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(1,160 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a district of the Caspian coastlands region of Persia comprising the western half of Māzandarān [ q.v.]. Iranian tradition. According to Darmesteter, Avesta , ii, 416, Rūyān corresponds to the mountain called Raodita (“reddish”) in Yas̲h̲t , 19, 2, and Rōyis̲h̲nōmand in Bundahis̲h̲n , xii, 2, 27 (tr. West, 34). Al-Bīrūnī, Chronologie , ed. Sachau, 220, makes Rūyān the scene of the exploits of the archer Āris̲h̲ (cf. Ẓahīr al-Dīn Marʿas̲h̲ī, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ṭabaristān u Rūyān u Māzandarān , ed. Dorn, 18 [ Yas̲h̲t 8, 6, in this connection mentions the hill Aryō-xs̲h̲nθa]). In the …


(1,745 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
( banū ʿannāz ), a dynasty (c. 381-511/991-1117) in the frontier region between ʿIrāḳ and Iran, which was one of the manifestations of the period "between the Arabs and the Turks" when, in the wake of the westward expansion of the Būyids, numerous principalities of Iranian origin sprang up in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān and Kurdistān. As the rise of the Banū ʿAnnāz was based on the S̲h̲ād̲h̲and̲j̲ān Kurds, the dynasty should be considered as Kurdish, although the Arabic names and titles of the majority of the rulers indicate the Arab links of the ruling fami…


(738 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, or Bāward , a town and district on the northern slopes of the mountains of Ḵh̲urāsān in an area now belonging to the autonomous Turkoman republic which forms part of the U.S.S.R. The whole oasis region including Nasā [ q.v.], Abīward etc. (known by the Turkish name of Ātāk "foothills") played a great part in ancient times as the first line of defence of Ḵh̲urāsān against the nomads. In the Arsacid period this region was in the ancestral country of the dynasty. Isidore of Charax, par. 13 (at the beginning of the Christian era) mentions between Παρθυηνή (with the…


(149 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a small town in Persia, on the eastern (winter) road from S̲h̲īrāz to Iṣfahān. By the present-day highway Ābādah lies at 280 km. from S̲h̲īrāz, at 204 km. from Iṣfahān, and by a road branching off eastwards (via Abarḳūh) at 100 km. from Yazd. In the present-day administration (1952) Ābādah is the northernmost district ( s̲h̲ahristān ) of the province ( astān ) of Fārs. The population is chiefly engaged in agriculture and trade (opium, castor-oil; sesame-oil). Iḳlīd (possibly * kilid "key [to Fārs]") is another small town belonging to Ābādah. The whole…

Ṣāʾīn Ḳalʿa

(442 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a little town and district in ¶ southern Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, on the right bank of the D̲j̲ag̲h̲ātū. the modern town of S̲h̲āhīn Diz̲h̲. In the south the boundary runs a little over the river Sāruḳ, a tributary on the right bank of the D̲j̲ag̲h̲ātū. In the north it is bounded by the district of ʿAd̲j̲arī, in the east by the province of K̲h̲amse. The name is derived from the Mongol sayin “good”. The local Turkish Afs̲h̲ar tribe, of which a part had to emigrate to Urmiya to make room for the Čārdawrī (Čārdowlī) tribe of Lur origin (the district of Čardawr on the Saymar…


(736 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a small district of western Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān in Persia, to the south-west of Lake Urmiya, on the lower course of the Gādir-čay, which here receives on its right bank the Bāyzāwa and Mamad-s̲h̲āh and flows into the Lake. To the west it is bordered by Us̲h̲nū, which lies on the upper course of the Gādir, from which it is separated by the Darband gorge through which the river runs; to the north it is bounded by the little district of Dōl (cf. Dōl-i Bārīk, in S̲h̲araf al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Bidlīsī, S̲h̲araf-nāma , St. Petersburg 1860-2, i, 288) belonging to Urmiya; to the…


(868 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a Kurdish district of Persia lying between the Turkish frontier (modern il or province of Hakkâri) and the western shore of Lake Urmiya, hence falling within the modern Persian ustān or province of West Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. In Kurdish, sōmāy means “view” (cf. in Persian sūma “terminus, finis, scopus”, Vullers, ii, 352). To the north, Ṣōmāy is separated from the basin of the Zola Čay (S̲h̲epirān, Salmās [ q.v.]) by the mountains of Bere-dī, Und̲j̲ali̊ḳ and Ag̲h̲wān; on the east the canton of Anzal separates it from Lake Urmiya; to the south-east lies the S̲h̲ayk̲…


(86 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
or ālind̲j̲a (in Armenian Ernd̲j̲ak, a district of the province Siunikʿ), now ruins within the Nak̲h̲ičewān territory of the Azerbayd̲j̲an Soviet Socialist Republic. The river Alind̲j̲a flows into the Araxes near Old Ḏj̲ulfa. The ancient fortress Alind̲j̲aḳ stood some 20 km. above its estuary on the right bank of the river, on the top of an extremely steep mountain (near the village Ḵh̲ānaḳā). The fortress played a considerable role at the Tīmūrid and Turkman period. (V. Minorsky) Bibliography V. Minorsky, Caucasica, JA, 1930, 93-4, 112.

Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ

(4,113 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, "Men of God", a secret religion prevalent mainly in western Persia. Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ would seem to be a rather imprecise name for this sect, because it is used, for example, by the Ḥurūfīs (see Cl. Huart, Textes persans relatives à la secte des Ḥurūfī , 1909, 40), and because it has an affinity with such ṣūfī terms as Ahl-i Ḥaḳīḳa , a term which is also used by the Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ. In the strict sense, however, Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ is the name properly given to initiates of the religion described in the present article. The name ʿAlī Ilāhī [ q.v.] applied to them by their neighbours is an unsuitable title, beca…


(172 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the Persian and Turkish name of a town, in Georgian ak̲h̲al tsik̲h̲e , "New Fortress", situated on the Posk̲h̲ov river (left tributary of the upper Kur), centre of the Georgian province Samtsk̲h̲e (later Sa-atabago) which is mentioned among the conquests of Ḥabīb b. Maslama (under Muʿāwiya), al-Balād̲h̲urī, 203. ¶ Under the Mongols the local rulers (of the Ḏj̲akilʿe family) became autonomous and received the title of atabegs . The name Ḳurḳūra found in Persian and Turkish sources refers to these rulers of whom several bore the name of Ḳuarḳuare (see Brosset, Histoire de la Géorgie


(3,402 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “land of the Lurs”, a region in the south-west of Persia. In the Mongol period the terms “Great Lur” and “Little Lur” roughly covered all the lands inhabited by Lur tribes. Since the Ṣafawid period, the lands of the Great Lur have been distinguished by the names of Kūh-Gīlū and Bak̲h̲tiyārī. At the beginning of the 18th century, the Mamāsanī confederation occupied the old S̲h̲ūlistān [ q.v.] and thus created a third Lur territory between Kūh-Gīlū and S̲h̲īrāz. It is however only since the 16th century that Lur-i Kūčik [ q.v.] has been known as Luristān (for greater precision it was …


(6,018 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(in Persian Lor with o short), an Iranian people living in the mountains in southwestern Persia. As in the case of the Kurds, the principal link among the four branches of the Lurs (Mamāsanī, Kūhgīlūʾī, Bak̲h̲tiyārī and Lurs proper) is that of language. The special character of the Lur dialects suggests that the country was Iranicised from Persia and not from Media. On the ancient peoples, who have disappeared, become Iranicised or absorbed in different parts of Luristān, see luristān . The name. Local tradition ( Taʾrīk̲h̲-i guzīda ) connects the name of the …


(1,093 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a dynasty of princes of Marāg̲h̲a. Distinction must be made between the eponym Aḥmadīl and his successors. Aḥmadīl b. Ibrāhīm b. Wahsūdān al-Rawwādī al-Kurdī was a descendant of the local branch of the originally Arab family of Rawwād (of Azd) established in Tabrīz (see rawwādids ). In the course of time the family became Kurdicized, and even the name Aḥmadīl is apparently formed with an Iranian (Kurdish) diminutive suffix -īl . Aḥmadīl took part in the anti-Crusade of 505/1111. During the siege of Tell Bās̲h̲ir, Jocelyn made an arrangement …


(5,425 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, geographically speaking, the highlands of Gīlān [ q.v.]. In the south, the lowlands of Gīlān proper are bounded by the Alburz range; the latter forms here a crescent, the eastern horn of which comes close to the Caspian coast (between Lāhīd̲j̲ān and Čālūs). In the centre of the crescent there is a gap through which the Safīd-rūd, formed on the central Iranian plateau, breaks through ¶ towards the Caspian Sea. Before entering the gorge at Mand̲j̲īl the river, flowing here from west to east, receives a considerable tributary, the S̲h̲āh-rūd, which, rising in t…

Lur-i Buzurg

(1,852 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a dynasty of Atābegs which flourished in Eastern and Southern Luristān between 550 (1155) and 827 (1423) the capital of which was Īd̲h̲ad̲j̲ (= Mālamīr; q. v.). The eponymous founder of the dynasty, also known as Faḍlawī, was a Kurd chief of Syria named Faḍlōya. His descendants (the Ḏj̲ihān-ārā mentions 9 predecessors of Abū Ṭāhir) migrated from Syria and passing through Maiyafāriḳīn and Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān (where they made an alliance with the Amīra Dībād̲j̲ [?] of Gīlān) they arrived about 500 (1006) in the plains north of Us̲h̲turān-Kūh (Luristān). Their (1) chief Abū Ṭāhir (b. ʿA…


(5,524 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the old capital of Ad̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. Position. The town lies at a height of 5,500 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of Mount Sahand (11,800 feet high) which separates it from Tabrīz [q. v.]. This explains the very considerable difference in climate between the two towns which are only 50 miles apart as the crow flies (by the high road 80 miles). The climate of Marāg̲h̲a is mild and rather moist (Ḥamd Allāh and Mecquenem, 1904). The plentiful water supply makes the vegetation rich. The fruit…


(62 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, according to Yāḳūt, a village 2 farsak̲h̲s from Marw al-S̲h̲āhid̲j̲ān [q.v.] In 130 the Umaiyad wālī Naṣr b. Saiyār, retiring under pressure from Abū Muslim, encamped on the river Nahr ʿIyāḍ and appointed Abu ’l-Dhaiyāl to Ṭūsān, the inhabitants of which were partisans of Abū Muslim. Abū ’l-Ḏh̲aiyāl was defeated at Ṭūsān (cf. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, v. 282). (V. Minorsky)


(5,689 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(in Persian Lor with o short), an Īrānian people living in the mountains in S.W. Persia. As in the case of the Kurds, the principal link among the four branches of the Lurs (Mamāsani, Kūhgīlūʾī, Bak̲h̲tiyārī and Lurs proper) is that of language. The special character of the Lur dialects suggests that the country was iranicised from Persia and not from Media. On the ancient peoples, who have disappeared, become iranicised or absorbed in different parts of Luristan, cf. the latter article. The name. Local tradition ( Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Guzīda) connects the name of the Lurs with the place Lu…


(3,446 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(written Māridīn in Arabic, in Syriac Marde), a town in upper Mesopotamia (Diyār Rabīʿa). Position. In Upper Mesopotamia, the watershed between the Tigris and Euphrates is formed by the heights which culminate in Ḳarad̲j̲a-dag̲h̲, (5,000 feet) S.W. of Diyār-bakr. This basalt massif is continued eastwards in the direction of Ḏj̲azīrat Ibn ʿOmar by the limestone chain known in ancient times as Masius and later as Izala (’ΙζαλαΣ). The eastern part of this ridge forms the district of Ḏj̲abal-Ṭūr or Tūr ʿAbdīn [q.…

Yag̲h̲mā Ḏj̲andaḳī

(814 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V
, pseudonym of the Persian poet Abu ’l-Ḥasan Raḥīm b. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ibrāhīm Ḳulī. He was born about 1196 (1782) in the village of Ḵh̲ūr in the oasis of Ḏj̲andaḳ or Biyābānak in the middle of the central desert of Persia. He began his life as a camel-herd but by the age of 7 his natural gifts had been noticed by the owner of the oasis, Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān ʿArab-i ʿĀmirī whose secretary ( muns̲h̲ī-bās̲h̲ī) he ultimately became. His first nom de plume was Mad̲j̲nūn. In 1216 (1802) Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān after a rising against the government had to flee to Ḵh̲urāsān, while Ḏj̲andaḳ was …
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