians and the Greeks. Indeed, noble Nasamones seem to have travelled as far as Timbuktu and hence as far as the Niger (Hdt. 2,32f.; [2. 7]). And a Carthaginian called Mago, who h…

Bagradas

(153 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μακάρας; Makáras, Pol. 1,75,5; 1,86,9; 15,2,8 [1.1085f.]; Βαγράδας; Bagrádas, Str. 17,3,13; Ptol. 4,3,6; 4,3,18; 4,3,31; 6,10; Bagrada: Mela 1,34; Lucan. 4,587; Plin. HN 5,24; cf. 8,37). Today called Ksar Baghai (concerning the name [2. 1311]), the longest river in north-eastern Africa (365 km; Iulius Honorius differs, Cosmographia 47: 318 miles). The B. rises near Thubursicum Numidarum (Iulius Honorius ibid.; Ptol. differs 4,3,18; 6,10) and flows sluggishly (Sil. Pun. 6,140-143) from west-south-west to east-south-east. The…

Tacape

(193 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce (Τακάπη/ Takápē, Latin Tacape). City on the Syrtis Minor, possibly a Phoenician or Punic foundation, modern Gabes in Tunisia. Punic remains are scanty [1. 1261]. T., a 'very large trading centre' (Str. 17,3,17), was 'in the middle of the desert' (Plin. HN 18,188). At the time of Augustus T. was a civitas (Plin. HN 5,25; 18,188), later a colonia (Tab. Peut. 6,5; It. Ant. 59,6). Further evidence: Plin. HN 16,115 (?); Ptol. 4,3,11; Stadiasmus maris magni 106 f.; It. Ant. 48,9 f.; 50,4; 73,5; 74,…

Mascula

(94 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Numidia on the road from Thamugadi to Theveste in the middle of the fertile land of the Musulamii, modern Khenchela (It. Ant. 33,6). M. was under Punic influence [1. 163-177]. In the Severian period (AD 193-235) M. was a municipium CIL VIII 1, 2248. Bishops are attested from 256: Cypr. Sententiae episcoporum 79. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2228-2274; 2, 10184-10188; Suppl. 2, 17668-17719; 3, 22281; 22282; AE 1989, 882. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 M. Leglay, Saturne africain. Monuments 2, 1966. H. Dessau, s.v. M. (1), RE 14, 2064.

Gurza

(82 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa Byzacena, 12 km north-west of  Hadrumetum, modern Kalaa Kebira (for the location cf. Tab. Peut. 6,2: Gurra). G. was under Punic influence. Patronage deeds are extant from the years 12 BC (CIL VIII 1,68) and AD 65 (CIL VIII 1,69). Inscriptions: CIL VI 4,2, 32757; 36277; VIII 1, 68-72; Suppl. 4, 23021. The town attested in Pol. 1,74,13, Γόρζα/Gorza, was not very far from Utica [1. 258].  Patronage Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß. E. Lipiński, s.v. G./Gorza, DCPP, 202.

Cidame

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa ( Cidamus or Cydamus). Chief settlement of the Phazanii at the intersection of the borders of Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, modern Gadames. According to Plin. HN 5,35f., the Phazanii have to be differentiated from the  Garamantes. Between the territories of both of these tribes was Mons Ater, modern Hamada el-Homra. C. -- like  Garama -- was captured in 20 BC by L. Cornelius [I 7] Balbus, proconsul Africae. A vexillatio of the legio III Augusta was stationed in the town [1]. C. played an important role in the S…

Ausum

(101 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Castrum of the Numidian   limes , which was 75 km west-south-west of Biskra; probably the place today known as Sadouri. The military camp protected the area south of the Chott el-Hodna. A. was where the road from Lambaesis met the road that led from Auzia via Doucen to Gemellae. Inscription in honour of  Gordianus (AD 247 [1. 31-33]); it is, however, possible that A. was already in existence before this time. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Carcopino, Le Limes de Numidie et sa garde syrienne, in: Syria 6, 1925 2 AAAlg, folio 48, no. 1 3 J. Baradez, Fossatum Afric…

Tisiduo

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Τισιδουω: in inscriptions). City to the southeast of Carthage, destroyed by Caesar in 46 BC in the Roman civil war (Str. 17,3,12), not locatable; identification with Tisidium is unlikely [1. 1436]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 I. Schmidt, Komm. zu CIL VIII Suppl. 1. F. Windberg, s. v. Tisidium (2), RE 6 A, 1479 f.

Mosyli

(83 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μόσυλοι; Mόsyloi). People on the south coast of the Gulf of Aden who have given their name to a port and a headland. References: Plin.HN. 6,174, promunturium et portus Mossylites; Ptol. 4,7,10; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μόσυλον. The port was situated two to three days' journey to the east of the ancient island of Mundu, Peripl. m. r. 10 (GGM I 265; τὸ Μόσυλλον). Export items were cinnamon and incense. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography F. Windberg, s.v. M., RE 16, 380f.

Thala

(139 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in the interior of Tunisia, 53 km to the south of Sicca Veneria, 20 km to the east of Ammaedara (also modern T.). The Numidian town was considerably Punicised; the original Punic cults of Caelestis, Pluto and Saturn continued until late Antiquity. In AD 20 followers of Tacfarinas unsuccessfully attacked a Roman unit in T. (Tac. Ann. 3,21,2). In the 3rd cent. T. presumably acquired the status of municipium . Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 501-576; 2, 10519 f.; Suppl. 1, 11668-11730; Suppl. 4, 23280-23352; AE 1905, 35. Another town called T. was 20 km to the ea…

Icosium

(141 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce (Ἰκόσιον; Ikósion, Punic ʾj ksm, ‘island of the owls’?). Phoenician or Punic foundation in the later Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Algiers. References: Mela 1,31; Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,6; It. Ant. 15,5; Sol. 25,17 (with incorrect etymology); Amm. Marc. 29,5,16 (with allusion to this etymology); Geogr. Rav. 40,44; 88,12. A roman veterans' colony was founded at I. during the reign of  Juba II (Plin. HN 3,19; 5,20). Under Vespasian, the city became a colonia Latina (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20853). A h…

Celtianis

(84 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] The castellum to the north of Cirta belonged to the region of Cirta, the modern El Meraba or Beni Ouelbane. Under Marcus Aurelius (AD 161-180) the res publica of C. had a consilium decurionum. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19689f. Numerous inscriptions inform us about everyday life in C.: CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19688-19847; Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 2,1, 2084-3398. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, folio 8, no. 91 H.-G. Pflaum, Remarques sur l'onomastique de Castellum Celtianum, in: E. Swoboda (ed.), Carnuntina, 1956, 126-151.
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