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Daunian vases

(251 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Pottery type found among the Italic peoples who inhabited the area of modern provinces around Bari and Foggia, with local production sites particularly in Ordona and Canosa. From their early phase (around 700 BC), the vessels display a geometric ornamentation independent of the Greek range of subjects, which is applied in red and brown to black earthen colours onto the manually formed vessels. Among these are diamond and triangular patterns as well as band ornaments, wavy lines, circle, cross, square, arc, …

Rudis

(99 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] Thin stick Thin stick or spoon for stirring foods, medications, etc. (Greek κύκηθρον/ kýkēthron, Aristoph. Pax 654), called rudicula in its small form (Plin. HN 34,176), usually made of wood, more rarely of iron (Plin. HN 34,170). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) [German version] [2] Wooden epee Wooden stick or rapier for the fencing exercises of soldiers and gladiators. The rudis also served the lanista as a badge for separating fighting gladiators or for bestowing order on the fight. Retired gladiators received the rudis upon becoming supervisors in the fencing…

Acetabulum

(122 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] From Latin acetum (vinegar); this goblet-shaped vessel with an indented wall profile served as a container for vinegar and honey, as a table and cooking vessel as well as a wax melting utensil; also used as a beaker amongst conjurers. Usually, the acetabulum was made of clay or glass, sometimes of precious metal. Its volume was very small (0,068 l [1]); in Apicius (6,8,3) and Apici excerpta a Vindario VI, the acetabulum is also equivalent to a cooking vessel.  Catinus Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, s. v. A., RE I, 155 f. G. Hilgers, Lat. Gefäßnamen, …

Epostrakismos

(62 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἐποστρακισμός; epostrakismós). Boys' game, in which a shard or flat stone is skimmed on the water to make it hit the surface and skip. The winner was the one whose stone or shard made the most skips and went the furthest (Poll. 9, 119; Hes. s.v. E.; Min. Fel. 3; Eust. in Hom. Il. 18,543). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Purse

(356 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] In Greek as in Latin, there were many terms denoting purse, e.g., βαλ(λ)άντιον ( bal(l)ántion), μαρσίππιον ( marsíppion), θύλακος ( thýlakos), φασκώλιον ( phaskṓlion), crumina, marsuppium, pasceolus, saccus, sacculus, sacciperium, versica; but the exact distinctions between them cannot be established today. The words may have referred only to differences in colour, shape and size, as may be inferred from Plaut. Rud. 1313-1318 (and 548). Purses were small bags kept on a cord around the neck or on the belt or ar…

Polos

(258 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (πόλος/ pólos). Cylindrical head-dress without brim, worn by female deities, e.g. Aphrodite (Paus. 2,10,4), Tyche (Paus. 4,30,6), Athena (Paus. 7,5,9), Hera, Demeter, Persephone, Cybele, and by mortals on festive occasions. As a goddess' crown, the pólos came from the Near East (e.g. ivory statuettes from Nimrud, see Kalḫu) to Greece, and was depicted on monuments as early as the Minoan-Mycenaean Period. The height of the pólos could be just a few centimetres, or it could assume considerable proportions, as in the head-dress of Hera of Samos [1. 19 fig. 6]. Such a tall p…

Sicilian vases

(267 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Just before the end of the 5th cent. BC, production of red-figured vases began in Himera and Syracuse in Sicily. In style, ornamentation, vase shape and themes they reveal considerable influence from Attic vase painting (Meidias Painter). In the second quarter of the 4th century BC a number of Sicilian vase painters emigrated, in order to lay the foundation on the Italian mainland of Campanian and Paestan vase painting  (Campanian vases; Paestan ware). To a limited extent vase pro…

Advertizing

(528 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Probably the simplest and most effective way of advertising a product or announcing something was shouting aloud in market-places and streets (cf. propaganda). Moreover, the geographical origin of a product spoke for its quality; there is, for instance, a tradition of formulations such as 'Tarentine' or 'Amorgian cloth', 'Chian wine', 'Falernian wine', etc. as a seal of approval or a mark of quality. Advertising could also occur in a written form on the walls of buildings (Graffiti), in letters, epigrams, etc. In contrast to commercial advertising are the kalo…

Paragaudes

(150 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (παραγαύδης; paragaúdēs). Descriptive term first recorded only in the 3rd cent. AD for a gold or purple border in the form of the Greek letter gamma (Γ), which was woven into garments (SHA Claud. 17,6). Later also transferred to a particular garment ( paragaúdion) made from fine silk material, similar in style to a sleeved chiton, which Roman emperors gave as an award of honour, decorated with at least one and up to five of these borders depending on distinction and service (SHA Aurelian. 15,4,46; SHA Probus 4,5). For that…

Acclamatio

(339 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Rhythmic acclamations, sometimes spoken in unison, expressing congratulations, praise, applause, joy or the contrary. Besides the initially prevalent, spontaneous acclamatio, during the course of time a stereotyped acclamatio, which was always repeated on certain occasions, gained currency. There is an early mention of acclamatio in Hom. Il. 1,22, and acclamatio is also known to have marked decisions in Greek popular assemblies [1] and cult gatherings. In Rome, at wedding processions the acclamatio took the form of Talasse and Hymen, Hymenaee io (Catull. 61-6…

Tunica

(300 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The tunica, cut and sewn from two pieces of generally white woollen or linen material, was worn by both men and women of the Roman upper classes as an undergarment (Suet. Aug. 94,10) underneath the toga , and as the sole garment by the lower classes. Women often seem to have worn two tunicae, one above the other, with the inner one then referred to as tunica subucula (Varro Ling. 5,131) and the outer one as supparus. In very cold or inclement weather, men, too, would wear layers of tunics (Suet. Aug. 82,1). Originally, tunics were close-fitting and sleeve…

Fan

(391 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ῥιπίς, rhipís; flabellum). Fans were used in the Orient and in Egypt from ancient times as symbols of status. The fan probably did not reach Greece until the 5th cent. BC; Eur. Or. 1426-1430 (first mention) still calls the fan ‘barbaric’, but it quickly became one of a woman's most important accoutrements (cf. Poll. 10,127); she would either cool herself with it or have a female servant fan her (cf. the flabellifera in Plaut. Trin. 252 and the flabrarius as her male counterpart in Suet. Aug. 82). On Greek vases and terracotta (‘Tanagra figurines’) fans are…

Monopodium

(145 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek trápeza monópous, Poll. 10,69). Round or rectangular tables with only one central support, whose foot could be carved into floral or mythical motifs. In Greece such tables had been used since the Archaic period but only became more common in Hellenistic times; in Rome, monopodia were very popular ever since their first introduction to the public, being carried along in the triumph of 187 BC (Liv. 39,6,7; Plin. HN. 34,14). Most of those that survive come from the towns around Vesuvius. Varro, (Ling. 5,125) mentions the cartibulum which stood in the compluvium

Guessing games

(331 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Only a small number of these are known from antiquity ( Riddles). In order to determine who should start, people liked to choose the game capita aut navia. It is named after the ancient Roman coins with the head of  Ianus ( capita) and a ship's prow ( navia, probably a plural paralleling capita). People threw a coin up into the air: one had to guess (as in the modern game ‘heads or tails’) which image came to lay on top. A guessing game for two players was par-impar (ἀρτιάζειν/ artiázein or ποσίνδα/ posínda): the first person holds in his right hand a number of relativel…

Cothurnus

(248 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὁ κόθορνος; ho kóthornos, cot[h]urnus). The Greek cothurnus was a high-shafted soft leather boot that fitted tightly to the leg and foot (and, by extension, was used as a synonym for an adaptable person in Xen. Hell. 2,3,30-31). It was wrapped with bands or tied at an opening at the front. The cothurnus is mentioned as women's footwear (Aristoph. Eccl. 341-346; Lys. 657), but was worn in particular by elegant youths at a symposium and  komos. It was the preferred footwear of Hermes, …

Perizoma

(206 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (περίζωμα/ perízōma, Latin perizoma). Greek apron for covering the lower body, worn around the abdomen and held with a belt, as a cloth wrapped round the hips and then passed between the legs, or in the form of a garment similar to a pair of shorts. Perizomata were worn by labourers, artisans, sacrifice attendants, priests, slaves, and also soldiers (cf. Pol. 6,25,3; 12,26a 4) and athletes as their only clothing (Nudity C.) or as an undergarment. In iconography it is mostly men that are shown wearing perizomata, less often female figures such as Atalante and Gorgo…

Lasimus Krater

(112 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A volute krater much cited from the late 18th to the early 20th cent. because of its inscription which mentions another lower Italian vase painter (Paris, LV, Inv. K 66 [N 3147], [1]). Research at that time discussed the written form of the letters and the artistic classification of the supposed vase painter Lasimus. Only recent research proved the inscription to be a recent addition. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 Trendall/Cambitoglou, 914, no. 36. S. Reinach, Peintures de vases antiques recueillés par Millin (1813) et Millingen (1813), 1891, 64-67 S. Favi…

Tropaion

(462 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Originally, the tropaion (τρόπαιον/ trópaion; Lat. tropaeum) was a sign erected by the victorious army at the place on the battlefield where the adversary turned to flee (from Greek τρέπειν/ trépein, 'to turn around'). In the language use of later Antiquity, it referred to victory monuments in general, such as the Tropaea Augusti (cf. e.g. Tac. Ann. 15,18). The term tropaion has been common since the 5th cent. BC (Batr. 159; Aesch. Sept. 277). The tropaion consisted of a tree stump or post, sometimes with crosspieces (cf. Diod. Sic. 13,24,5) on which the…

Sabanum

(90 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A Roman coarse linen cloth, used to dry off and rub down the body after bathing (Apul. Met. 1,23, cf. Mart. 12,70) or to wrap around the body, in order to raise a sweat after a steam bath; a sabanum was also used to squeeze out honeycombs and to envelop food during the cooking process (Apicius 6,215; 239). Late Antiquity understood a sabanum to be a linen garment decorated with gold and precious stones (Ven. Fort. Vita S. Radegundis 9) or a coat. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Keroma

(84 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κήρωμα; kḗrōma, Lat. ceroma). In the medical sense, a salve or cerate, Hippoc. Acut. 8 (vol. 2, p. 424) or a salve (Mart. 4,4,10). In Imperial Rome, keroma designated a wax tablet, and also the clayey wax-coloured surface of a wrestling ring that soils the body or neck of the athletes (Juv. 3, 68); from this, the term keroma was extended to the ring or arena itself (Plin. HN 30,5). Also, those employed there were called kērōmatistaí. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Fasciae

(238 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Bandages, bindings, straps of different kinds were made of various materials (felt, leather, linen, wool), and could be white or coloured. Fasciae as a category includes the straps of the bed ( lectus,   kline ) on which the mattress was laid,  swaddling cloths (σπάργανα, spárgana) and fasciae crurales, bindings designed to protect the lower legs ( fasciae tibiales) or thighs (  feminalia) against the cold. The use of fasciae was regarded as unmanly, and for men was restricted to invalids, but even Augustus (Suet. Aug. 82,1) and Pompey (Cic. Att. 2…

Hygiene, personal

(789 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A. General In antiquity clean and regularly changed  clothes were part of physical well-being, as were washing or bathing followed by anointing the body with regular or perfumed olive oil and other fragrant oils ( Cosmetics), the latter being also used out of health reasons. Peoples or people who were dirty or unkempt were bound to be disagreeable to the Greek and Roman sense of cleanliness (Hor. Sat. 1,2,27; 1,4,92), as well as those who used unusual or strange methods of washing, …

Peucetian pottery

(186 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Type of indigenous pottery, named after ancient Peucetia, the region of the eastern Apennines between Bari and Egnazia (Peucetii). PP emerges in the 7th cent. BC. Initially its decoration is influenced by geometric patterns (swastikas, lozenges, horizontal and vertical lines), which form a narrow ornamental grid pattern, particularly in the late Geometric phase (before 600 BC). Leading forms of PP are kraters, amphorae, kantharoi and stamnoi; bowls are less common. The second phas…

Labronios

(56 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (λαβρώνιος, -ον; labrṓnios, -on). Persian luxury vessel of precious metal and unknown form (large, flat, with large handles, Ath. 11,484c-f, 784a, 500e). As it is named by Athenaeus loc cit. in connection with lakaina and lepaste (both types of vessels), the labronios is probably a type of drinking bowl. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Soap

(184 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Solid soap in the modern sense was unknown in Antiquity. For cleaning their bodies people used pumice, bran, bicarbonate of soda, oil, soda or clay - Cimolian earth was particularly well known (Aristoph. Ran. 712) - and water. The Greeks called these cleaning materials ῥύμμα/ rhýmma or σμῆγμα/ smêgma (there is no corresponding Latin term). In public bathing facilities washing materials were available on request from attendants (Aristoph. Lys. 377; Ath. 8,351e), or people brought them from home. As with modern soap, ancient wash…

Writing materials

(1,589 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Hurschmann
[German version] I. Writing media In Antiquity, a large variety of media were used as writing support. Modern scholarship divides them into inorganic and organic materials. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) [German version] A. Inorganic An inorganic medium for writing is natural rock on which inscriptions were chiselled; they are found in Egypt and in the mountains of to the east Mesopotamia from the 2nd half of the 3rd millennium BC. An early example from Greece are the inscriptions of Thera (IG XII 3,536-601; 1410-1493) from the end…

Chlamys

(271 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (χλαμύς; chlamýs). Shoulder-coat made of wool for travellers, warriors and hunters. The many-coloured and embroidered chlamys appeared in the 6th cent. BC and originally came from Thessaly (Poll. 7,46; 10,124; Philostr. Heroïkos 674) where it was also awarded as a winner's prize after athletic contests (Eust. in Hom. Il. 2,732), or Macedonia (Aristot. fr. 500 Rose). Typically it was worn as follows: the cloth of the ovally or rectangularly tailored coat was folded vertically, laid around the lef…

Mantellum

(165 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] ( mantellum, mantelium, χειρόμακτρον; cheirómaktron). A rectangular linen cloth with braiding and fringes; in cult activity it served as a hand towel carried by the servants of the sacrifice,at meals is served for cleaning hands (e.g. Xen. Cyr. 1,3,5) and as a tablecloth (Mart. 12,28). In Sappho (99 Diehl) the cheirómaktron is mentioned as a head adornment. In its main functions as a tablecloth and towel the mantellum corresponds with the mappa that was also a popular gift at Saturnalia (Mart. 5,18,1). There is evidence that from the time of Nero (Suet. Nero 22) a mappa (fl…

Clothing

(2,265 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
A. General [German version] 1. Raw materials Attested in early monuments from the Minoan and Mycenaean period, hides and leather, as well as wool, sheepskins and goatskins, are amongst the oldest materials used for clothing. The use of  linen or flax to make garments developed thanks to the agency of the Phoenicians; Alexander [4] the Great's wars of conquest introduced  silk into Greece. The Romans used the same materials for clothing as the Greeks;  cotton came into use as well in the 2nd cent. BC; s…

Pera

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (πήρα/ pḗra, πηρίδιον/ pērídion, Latin pera). A bag or satchel for carrying bread (Theoc. Epigr. 1,49; Ath. 10,422b), seeds (Anth. Pal. 6,95; 104) or herbs and vegetables (Aristoph. Plut. 298), which belonged to the equipment of hunters (Anth. Pal. 6,176), shepherds (Anth. Pal. 6,177) or fishermen and was worn at the hip by means of a strap over the shoulder. The pera was already an item characterizing beggars in Hom. Od. 13,437; 17,197; 410; 466 (cf. Aristoph. Nub. 924), and later became, along with the walking staff ( báktron, Latin baculum, staff), a symbol used by …

Depas

(225 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (δέπας; dépas). Wine bowl, mentioned several times in Homer and probably also attested in Hittite, for drinking, libations, mixing and ladling, made from precious metal and decorated (‘Nestor's cup’, Hom. Il. 11,632ff.). As synonyms Homer uses ἄλεισον ( áleison), ἀμφικύπελλον ( amphikýpellon), κύπελλον ( kýpellon); from which the depas has been understood to be a two-handled cup, similar to the cantharus ( Pottery, shape and types of). Archaeological finds and interpretation of Linear-B tablets from Pylos and Knossos (where it appears as di-pa) seem to have br…

Karbatine

(60 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (καρβατίνη/ karbatínē, cf. Lat. pero). Shoe made from rough leather, mostly worn by shepherds and farmers, later also shoe for soldiers (Xen. An. 4,5,14), apparently laced up (cf. Lucian. Alexander 39). In Aristot. Hist. an. 499a 29 also a camel shoe. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography O. Lau, Schuster und Schusterhandwerk in der griech.-röm. Lit. und Kunst, 1967, 119-121.

Cosmetics

(562 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] In Greek and Roman antiquity there was a huge demand for essences, oils and pomades. As part of their skin care men lotioned themselves to keep their skin soft and tender (Ath. 15,686). Lotioning extended from the head over the entire body and it was a widespread custom to apply lotion several times a day, with a different lotion being used for each part of the body (Ath. 12,553d). Without lotion one was considered dirty. According to tradition, animal fats and butter were the fir…

Kosymbe

(111 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κοσ(σ)ύμβη, κόσ(σ)υμβος; kos(s)ýmbē, kós(s)ymbos, also θύσανος; thýsanos, κρόσσος; króssos). Designation for the warp-threads remaining on the edges of garments, from there also for fringe, fringed dress and fringed hairstyle (Poll. 2,30). The kosymbe was often manufactured separately to ornament the clothing. As early as Homer (Il. 14,181) it is used in connection with Hera's belt, here designated as θύσανος/ thýsanos. In art it is often attached to dresses and cloth. The kosymbe gained symbolic meaning in the mystery cults; particularly, represent…

Tarantinon

(79 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ταραντῖνον; tarantînon). A light diaphanous luxury garment with fringes, first recorded in literature in the 4th century BC (Men. Epitr. 272); the original place of production was Tarentum (Taras), cf. Poll. 7,76. Hetaerae wore it without undergarments (Aristaen. 1,25,  cf.  Ael. VH 7,9). In  Ath. 14,622b male participants in a Dionysian festal procession wear tarantina. Barbaron Hyphasmata; Coae Vestes; Fimbriae; Clothing Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography U. Mandel, Zum Fransentuch des Typus Colonna, in: MDAI(Ist) 39, 1989, 547-554.

Kottabos

(302 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κότταβος; kóttabos, verb: κοτταβίζειν; kottabízein). Greek party game, probably of Sicilian origin (schol. Aristoph. Pax 1244; Anac. fr. 41 D), played by women (hetaerae) and men during a symposium ( Banquet). Kottabos is frequently mentioned in ancient literature (since Anac. fr.. 41 D = Ath. 10,427d) and has especially been captured in vase images from the end of the 6th cent. BC on. The goal was to strike a metal disk, resting on a construction similar to a lamp stand, with wine dregs, shot from a drinking …

Nails

(331 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἧλος/ hḗlos, Lat. clavus, more rarely πάτταλος/ páttalos, γόμφος/ gómphos, Lat. palus). Nails have survived in abundance from the Early Bronze Age onwards; they have shanks that are rounded or angular in section and heads of various forms (round, pointed, flat, globular, spherical, etc.). Surviving nails are made of bronze or iron, though decorative nails may be made of gold or silver, or only have a head made of precious metal, but in antiquity wooden nails were also used. Nails were used …

Fritillus

(147 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (φιμός, phimós). The shaker was used for throwing the dice and the   astragaloi in various  board games and  dice games (Hor. Sat. 2,7,17; Juv. 14,5; Mart. 4,14,7-9; 5,84,1-5 and passim; Sen. Apocol. 12,3,31; 14,4; 15,1; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 2,9,4 etc.). Besides shakers made of perishable material, there were some made of clay [1. fig. 15 from Mainz-Kastell, Wiesbaden] and bronze (Schol. Juv. 14,5 mentions horn). The playing-pieces in the shape of towers (called turricula or pyrgus) made of ivory, wood or copperplate, through which the dice were rolled on t…

Filter

(147 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Filters were used for straining and filtering water, wine, oils, perfume, vinegar, honey and liquid medicine. For this purpose various materials were used: linen cloths, bast weave, ash, clay or wood. Greek and Roman antiquity knew different filtering vessels (ἡθμός/ hēthmós, ὑλιστήρ/ hylistḗr, colum, infundibulum, saccus etc.), including the superb Macedonian devices of the Hellenistic period, as well as the metal ladles with the sieve-like bottom and the wine sieves mainly known from the Roman Imperial period (Hildesheim s…

Strophium

(208 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
(στρόφιον/ stróphion). A band wound round something or twisted together. [German version] [1] Breast band A breast band worn by women in Greece and Rome (Aristoph. Thesm. 139; 251; 255; 638; Aristoph. Lys. 931; Catull. 64,65), also called μίτρα/ mítra (Anth. Pal. 5,13,4; Apoll. Rhod. 3,867), μηλοῦχος/ mēloûchos (Anth. Pal. 6,211), στηθόδεσμος/ stēthódesmos (Poll. 7,66), mamillare (Mart. 14,66 lem.), fascia pectoralis (Mart. 14,134 Lem., cf. Ov. Ars am. 3,274; Prop. 4,9,49). Women are variously portrayed in art wearing strophia or putting on strophia. Straps across the shoulde…

Umbrella, Parasol

(241 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σκιάδιον/ skiádion or σκιάδειον/ skiádeion; Latin umbella, umbraculum). Round, collapsible umbrellas and those with fixed frames had been familiar to the Greeks from the 5th cent. BC; as in the states of the Near East, in Greece too umbrellas were a status symbol and sign of dignity. Noble Greek women had them carried by a servant girl (Athen. 12,534a, cf. Ael. VH 6,1). For Greek men, carrying an umbrella was considered a sign of effeminacy (Pherecrates PCG 7, 70 (64)). In Antiquity, um…

Lakaina

(116 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (λάκαινα; lákaina). A drinking vessel listed as a cup in Ath. 11,484f.; the technical term is used in archaeological research to describe a vessel with a goblet-like body and round-bellied lower part, with two horizontal handles. Produced predominantly in Sparta from the 8th cent. BC onwards, the L. became a model for Laconian vasepainting of the 7th cent. BC. The design was discontinued after the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Its decoration was usually ornamental, but black- glazed examples do occur. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography C. M. Stibbe, Lakon. Vasenma…

Chests

(267 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ζύγαστρον/ zýgastron, κιβωτός/ kibōtós, κιβώτιον/ kibṓtion, λάρναχ/ lárnax, χηλός/ chēlós; Latin arca, cista). Chests made of wood, bronze or other materials were used in the household for storing and transporting clothes, household goods, book rolls (  scrinium), equipment, provisions, etc. Chests could be simple and undecorated, or decorated with ornamental or figurative reliefs on their sides ( Praenestine cistae). Wooden chests often had metal fittings, which were also decorated, for reinforcing edges and corne…

Games

(1,734 words)

Author(s): Nissen | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Egypt and Ancient Orient The boundaries between games and  sport are fluid; here only relaxation games ( Board games) are treated that are very well known e.g. for Egypt as originals from tomb contexts and pictorial representations e.g. the Senet board game ( znt) was popular. The position regarding the sources for the Ancient Orient is very limited for climatic reasons (wood barely preserved). We can make only assumptions about the rules of games. In addition to the game boards there are game stones, astragaloi ( Astragalos [2]), dice and little dice rods tha…

Sportula

(118 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] ( sporta, sportella). Roman basket (Isid. Orig. 20,9,10; Petron. Sat. 40) used for shopping (Apul. Met. 1,24 and 25), the term is also used for a  basket which held money or food for clients (Petron. 40;  Juv. 1,95 f.; Salutatio ). Hence sportula denoted a feeding of the public (cf. Suet. Claudius 21,4) or a fee due to the magistrates for their official activities. In the 4th and 5th cents. AD, the fees that were charged by court magistrates for their services were also called sportula (Cod. Iust. 3,2). Donativum Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography H. A. Cahn et al., …

Shoes

(752 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] According to ancient literature (Poll. 5,18; 7,85-94; 10,49; Herodas 7,54 ff.), there was a great multiplicity of varieties of sandals and boots; only in a small number of cases is it possible to identify footwear mentioned by name with that represented in monumental art or with surviving originals (e.g. calceus ). From Classical Greece alone we have 82 words for footwear, named after origin, people, shape, colour, material or use: many kinds of footwear were adopted from other countries and given the name of their country of origin, e.g. 'Persian shoes', Περσικαί/ Pe…

Darius Crater

(159 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Apulian voluted crater from  Canosa (found in 1851) in Naples (NM, Inv. 81947 [H 3,253], H 130cm, [1]), known as the eponymous work of the  Darius Painter named after it. The main face has the crown council of Darius in the centre [1] I., with paymasters and tribute bearers below and Athena with Hellas before Zeus and Apate before Asia above. Archaeological study interprets this as a representation of the victories of  Alexander' [4] the Great in Persia or an echo of contemporary …

Wig

(282 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (φενάκη/ phenákē, πηνήκη/ pēnḗkē, Latin capillamentum, galerus). The use of wigs apparently began in Greece at the end of the 6th cent. BC; late Archaic korai show hairstyles that are inconceivable without added hairpieces. In the theatre, too, people made use of wigs in the 5th cent. BC (Aristoph. Thesm. 258) and also used false beards (Aristoph. Eccl.25), musicians and conjurers similarly wore wigs and hairpieces (Ael. VH 1,26; Lucian Alexandros 3). The use of wigs and hairpieces was extremely popular i…

Wineskin

(173 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἀσκός/ askós; Lat. culleus, uter). For transporting solid (Thuc. 4,26) and liquid foods (Hom. Il. 3,247; Hom. Od. 5,265; 9,196), apart from barrels, people also used animal (ox, sheep, goat; in the Arab lands also camel, Hdt. 3,9) skins sewn together, a leg of the animal serving as inlet and outlet. Representations of wineskins are common in ancient art in transportation scenes; a wineskin-carrying silen is a fixed feature of the iconography of Dionysian scenes (Dionysus). In myths, …

Epiblema

(76 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἐπίβλημα; epíblēma). Greek term for  blanket, cloth, coat (Poll. 7,49f.). In modern-day archaeological terminology, epiblema denotes the shoulder-covering of Daedalic female statues, esp. those from Crete. As a rule the epiblema is fastened at the breast, but also across the neck and collarbone; the upper edge is occasionally decorated. The epiblema is frequently depicted on 7th-cent. BC monuments. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography C. Davaras, Die Statue aus Astritsi, 8. Beih. AK, 1972, 26-27, 59-64.

Mortar

(231 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὅλμος/ hólmos, ἴγδις/ ígdis, θύεια/ thýeia, ὕπερον/ hýperon, Latin mortarium, pistillum, pila). Mortars and pestles of various materials were among the household utensils (Plaut. Aul. 94-95; Household equipment) necessary for kneading dough, grinding corn, chopping and mixing fruits, vegetables, etc. Mortars were also used for preparing cosmetics and drugs, pigments and metal alloys. Mortars included smaller grinding bowls (with or without a lip and round grinding stone, called a coticula in Latin, Plin. HN 34,106; made of granite for eye ointment…

Arca

(216 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (λάρναξ; lárnax). Box, case, chest, then especially the treasure chest of wood or metal-jointed wood in the atrium (Juv. 11,26; 14,259 and passim), of which there are known examples or remains of examples in Pompeii. Arca was the term used for a large number of sacred, state and private treasures, e.g. the one of the virgines vestales. The arca could be large enough for a person to hide inside (App. B Civ. 4,44). Small arcae are preserved from late antiquity which were given to one's wife as a present with congratulatory messages and their metal fitting…

Dipylon Painter

(303 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Attic vase painter of the geometric period (Late Geometric I, mid 8th cent. BC;  Geometric vase painting), named after the cemetery at the Dipylon Gate in Athens, where most of his works were found. The Dipylon Painter (DP) and the other painters of his workshop created about 20 monumental vases (kraters; amphorae), which were placed on tombs as receptacles for offerings ( Burial); of these, the amphora Athens, NM 804, with a height of 155 cm (the stand has been replaced and thus …

Solium

(184 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] Seat Roman high seat with foot-, arm- and backrest, throne; the solium was the seat of kings (Ov. Fast. 3,358; 6,353) and, presumably as early as in Etruria, the symbolic seat of a pater familias . It was inherited from father to son, selling it was considered shameful ( Salutatio ). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography F. Prayon, Frühetrurische Grab- und Hausarchitektur, 1975, 111 f.  Th. Schäfer, Imperii Insignia. Sella curulis und Fasces. 29. Ergänzungsheft MDAI(R), 1989, 26 f. [German version] [2] Bathtub Roman bathtub for one (Mart. 2,42; Vitr. 9 …

Clavus

(113 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] ‘Nail’, in the context of  clothing: ‘stripes’. The decoration of a  tunic with purple clavi extending from the shoulder to the lower seam at the front and back, served to denote rank in Rome. Senators, their sons (since Augustus) and officials wore a tunic with broad stripes ( lati clavi), equestrians one with small stripes ( angusti clavi). The clavi could be woven in or sewn on, cf.  Dalmatica. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography H. R. Goette, Studien zu röm. Togadarstellungen, 1990, 8-9 J. Bergemann, Röm. Reiterstatuen, 1990, 23-24 B. Levick, A Note on the …

Calenian Pottery

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Generic term for lower Italian black-glazed pottery ( Relief ware), evident from the second half of the 4th cent. to the 2nd cent. BC. The term Calenian Pottery (CP) (askoi, bowls, omphalos phialae, gutti) is commonly used for this group of vessels, yet they were undoubtedly also produced in other regions (Paestum, Sicily, Tarentum). Particularly well-known are bowls with medallions, worked in a medium relief (‘Arethusa bowls’); their origin from Cales (Calenus) or rather Campania…

Nestoris

(182 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A type of ‘Italian’ vase, also called trozella, which was adopted by Lucanian vase painting in the 5th cent. and by Apulian vase painting only around the middle of the 4th cent. BC. The nestoris appears to have been taken on from Messapian vase art. It is known in various forms; typical is its ovoid body with side handles and strap handles (which rise up from the shoulder of the vessel and connect to its lip) which are often decorated with discs (rotellae) [1. 11 fig. 3]. In vase …

Pilleus

(212 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (also pileus). Close-fitting half-spherical or ball-shaped head covering made of fur, felt, leather or wool; adopted by the Romans from the Etruscans (cf. Liv. 34,7). In Rome the pilleus was the mark of a free citizen and was given a slave (Petron. Sat. 41), prisoner of war, or gladiator (Tert. De spectaculis 21) upon manumission. Thus the pilleus libertatis, together with the vindicta , is the attribute of Libertas, who holds them in her hands on Roman coins. P illeus can be used synonymously as an expression for freedom (Mart. 2,68; Suet. Nero 57, cf. Plau…

Chiton

(507 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (χιτών; chitón). Greek undergarment, originally of linen, then wool; probably of Semitic origin ( Clothing). Frequent occurrences in Homer (e.g. Il. 2,42; 262; 416; 3,359; Od. 14,72; 19,242), show that the chiton was already a part of Greek costume in early times, and a favoured garment for men. The chiton came into fashion for women during the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC, and later replaced the  peplos (vase paintings, sculptures). The chiton consists of two rectangular lengths of material ( ptéryges, wings), 150-180 cm wide and of varying length, sewn toget…

Recta

(107 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The first time the Roman boy donned the toga virilis, he wore the ( tunica) recta as an undergarment; for the sons of equestrians and senators, it was furnished with the insignia of rank ( latus clavus). The long, white tunica with tight upper sleeves which the Roman bride donned on the eve of her wedding, which she slept in and wore on her wedding day was called recta or regilla (Plin. HN 8,194). Clothing; Toga Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography Blümner, PrAlt., 336, 350 f.  C. M. Wilson, The Clothing of the Ancient Romans, 1938, 138-145  D. Balsdon, Die Frau in der röm…

Facial expression

(469 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] FE means the expressive motions of the entire face (moods) or parts of it that spontaneously indicate a momentary human mood or are deliberately assumed with the intention of making a particular expression. FE's are often situation-related and supplemented by  gestures ( Gestus) or even only become comprehensible through the latter. On the stage individual characters were shown with differing FE's ( Masks,  Mimos). FE's were also a means of providing a person (e.g. a philosopher, …

Palimpsest

(350 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (παλίμψηστος/ palímpsēstos [βίβλος/ bíblos or χάρτης/ chártēs], lat. codex rescriptus). A 're-scraped' book, papyrus or parchment leaf, prepared for renewed writing after its first text was scraped off. The first text was either wiped off with a sponge or scraped away with pumice stone. This method was already used in Egypt (e.g. PBerlin 3024, 12th dynasty, from c. 2000 BC), and was also standard practice in later periods, out of thrift (Cic. Fam. 7,18,2) or lack of virgin papyrus or parchment (cf. Catull. 22,5). Plutarch (Mor. 779c, 50…

Antyx

(109 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἀντυξ; ántyx) Raised metal rim of the Greek shield (Hom. Il. 6,118; 15,645; 18,479 and passim); also refers to a hoop-like railing or ledge of the Greek racing and war chariot (archaic vase paintings [1.524 fig. 44]), which could be used to hold on to when stepping in or out (Hom. Il. 5,728 f.; 16,406). Evidently made of wood (Hom. Il. 21,38). When the chariot was not in motion, one could wrap the reins around the antyx (Hom. Il. 5,262). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 C. Weiss, M. Boss, Original und Restaurierung, in: AA 1992, 522-528. J. Wiesner, Fahren und Reit…

Mattress

(116 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τύλη/ týlē; Latin culcita, torus). Mattresses were laid on the Greek and Roman kline (lying on the supporting straps of the kline, Petron. Sat. 97,4) or were spread out directly on the floor (Ath. 15,675a; Alci. 4,13,14; χαμεύνη/ chameúnē: Theoc. 7,133; 13, 33). Mattresses were filled with wool, straw, reeds, sea grass, hay, hair, feathers; the feathers of Germanic geese being especially valued (Plin. HN 10,54, compare Ov. Met. 8,655 on rushes). There also was the κνέφαλλον/ knéphallon (Poll. 10,42) and the τυλεῖον/ tyleíon, the fine underbed made of wool cut a…

Crepundia

(88 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A piece of jewellery or a toy, usually metal, for small children in Rome. Besides the bulla ( Ages), children wore several such miniatures as an  amulet, strung on a chain and worn around the neck or over the shoulder. The crepundia were also used to identify abandoned children and were kept in a cistella (little chest) together with other children's items (Plaut. Cist. 634ff., Plaut. Rud. 1151ff.).  Amulet;  Jewellery Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography E. Schmidt, Spielzeug und Spiele im klass. Altertum, 1971, 18-21 incl. fig. 1.

Greeting

(1,186 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
I. Gestures of greeting [German version] A. Handshake According to Greek and Roman custom, one would shake the right hand of guests, family members, close acquaintances or friends and squeeze it firmly (Hom. Il. 10,542 et passim; Xen. Cyr. 3,2,14; Aristoph. Nub. 81; Plut. Cicero 879; Plut. Antonius 952; Plut. De amicorum multitudine 94b), both as a greeting (according to Plut. Caesar 708 more a form of affability) and to say good-bye. Shaking hands was seen as a sign of friendship and trust (Xen. Cyr. 3…

Canistrum

(110 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek κανοῦν; kanoûn). Flat wicker basket; it served as a fruit basket (Ov. Met. 8,675) and was used in agriculture (Verg. G. 4,280). Canistra of sturdy materials (clay, silver, gold) were used as receptacles for liquid substances, e.g. honey and oil. The canistrum was also a device for sacrifices (Tib. 1,10,27; Ov. Met. 2,713 and more); often represented in Roman art in this role, the canistrum contained incense, fruits and offering-cakes. The silver saucers for drinking vessels were called canistra siccaria (Serv. Aen. 1,706).  Kanoun Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bi…

Calceus

(275 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Roman shoe or half-boot made of leather that was probably adopted from the Etruscans and was part of the clothing ( vestis forensis) of the noble Roman citizen. If a member of the nobility dressed in other shoes in public, he would be criticized (Suet.Tib. 13; an exception was the dress for the banquet at which people wore the solla; Hor. Sat. 2,8,77; Mart. 3,50,3; Suet. Vit. 2). In Roman literature and art the calceus was represented in many ways; three variants can be distinguished that at the same time served to differentiate between social ranks. Th…

Geneleus

(237 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Sculptor of the archaic period, famous for the family group with his signature in the Heraion on  Samos (560-550 BC). The group consists of the reclining figure of the founder ...ιλάρχος, three standing girls (unknown name, Philippe, Ornithe), the fragments of a young man, and the enthroned mother Phileia; apart from Ornithe (Berlin, SM, Inv. 1739), all the figures are on Samos (Vathy, Mus. Inv. 768). G. proves himself a master of Ionian sculpture because of the minute detail to w…

Canosa Vases

(129 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Type of  Apulian vases, between c. 350 and 300 BC, probably made exclusively for use in graves. Their distinguishing feature is their decoration in a variety of water-soluble pigments (blue, red/pink, yellow, pale purple, brown) on a white background. Preferred  vessel forms are the volute-krater, cantharus, oinochoe, and askos, whose main bodies were frequently decorated with figures of women on small pedestals and with three-dimensional decor (winged heads, gorgoneia et al.). The gre…

Paestan ware

(394 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] PW first developed in around 360 BC when immigrant artists from Sicily founded a new workshop in the southern Italian city of Paestum (Poseidonia), the leading masters of which were the vase painters Asteas and Python. Both are the only vase painters in southern Italy whose signatures are known on vases. The Paestan vase painters favoured bell craters, neck amphorae, hydrias, lebetes gamikoi (nuptial cauldrons depicting mostly wedding but also funeral scenes), lekanides (cosmetic/trinket containers), lekythoi (one-handled flasks for perfumed oil) and jug…

Sakkos

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σάκκος/ sákkos). Closed bonnet, esp. popular as a headdress of Greek women in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. The evidence from Attic vase paintings and tomb reliefs shows the sákkos worn mainly by female servants, whereas in southern Italian art it appears as the headdress of any woman. Sákkoi frequently had a loop on the calotte for hanging them up and often tassels hanging down. Some sákkoi were unadorned or decorated with simple lines, while others were richly decorated with ornaments of meanders, waves, scrolls and similar. The sákkos was not necessarily the only hea…

Tiara

(266 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τιάρα/ tiára). Head covering of Near Eastern peoples (Armenians, Assyrians, Sagae, especially Persians; Hdt. 3,12; 7,61; 7,64 et passim), similar to a turban; also a tall tiara, decorated with stars and rising to a point, which among the Persians was fit only for the king, his relatives and holders of high office (Xen. An. 2,5,23; Xen. Cyr. 8,3,13). In Greek sources, the tiara is also called a kyrbasía or a kíd(t)aris (e.g. Aristoph. Av. 487). The tiara as a head covering for Middle Eastern aristocrats was also common in the Roman period (Suet. Ner…

Tribon

(99 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τρίβων/ tríbōn, τριβώνιον/ tribṓnion). A coat ( himátion, cf. pallium ) of 'bristly' wollen material, worn by Cretans (Str. 10,4,20) and Spartans (Plut. Lycurgus 30; Plut. Agesilaus 30; Ael. VH 7,13); later also common in Athens (Thuc. 1,6,3). It was part of the clothing of simple people (Aristoph. Eccl. 850; Aristoph. Vesp. 1131), farmers (Aristoph. Ach. 184; 343) and lakōnizóntes ('imitators of Spartan customs', Dem. Or. 54,34). From the time of Socrates (Pl. Symp. 219b; Pl. Prt. 335d; Xen. Mem. 1,6,2) the tribon was also the typ…

Tabula

(196 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] General Latin term for board (Plin. HN 31,128; 33,76; 36,114; Ov. Met. 11,428), then for 'game board' ( tabula lusoria, Games, Board games, Dice (game)), 'painted panel' ( tabula picta, Plin. HN 35,20-28), 'votive tablet' ( tabula votiva, Hor. Carm. 1,5,13; Pers. 6,33). In a special sense, tabula is the term for writing tablets, used for writing and calculating, of wood, whitewashed or with a layer of wax, or metal tablets (Writing materials, Codex ), as were already common among the Greeks. Tabulae were used in the public domain, e.g. as tablets of law ( Tabulae duodecim

Diphros

(118 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Four-legged stool, generally with turned legs. A seat for gods and heroes (west frieze of the Siphnian treasury in Delphi; east frieze of the  Parthenon), as well as for common people in scenes from everyday life (geometric amphora Athens, NM Inv. no. 804: workshop scenes). They were made of simple wood or valuable ebony, the inventory lists of the Parthenon even record silver-footed diphroi. A special form is the folding stool (διφρος ὀκλαδίας; díphros okladías), whose legs end in claw-shaped feet.  Furniture;  Sella curulis Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography G…

Darius Painter

(180 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Apulian vase painter working c. 340/320 BC, named after the main figure on the  Darius Crater. On the vessels he painted (including voluted craters, lutrophoroi, amphorae), some of which are monumental, he generally depicted scenes from classical tragedies (Euripides) and themes from Greek myth; some of these are only documented through his work. Other vases show scenes depicting weddings, women and Eros, as well as Dionysian motifs and rare sepulchral representations ( Naiskos vases). His tendency to name people and representations in inscriptions ( Persai, Pat…

Peniculus

(69 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (also penicillum). Duster, a stick with the hairy end of an animal's tail (Paul Fest. 208; 231 M.); used to wipe down tables (Plaut. Men. 77f.), polish shoes (Plaut. ibid. 391) or clean agricultural implements and vessels (Columella 12,18,5). The peniculus was also used as a brush to whitewash walls (Plin. HN 28,235) and as a paintbrush (Plin. HN 35,60f.; 103; 149). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Subligaculum

(95 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Men's item of clothing to cover the abdomen (Varro, Ling. 6,21; Non. 29,17). Originally, it was probably worn under the Roman toga (Non. 29,17; Isid. Orig. 19,22,5) and was later replaced by the tunica . The subligar, on the other hand, is a cloth worn for special occasions, such as by actors (Juv. 6,70) and by women in the bath (Mart. 3,87,3), or generally by labourers (Plin. HN 12,59). Perizoma Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography M. Pausch, Neues zur Bekleidung im Mosaik der 'Bikini-Mädchen' von Piazza Armerina in Sizilien, in: Nikephoros 9, 1996, 171-173.

Petasos

(207 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (πέτασος; pétasos). Greek hat made of felt with a wide brim, also referred to as a 'Thessalian hat' because of its origin (Soph. OC 313); it was worn by women and men who spent a lot of time outdoors (fishermen, herdsmen/women, hunters) or who were travelling; amongst the most best-known mythological petasos wearers were Hermes, Peleus, Perseus, Oedipus and Theseus. Additional wearers are - more rarely - chariot riders (Athen. 5,200f.), horsemen (e.g. on the Parthenon freeze) and the Attic ephebes ( ephēbeía ). The petasos was firmly retained by a strap that was p…

Mastruca

(66 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (also mastruga). Sardian word (Quint. Inst. 1,5) for a close-fitting garment made of (sheep)skin, sleeveless and reaching down to the upper thighs. The Romans considered those who wore it to be uncivilised (Cic. Scaur. 45d; Cic. Prov. cons. 15), thus Alaricus in: Prud. in Symm. 1,659f. In Plaut. Poen. 1310-1313 it is also used as a term of abuse. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Matta

(84 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[English version] (ψίαθος/ psíathos). Matte oder grobe Decke aus Binsen und Stroh, in Ägypten auch aus Papyrus (vgl. Theophr. h. plant. 4,8,4). Sie diente den Bauern, Reisenden und armen Leuten zum Lagern auf dem Boden; in einer att. Inschr. auch unter dem Hausmobilar aufgeführt [1]. Nach Augustinus (contra Faustum 5,5) ist jemand, der auf der M. schläft, ein Anhänger einer Lehre, die Bedürfnislosigkeit predigt ( mattarius). Die Schlafmatte konnte auch χαμεύνη/ chameúnē genannt werden (Poll. 6,11). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 Hesperia 5, 1936, 382 Nr. 6 A.

Pergament

(334 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[English version] Zu einem der Beschreibstoffe der Ant. zählte das gereinigte, enthaarte und gegerbte Leder (Hdt. 5,58,3). P. entstand durch eine verfeinerte Bearbeitung der Tierhaut (von Esel, Kalb, Schaf, Ziege), bei der auf die Gerbung verzichtet wurde; statt dessen legte man die Tierhaut einige Tage in eine Kalklösung, entfernte sodann Fleischreste, Haare und Oberhaut, und legte sie danach in ein Kalkbad zur Reinigung (Kalzinierung). Anschließend spannte man die Haut in einen Rahmen, trocknete…

Epiblema

(78 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[English version] (ἐπίβλημα). Griech. Begriff für Decke, Tuch, Mantel (Poll. 7,49f.). In der modernen arch. Terminologie bezeichnet E. das Schultertuch der dädalischen, bes. der kretischen Frauenstatuetten. In der Regel wird das E. auf der Brust, aber auch über dem Hals und dem Schlüsselbein befestigt; der obere Rand ist mitunter verziert. Auf Denkmälern des 7. Jh.v.Chr. findet sich das E. häufig dargestellt. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography C. Davaras, Die Statue aus Astritsi, 8. Beih. AK, 1972, 26-27, 59-64.

Fer(i)culum

(131 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[English version] seltener feretrum (z.B. Ov. met. 3,508; 14,747). Damit werden Tragevorrichtungen unterschiedlicher Form bezeichnet, die zum Befördern von Sachgütern nötig waren, speziell aber solche Gerüste, auf denen bei Aufzügen (Triumph, Bestattung o.ä.) Gegenstände präsentiert wurden, z.B. Beutestücke, Gefangene, Götterbilder u.a. (Suet. Caes. 76); ferner diente das f. zum Transport des Verstorbenen oder der Dinge, die mit ihm bestattet oder verbrannt werden sollten (Stat. Theb. 6,126). F. nannte man auch (Hausrat) das Speisebrett, die flache Schüssel, m…

Petasos

(180 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[English version] (πέτασος). Griech. Hut aus Filz mit breiter Krempe, aufgrund seiner Herkunft auch als “thessalischer Hut” bezeichnet (Soph. Oid. K. 313); er wurde von Frauen und Männern getragen, die sich viel im Freien aufhielten (Fischer, Hirten, Jäger) oder auf Reisen waren; zu den bekanntesten myth. P.-Trägern zählen Hermes, Peleus, Perseus, Oidipus, Theseus. Weitere Träger sind - seltener - Wagenlenker (Athen. 5,200f.), Reiter (z.B. am Parthenonfries) und die att. Epheben ( ephēbeía ). Für einen sicheren Halt des p. sorgte ein Riemen, der unter das Kinn geführt wur…

Canosiner Vasen

(113 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[English version] Gattung der apulischen Vasen, zwischen ca. 350 und 300 v.Chr. wohl ausschließlich für den Grabgebrauch hergestellt. Als ihr besonderes Kennzeichen kann die in wasserlöslichen, verschiedenen Farben (blau, rot/rosa, gelb, hellviolett, braun) ausgeführte Bemalung auf weißem Grund gelten. Bevorzugte Gefäßformen sind Volutenkrater, Kantharos, Oinochoe und Askos, deren Gefäßkörper häufig mit auf kleinen Podesten stehenden Frauenfiguren und plastischem Dekor (geflügelte Köpfe, Gorgoneia…

Brattea

(258 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (πέταλον; pétalon). Ancient term uncommon in archaeological terminology; in Greek originally the ‘leaf or foliage of a tree’ (Hom. Il. 2,312; Od. 19,520), in Bacchyl. 5,186 the Olympian wreath of the wild olive, in the 2nd cent. BC at the latest considered to be the artificial metal leaves of a golden  wreath. In Roman sources brattea is used to describe a thin metal foil, mostly silver or gold for gilding objects, also veneers of precious wood (Plin. HN 16,232) or tortoiseshell (Mart. 9,59,9), but mostly gold leaf or gold foil is mea…

Household equipment

(1,622 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek τὰ ἔπιπλα/ tà épipla, ἡ σκευή/ hē skeuḗ; Latin supellex, instrumentum). Household equipment (HE) comprises the objects that are needed in daily life and that constitute the majority of moveable belongings; this includes primarily  furniture, cooking utensils and kitchen crockery, lighting devices,  carpets,  blankets, and in a wider sense also  jewellery and  clothing, furthermore, according to current understanding, objects belonging to the sphere of immovables, e.g. the doors and ro…

Repositorium

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Originally a Roman tray, then a stand or centrepiece used to arrange and serve food for a course (Petron. Sat. 33; 40; 49), introduced probably at the beginning of the 1st cent. BC as luxury tableware. The repositorium could have simple, round or rectangular form, but it could also have several levels and be of considerable height; it was also decorated with figures (Petron. Sat. 36), veneered with valuable woods and fitted with silver on the corners and edges (Plin. HN 33,146). Carrying away the repositorium while a guest was still drinking was considered a bad o…

Hirschfeld Painter

(229 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Attic vase painter of the geometric period (late geometric I b, after 750 BC;  Geometric vase painting), named after Gustav Hirschfeld (1847-1897), who first described the main work excavated in 1870, the so-called Hirschfeld Krater (Athens, NM Inv. no. 990) [1; 2]. The Hirschfeld Painter (HP) and his workshop worked in the tradition of the  Dipylon Painter and had a preference for monumental kraters of which the eponymous krater and a further one in New York (MMA Inv. no. 14.130.…

Diadema

(359 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (διάδημα; diádēma). The term was originally used to describe all bands worn round the head; different from  wreath. The diadema decorates, consecrates and raises its wearer above others; in this way diademata are symbols of dignity, particularly in cult; to this belong the ‘bust crowns’ or the ‘griffin diadema’ of the priests and deities; of a religious nature are also the ribbon-, gable- and rhomboid-shaped ‘ diademata of the dead’ that from the Mycenaean period onwards (shaft tomb IV, Mycenae) in many cases adorn the forehead of the deceased a…

Litter, Sedan chair

(529 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (φορεῖον/ phoreîon; Latin lectica, sella sc. gestatoria, portatoria). The litter as a means of conveyance has been known in the Orient since earliest times; in Greece it is first mentioned in the 4th cent. BC (Din. 1,36); in Hellenism it is a luxury item (Ath. 5,195c; 212c; Diod. Sic. 31,8,12). We cannot determine when the litter was introduced to the Roman empire but it was in general use from the 2nd cent. BC (cf. Liv. 43,7,5; Gell. NA 10,3,51); its excessive utilization in Rome already compelled Caesar to limit its use in the …

Festival dress

(444 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] It is safe to assume that the dress worn at private and public festivals differed in colour or adornment from everyday wear; women in  Sybaris, for example, who were to partake in one of the municipal festivities, received a year's notice in order to prepare their attire accordingly (Ath. 12,521c; Plut. Mor. 147e). A public appearance called for a clean attire (cf. Pl. Symp. 174a). On some festive occasions, a cloak was worn, referred to as ξυστίς ( xystís) (Aristoph. Lys. 1190, Nub. 70; Theoc. 2,74; Plut. Alcibiades 32,2). The ‘Phoenician’ red chitons, wor…

Cushion

(255 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἡ τύλη, τὸ κνέφαλλον, Lat. cervical, pulvinus). Cushions were used to assure comfort when sitting or lying on chairs, klines (Petron. Sat. 32), in litters (Juv. 6,353) or when lying directly on the ground. Floor cushions were also offered for comfort at the circus (Mart. 14,160). The materials used for cushions included linen, wool or leather, which were often beautifully decorated. Straw, hay, reeds, eelgrass or bulrushes (Ov. Met. 8,655) as well as flocks of wool were used as filling…

Tropa

(136 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τρόπα; trópa). Greek children's games with astragaloi (Astragalos [2]), nuts, etc. (Poll. 9,103; schol.  Pl. Ly. 206e); in consisted in throwing one's own astragalos (or nut, etc.) in such a way that it moved one's opponent's astragalos from its position. In a variant of the game one had to try to drop an astragalos into a small pit in the ground. Tropa was probably also played by young Romans (Mart. 4,14,9). Connected with the game of tropa is Polyclitus' [1] group, known only from literature, known as the 'Boys Playing at Knucklebones' (Plin. HN 34,55)…

Campanian vases

(696 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The Campanian vases (CV) of the 5th-4th cents. BC were made of a light brown clay and the surface often painted with a red-coloured coating. Artists generally preferred smaller vessels, besides these as the main shape, strap-handled amphora, also hydriae and bell craters; only seldom do pelike types appear ( Pottery, shapes and types of, vessel shapes with fig.). Characteristics attributed to  Apulian vase painting such as volute and column craters, loutrophoroi, rhyta or nestorid…

Seat

(409 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Essential item of furniture for sitting on in the sparsely furnished ancient household, mainly made of wood (maple, beech, oak), but sometimes also of bronze and partially or entirely of gold (Hdt. 1,14; Ath. 12,514) or marble. Occasionally individual parts of the chair also consisted of other materials such as ivory or onyx (Plin. HN 36,59), metal or precious metal. There were also woven seats made of willow branches (Plin. HN 16,174). Depictions and stone copies show what they looked like. In Antiquity the principal forms (cf.. Ath. 5,192e-f) were the díphros

Triga

(337 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Latin from triiuga; Greek τρίπωλος/ trípōlos; 'team of three'). Its significance as a racing, hunting or war vehicle was far less than that of bigae and of the quadriga. In Homer only extra horses for a team of two are mentioned (cf. Hom. Il. 8,80-86; 16,152-154 and 467-476) and on one occasion a gift of three horses (Hom. Od. 4,590); otherwise the literary sources on trigae are rather rare (e.g. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,73). The same is true for representations in art; first and foremost are 9th-cent. BC Assyrian reliefs with battle and  huntin…

South Italian vases

(1,233 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Beginnings The first workshops in southern Italy for red-figured pottery appeared around the mid 5th cent. BC, founded by Athenian vase-painters. Native artists were trained there. Thus, the initial dependence on Attic models, which expressed itself e.g. in the choice of motif or Atticizing forms (Lucanian vases), was replaced by a characteristic painting style and repertoire of decorations and motifs. Towards the end of the 5th cent. BC, the so-called 'ornate and plain styles' emerged in Apulian vase-painting (Apulian vases). Through th…
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