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Ḥāsik

(475 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
( Hasek ), a town in the Mahra country [ q.v.], east of Mirbāṭ [ q.v.] in 17° 21′ N. Lat. and 55° 23′ E. Long., at the foot of the high mountain of Nūs (Lūs), the ʾΑσίχων of the Periplus Maris Erythraei . Before the town lies the “bay of herbs” (D̲j̲ūn al-Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), the bay of Ḥāsik (Raʾs Ḥāsik), also called Kuria Muria Bay after the two islands lying opposite (K̲h̲aryān and Maryān in Idrīsī). Idrīsī describes Ḥāsik as a small fortified town four days ¶ east of Mirbāṭ, with many inhabitants, who are fishermen. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa landed here on his way through to ʿUmān and found the h…

Ḥāmī

(167 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a coast-town in Ḥaḍramawt, about 18 miles north-east of S̲h̲iḥr [ q.v.], near Raʾs S̲h̲arma in a very picturesque and fertile district. Like Makalla and S̲h̲iḥr it belongs to the Ḳuʿayṭī of S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] and has, as the name shows, thermal wells of the temperature of boiling water. The houses of the little town are low and built of mud; in the centre of the town and on the shore there are two important ḥiṣn . The inhabitants are mainly fishermen; their number was estimated by Capt. Haines at 500 in 1839. Behind the town lie thick palm-groves and ¶ fields with luxurious crops of Indian corn. (J. Sc…

banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb

(844 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, usually called Balḥārit̲h̲, an Arab tribe belonging to the Yemenī group. Their genealogy is: al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb b. ʿAmr b. ʿUlā b. Ḏj̲ald b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (Mālik). They lived in the district of Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.] and were neighbours of the Hamdān. The following places amongst others belonged to them: al-ʿArs̲h̲, al-ʿĀd̲h̲, Baṭn al-D̲h̲uhāb, D̲h̲u ’l-Marrūt, al-Furuṭ (pl. Afrāt, between Nad̲j̲rān and the D̲j̲awf), Ḥadūra (K̲h̲adūrā), ʿIyāna, al-K̲h̲aṣāṣa (between Ḥid̲j̲āz and Tihāma), Ḳurrā, Saḥbal, Ṣamʿar, Sūḥān or Sawḥān, Mīnān…

Ḥarb

(464 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a powerful Arab tribe of Yemenī origin in the Ḥid̲j̲āz between Mecca and Medina. They are divided into two great bodies, the Banū Sālim and B. Muṣrūḥ. To the B. Sālim belong amongst other clans, al-Ḥamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Walād Salīm, Tamīm (not the celebrated great tribe of this name), Muzayna, al-Hawāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), and Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); to the Muṣrūḥ, amongst others: Saʿdī (Saʿadī), Laḥabba, Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-D̲j̲ahm, Banū ʿAmr. Doughty gives amongst others the following villages of the B. Sālim (between Medina and Yanbuʿ and o…

Ḥāmī

(183 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a coast-town in Ḥaḍramūt, about 18 miles N. E. of S̲h̲iḥr [q. v.], near Raʾs S̲h̲arma in a very picturesque and fertile district. Like Makalla and S̲h̲iḥr it belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.] and has, as the name shows, thermal wells of the temperature of boiling water. The houses of the little town are low and built of mud; in the centre of the town and on the shore there are two important ḥiṣn. The inhabitants are mainly fishermen; and their number was estimated by Capt. Haines at 500 in 1839. Behind the town lie thick palmgroves and fields with luxurious crops of Indian corn. (J. Schleifer) Bibliography Captain S. B. Haines, Memoir to accompany a chart of the south coast of Arabia etc. in Journal of the London Royal Geogr. Society (ix.), 1839, p. 153 K. Ritter, Die Erdkunde, xii. 635, 639 Van den Berg, Ḥadhramout (Batavia 1886), p. 11 Leo Hirsch, Reisen in Südarabien-, Mahraland und Hadramūt (Leiden 1897), p. 11, 37, 38 Th. Bent and Mrs. Th. Bent, Sottth Arabia (London 1900), p. 210, 211.

Bakr

(2,801 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Wāʾil, a great Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy (omitting one or two unimportant links) is: Bakr b. Wāʾil b. Ḳāsiṭ b. Hinb b. Asad ¶ b. Rabīʿa b. Nizār b. Maʿadd. Allied tribes were amongst others the Tag̲h̲lib and Anz, subordinate tribes the Jas̲h̲kur, Badam, al-Ḥārit̲h̲, Ḏj̲us̲h̲m and ʿAlī. Other important subordinate tribes were the Ḏh̲uhl, ʿId̲j̲l, Ḥanīfa, Ḳais and S̲h̲aibān. They lived in the Tihāma of Yaman, the Yamāma and Baḥrain as far as the borders of Mesopotamia. We find them here in the time of the Caliphs Ab…

al-Ḥodaida

(427 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hodáde, Hadída), a seaport in Arabia, on the Red Sea about no miles N.N.W. of Mok̲h̲a [q. v.], the most important port for the coffee trade in Yemen and a landingplace for pilgrims to Mecca from Central Africa. It is under the protection of a patron saint, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣadīḳ, whose festival is celebrated on the fifteenth day of the month S̲h̲aʿbān. In the time of Niebuhr and See…

al-Darʿīya

(421 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Dreyeh, Deraya, Daraaije, or Drahia) a town in the district of al-ʿĀriḍ in the Nad̲j̲d country in Arabia, on the ¶ caravan route from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. It was handsomely built of stone and lay at the foot of high hills in a narrow valley, and a little wādī (W. Ḥanīfa) which was usually dry in summer ran through it. In addition to a large and several smaller mosques it had many madrasas. It lay in a very fertile neighbourhood and was surrounded by extensive wheat, barley and milletfields and rich orchards with extensive date-palm g…

Ḥāyil

(817 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Hāyel, Haīl, Hāeyl), the capital of the land of Ḏj̲ebel-S̲h̲ammar [q. v.] in western Ned̲j̲d in the centre of a long plain called Sāhila al-Ḵh̲ammashīya, which lies between the parallel ranges of Ad̲j̲aʾ (M’nīf) and Salmā (Fittī) about 5000 feet about the level of the sea. The town, which is one of the main stations on the route for Persian pilgrims to Mecca, is surrounded by walls about 20 feet high and round and square towers. It is divided into eleven quarters and has a large mosque, a fort…

Ḥais

(477 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Häs, Hēs),a town in South Arabia, at the foot of the Ḏj̲ebel Raʾs at the entrance to a valley about five miles S. E. of Zabīd. [q. v.]. In 1842 it consisted of 500 houses of earth and stone, 250 round huts, an old castle with a garrison of 300 men, 21 mosques, including one large one which was already falling into ruins, 10 coffee-houses and inns, several coffee-mills and potteries, the latter of which …

Hawāzin

(1,278 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large North Arabian tribe. Their genealogy is Hawāzin b. Manṣūr b, ʿIkrima b. Ḵh̲aṣafa b. Ḳais Ailān b. Muḍar. Among the important clans of the Hawāzin may be mentioned the T̲h̲aḳīf in Ṭāʾif northeast of Mecca where there is still a powerful tribe of them, the ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa [q. v.], the Ḏj̲us̲h̲am, the Saʿd b. Bakr ¶ (Ḥalīma b. Abī Ḏh̲uwaib, the nurse of the Prophet, was descended from them) and Hilāl. They were of the same stock as the Sulaim. During the Ḏj̲āhiliya they worshipped the idol Ḏj̲ihār in ʿUkāẓ, the large and much frequented market o…

Ḥawra

(198 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥōra), a town in Ḥaḍramūt, N. E. of Has̲h̲arēn [q. v.] on the Ḏj̲ebel of the same name. The little Wādī Ḥōra flows past it, running for the earlier part of its course parallel to the large Wādī ʿAin (see ḥaḍramawt, p. 208a) and then joining it. At the upper end of the town there is a large ḥiṣn with seven stories, flanked by corner towers, which commands the town. Here the ḥākim resides; he is appointed by the Ḳuʿaiṭīs of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.], to whom the town belongs. Ḥawra possesses a small bazaar and two mosques and is surrounded by gardens and fields,…

Ḥaḍūr

(704 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥadūr Nabī [Nebbi] S̲h̲uʿaib), a mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the Sarāt group of Alhān, to the west of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] between the Wādī Sahām and the Wādī Surdud near the Ḥarāz range [q. v.], from which it was separated in Hamdānī’s time by the Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ (now Ḥaima [q. v.]) inhabited by the Ṣulaiḥ (a branch of the Ḥamdān). The name Ḥaḍūr is derived from Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, an ancestor of the prophet S̲h̲uʿaib b. Mahdam, mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (cf. Sūra vii. 83 et seq. a…

Hamdān

(758 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
( of the South Arabian inscriptions), a large Arab tribe, belonging to the Yemen group. Their genealogy is Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-Ḵh̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Kahlān. Their land, the Balad Hamdān, a centre of civilization in ancient Arabia, was five days’ journey in length and breadth and lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] it stretched eastwards as far as Maʾrib [q. v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [q. v.] almost up to the desert and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). It was divid…

Ḍibāb

(274 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddite group. They were the descendants of Muʿāwiya b. Kilāb, who was called al-Ḍibāb because of three of his sons (Ḍibāb, Ḍabb und Muḍibb). Their genealogy is: Muʿāwiya b. Kilāb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿAmr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Ilawāzin. They dwelled in the district of Ḥima Ḍarīya in the Nad̲j̲d territory. The following settlements of the Ḍibāb are mentioned: Ḏj̲azʿ Banī Kūz, Dāra Ḏj̲uld̲j̲ul and Ṭulūḥ; mountains: Ak̲h̲zum, al-Ḏj̲aws̲h̲anīya, Ḏh̲āt Ārām, al-Yaḥmūm (a large black hill), Kabs̲h̲a (with Dāra al-Kabas̲h…

Aḳārib

(160 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Sing. ʿAḳrabī; according to Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens p. 80, identical with the Agraei of Pliny), a South-Arabian tribe in the neighbourhood of ʿAden. Their territory, which is very small (only about 2—3 square miles), is crossed by the lower part of the river of Laḥed̲j̲ [q. v.], which here is nearly always dry. As rain is also lacking, the soil is barren and yields but little fruit. The chief town is Biʾr Aḥmed, with some hundred inhabitants and the castle of the Sultan, who res…

G̲h̲anī

(337 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Aʿṣur, a tribe in North Arabia, a branch of the Ḳais b. ʿAilān and related to the G̲h̲kṭafān [q. v., p. 144b et seq.]. They lived around Ḥimā Ḍarīya in Nad̲j̲d and were neighbours of the Ṭaiy with whom they were constantly at feud. In the time of the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idols al-Lāt, Manāt and al-ʿUzzā, all of whom are mentioned in the Ḳorʾān (Sūra liii. 19, 20). The great pre-Islāmic poet Ṭufail b. ʿAwf, called Ṭufail al-Ḵh̲ail (on account of his skill in depicting the horse) belonged to the G̲h̲anī. Among the settlements of the G̲h̲anī were: Ayhab, Awʿāl, Ad̲h̲ruʿāt, Baṭn…

al-Ḥawṭa

(120 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name given in South Arabia to a district which is considered holy and regarded as a place of refuge. The substantive al-ḥawṭa denotes a place surrounded by a wall, then a place under the protection of a saint,’ who is buried there. The most important Ḥawṭa in South Arabia is that at ʿĪnāt (ʿAināt [q. v.] in Ḥaḍramūt, where the famous S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Munṣab Bū Bakr b. Sālim is buried. The second in importance is the Ḥawṭa in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The name Ḥawṭa is also born…

Hid̲j̲ra

(160 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name of a village (indeed of several) in South Arabia which is exclusively inhabited by Sāda or As̲h̲rāf (“lords”, “notables”, descendants of the Prophet) and is considered sacrosanct. These villages (e. g. Ḥaifa in Arḥab [cf. ḥās…

Ḏj̲aʿda

(351 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Kaʿb, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is: Ḏj̲aʿda b. Kaʿb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Hawāzin. The Ḳus̲h̲air and ʿUḳail were closely related tribes. The poet Nābig̲h̲a (al-Ḏj̲aʿdī) traces his descent from the Ḏj̲aʿda b. Kaʿb. They inhabited the district of Falad̲j̲ in the territory of Yamāma. Of places, which belonged to them, there are mentioned, amongst others: Ukma (a large fortified town on the Wādī of the same name, with a much frequented market, many wells, bazaars and …

Ḥūla

(75 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a town in Arabia, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) in Nad̲j̲d, north of Ḥuraimila [q. v.]. The inhabitants are partly tradesmen and partly agriculturists. Its trade and prosperity has markedly increased under Wahhābī rule. During Palgrave’s stay in Nad̲j̲d, Ḥūla was one of the most flourishing places in Sedeyr. The town is surrounded by walls. (J. Schleifer) Bibliography Palgrave, A Narrative of a Year’s Journey in Arabia (London 1865), i. 338 sq.

al-Ḥāḍina

(144 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a small independent territory in South Arabia, north of the Wāḥidī. It is one of the most interesting and most fertile territories in South Arabia. The products of the soil, which is artificially irrigated by canals from the Wādī ʿAbadān are hawīr (indigo), d̲h̲ura (a kind of maize) and duk̲h̲n (millet). Al-Ḥāḍina is inhabited by the tribe al-Ḵh̲alīfa, which claims descent from the Hilāl [q. v.]. On the migration of the Hilāl they remained in South Arabia, whence ¶ their name…

Dat̲h̲īna

(441 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia, lying to the west of the land of the ʿAwāliḳ [q. v., p. 514] in the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr. It is a fairly mountainous country with a dry climate, as a rule. The soil is fertile only in the N. E. where it produces tobacco, wheat and maize. The main wādīs are: the very fertile Wādī Marrān (Mirān) and the Wādī al-Ḍura. Dat̲h̲īna is inhabited by two large tribes, the main branch, the Ahl um-Saʿīdī (Ahl al-Saʿīdī) and the ʿÖlah (al-ʿUlah, ʿUlah al-Kawr and ʿUlah al-Baḥr). The chief town is Blad Ahl um-Saʿīdī with several hundred inha…

G̲h̲ifār

(218 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is: G̲h̲ifār b. Mulaik b. Ḍamra b. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt b. Kināna; they were closely allied to the Hud̲h̲ail. They lived in the Hid̲j̲āz. The following places belonged to them: Aḍāʾa (near Mecca), Baʿāl (near ʿUsfān, also given as a hill), S̲h̲adak̲h̲ (in common with the Uslum), G̲h̲aiḳa, Waddān (both the latter between Mecca and Medīna), al-Tanādib and the hill of Musliḥ. In the year 8 (629) the G̲h̲ifār adopted Islām. In the same year they took part in the conquest of Mecca along with the Muzai…

ʿAwd̲h̲illa

(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(sing. ʿAwd̲h̲alī, pl. ʿAwād̲h̲ila, in Hamdānī, Banū Awd; according to Sprenger, Die alte Geogr. Arabiens, p. 206, 269, identical with the Оὐδηνοι of Ptolemy and the Autaridae of Pliny), a South Arabian tribe. Their territory, lying between the land of the Yāfiʿa and that of the ʿAwāliḳ, is for the most part highland and crossed by a great range, the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr (Kor) often also called Ẓāhir (Ḍaher). Of the Wādīs that rise in the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr the W. Yerāmīs (Jerames) is the best watered. The climate is tropi…

G̲h̲assān

(1,672 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(G̲h̲assānids), an Arab dynasty in Syria, of Yamanī origin. They were monophysite Christians and were under the suzerainty of the Byzantine Emperors, whose frontiers they had to defend against the Fersians and their vassals, the Lak̲h̲mids of Ḥīra. Their rule extended approximately over the province of Arabia (roughly t…

Ḥanẓala

(525 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Mālik, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī group. Its genealogy is Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm. Among its more important subdivisions were the Barād̲j̲im (to which the poet Farazdaḳ belonged), Dārim and Yarbūʿ. The poet ʿAlḳama b. ʿAbada traced his descent from the Hanẓala. They dwelled between the two sandhills of Ḏj̲urād and Marrūt near Ḥimā Ḍarīya in Yamāma. The villages of al-Ṣammān (with many wells, cisterns and irrigation works), al-Raḳmatān, the Wādīs al-G̲h̲umain and al-ʿIrḳ, the lakes Ḵh̲abī (Wüstenfeld, Register, p. 203, probably by error, Ḏj…

Faḍlī

(769 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Foḍlī, Futhalī), the dynastie name of a group of tribes in South Arabia. Besides this name we also find ʿOt̲h̲mānī (ʿUt̲h̲mānī), as the founder of the dynasty, Faḍl, is said to have been of Turkish origin. They are a branch of the Yāfiʿ and formerly bore their name also. The land of the Faḍlī lies between 45° 10′ and 46° 30′ E. Lat. (Greenw.) and has an breadth of 20—30 miles. It is bounded on the south by the Arabian Sea, in the west by Laḥed̲j̲, in the north by Yāfiʿ and in the east by the land of the ʿAwd̲h̲illa and Dat̲h̲īna. In the west …

Ḥalī

(273 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Haly, Hhaly), a town in Arabia, lying to the south of Ḳonfude on the border between the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Yemen on the Wādī ʿAs̲h̲r, with the small harbour of Marsā Ḥalī and the mountain spur of Raʾs Ḥalī (the latter according to Niebuhr in N. Lat. 18° 36′). Ibn Baṭūṭa, who visited the town on his journey to Yemen in 1331 a. d., gives it the name Ḥalī b. Yaʿḳūb and ¶ describes it as a flourishing seaport with fine buildings and a splendid mosque. The Sulṭān, who was at that time ruling the town, belonged to the Kināna [q. v.] and was a gifted poet and a model of Arabia…

Ḥarb

(454 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a powerful Arab tribe of Yemenī origin in the Ḥid̲j̲āz between Mecca and Medīna. They are divided into two great bodies, the Banū Sālem and B. Moṣrūḥ. To the B. Salem belong amongst other clans, al-Ḥamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Welad Selīm, Tamīm (not the celebrated great tribe of this name), Muzaina, al-Hwāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), and Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); to the Moṣrūḥ, amongst others; Saʿdī (Saʿadī), Laḥabba (all robbers of pilgrims), Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-Ḏj̲ahm, Banū Ḥasseyn (all As̲h̲rāf), and Banū ʿAmr. Doughty gives amongst others the following villages …

Ḥarīb

(787 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia, about two days’ journey east of Maʾrib [q. v.] probably identical with the Caripeta of Pliny, the place from which the Roman general Aelius Gallus on his expedition to Arabia Felix began his retreat to the coast. Ḥarīb, a centre of ancient Arab civilisation, is traversed by a large wādī, the Wādī ʿAin, which receives on its left bank two small wādīs, the Wādī Mukbal and Wādī Ablaḥ. Two hours’ journey before reaching Wādī ʿAin rises Mount Mablaḳa, to which a series o…

al-Ḥarīḳ

(251 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Haryk), a province in Ned̲j̲d in the South of Yamāma lying on the edge of the great desert (Dahnā). The mountain range of this very warm district is said by Palgrave to be about 60—70 miles long. Ḥūta is the most important place in the country. During the Wahhābī wars after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] Ḥarīḳ was subdued by Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. After the Wahhābīs had regained Ned̲j̲d and the Ḥid̲j̲āz, a rebellion broke out against the chief ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿūd in Ḥarīḳ as in the adjoining Yamā…

Ḥāsik

(486 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hasek), a town in the Mahra country [q. v.], east of Mirbāṭ [q. v.] in 17° 21′ N. Lat. and 55° 23′ E. Long., at the foot of the high mountain of Nūs (Lūs), the ’Ασίχων of the Periplus Maris Erythraei. Before the town lies the “bay of herbs” (Ḏj̲ūn al-Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), the bay of Ḥāsik (Ra’s Ḥāsik), also called Kurya and Murya Bay after the two islands lying opposite (Ḵh̲aryān and Maryān in Idrīsī). Idrīsī describes Ḥāsik as a small fortified town four days east of Mirbāṭ, with many inhabitants, who are fishermen. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa landed here …

Ḥufās̲h̲

(216 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a high mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the al-Maṣāniʿ range of the Sarāt group, dn the Wādī Surdud near Ḥarāz [q. v.]. It is often mentioned by Hamdānī in his ¶ Ḏj̲azīra, along with the adjacent large mountain of Milḥān (called after the Ḥimyar Milḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik) the real name of which was Rais̲h̲ān. Not far from the latter, (which in Hamdānī’s time was said to possess no fewer than ninety-nine springs and had a large mosque [called Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir] on its summit, S̲h̲āhir), there lies a treasure, according to…

al-Ḥid̲j̲r

(642 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲er, Hadscher, Hödscher, al-Hhegr in Ritter) a town in Arabia, a day’s journey from Wādi ’l-Ḳura [q. v.] south of Taima [q. v.] identical with the ancient commercial town of ῞Εγρα in Ptolemy and Egra in Pliny. The town no longer exists. At present the name al-Ḥid̲j̲r is given by the Bedouins to the flat valley between Mabrak al-Nāḳa (Mazḥam) and Bīr al-G̲h̲anam which stretches for several miles and has a fertile soil with many wells at which numerous Bedouins encamp with their herds. Two road…

al-Ḥawṭa

(267 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hōta), a town in South Arabia in the land of the Upper Wāḥidī [q. v.] on the Wādī ʿAmaḳīn. It has over 1000 inhabitants who belong for the most part to the Mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of the family of Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, who is said to be descended from ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī (flourished in the vith century), about 100 fortresslike houses and in addition to a large mosque has seven smaller ones, a large market with shops, many looms and a considerable cotton industry. Al-Ḥāwṭā is a free, independent town and pays no taxes. Next to ʿĪnāt [q. v.] it is the most ¶ important place of refuge in South Arabia. T…

Ḏh̲amār

(420 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(d̲h̲imār, damar, the of the ¶ Sabaean inscriptions), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf) and town in South Arabia, to the south of Ṣanʿā. The district of Ḏh̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertitily it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of Ḏh̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of Ḏh̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and Ḏh̲amūrān (the women of these two pl…

Barahūt

(521 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Balahūt, also written Burhūt), a Wādī in Ḥaḍramawt, on the verge of which, at the foot of a volcanic mountain, is the famous Biʾr Barahūt, the spring of Barahūt. According to the native accounts this is a fissure 33 feet long by 25 broad, at its entrance filled with burning sulphur. The stink of the sulphur and the bubbling of the spring (the noise of the volcano?) have given rise to the story that the souls of unbelievers predestined to hell are waiting here and cry out in the night time: “O Duma! O Duma!” in tones of woe. There used to be a proverb, as Hamdānī tells us in his Ḏj̲azīra among proverbial…

Ḥārit̲h̲

(834 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Kaʿb, usually called Balḥārit̲h̲, an arab tribe belonging to the Yemenī group. Their genealogy is: al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb b. ʿAmr b. ʿUlā b. Ḏj̲ald b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (Mālik). They lived in the district of Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and were neighbours of the Hamdān. The following places amongst others belonged to them: al-ʿArs̲h̲, al-ʿAd̲h̲, Baṭn al-Ḏh̲ahāb, Dsu ’l-Marrūt, al-Furuṭ [pl. Afrāt, between Nad̲j̲rān and the Ḏj̲awf], Ḥadūra (Ḵh̲adūrā), ʿIyāna, al-Ḵh̲aṣāṣa (between Ḥid̲j̲āz and Tihāma), Ḳurrā, Saḥbal, Ṣamʿar, Sūḥān or Sawḥā…

Fazāra

(556 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a tribe in North Arabia. Their genealogy is: Fazāra b. Ḏh̲ubyān b. Bag̲h̲iẓ b. G̲h̲ait̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aṭafān. They dwelled on the Wādi ’l-Rumma in Nad̲j̲d. In the time of the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idol Ḥalāl. Among places which belonged to the Fazāra, there are mentioned: ʿAdama, al-Akādir, Aẓfār, Baldaḥ, Barḳ, Ḏj̲us̲h̲s̲h̲ Aʿyār, al-Dīl, Ḏj̲anafā, al-Ḏj̲ināb (between Medīna and Faid), Dāra Dāt̲h̲ir, Yaraʿa, Kunaib, al-Luḳāṭa, Ḳinn, Ṣubḥ (on Mount ʿUrfa, a place of some size), S̲h̲uʿabā, Urul and ʿUraina. Among mountains: Abā…

Baiḥān al-Ḳaṣāb

(519 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia to the north of the country of the Raṣṣāṣ and Upper ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.], the most important of the lands lying between Yaman and Ḥaḍramawt. It was a centre of early Arab culture and has many ruins and numerous inscriptions. The population, the most prominent in all South Arabia, is capable and enterprising, and the ground very fertile because of the numerous springs. Baiḥān al-Ḳaṣāb is inhabited by a tribe, the Muṣʿabain i. e. the two (sons of) Muṣʿab, Aḥmad and ʿArīf fr…

Iyād

(1,148 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a great Arab tribe belonging to the ¶ Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is Iyād b. Nizār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān. The Rabīʿa, Anmār and Muḍar were consanguineous tribes of the Iyād. A section of the Iyād professed Christianity. The poet Abū Dūʾād, famous for his descriptions of the horse, and the celebrated Ḳuss b. Sāʿida were members of the Iyād. At first they dwelt in Tihāmn up to the borders of Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.]. In the first half of the iiird century they emigrated in large bodies to Eastern ʿIrāḳ and thence to Mesopotamia. Among their settlements were: Anbār (they …

Ḥaḍramawt

(3,096 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(the of the South Arabian inscriptions), now pronounced Ḥaḍramūt, a land in Arabia in the east of Yemen between 47° and 53° East. Long, and 15° and 19° North. Lat. It is bounded in the south by the sea, in the southeast by the land of Mahra, in the N. E., N. and N.W. by the great Central Arabian desert, in the S. W. by the land of the ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.] and of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The name Ḥaḍramawt is according to Arab tradition derived from Ḥaḍramawt b. Ḥimyar .…b. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān (Ḥaṣarmāweth, the son of Yoḳtan in Genesis x. 26). In ancient times Ḥaḍramawt was celebrated as a land of frankincense …

Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb

(638 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(‘Raven Castle’), a hill with a fortress upon it in South Arabia, near the harbour of Bir ʿAlī Mad̲j̲daḥa in 30° 59’ 20” North. Lat. and 45° 24’ 30” East. Long, in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The harbour of Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb in ancient times was the well-known Cane Emporium (Κανὴ ἐμπόριον) of the Periplus Maris Erythraei and of Ptolemy, the of the South Arabian inscriptions), a very important centre for the frankincense trade of the neighbourhood and an intermediate station for the trade between Egypt and India. The name Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb is derived from…

Hutaim

(490 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Heteim, Hatēmi, Tehmī, Ḥitēm, plūr. Hutaimān, Hetaimān), alarge tribe ofnomads which is scattered throughout the Ḥid̲j̲āz, Nad̲j̲d and Egypt. Their chief settlements are at Ḏj̲idda, Līt̲h̲, and al-Wad̲j̲h; smaller bodies of the Hutaim live near al-Ḥid̲j̲r, al-ʿUlā (ʿAlly), Ḵh̲aibar (here they are makers of cheese), in the Ḥarrat al-Et̲h̲nān (near Ḵh̲aibar), on the Wādi ’l-Rumma above Medīna, where they are neighbours of the Ḥarb, and in the vicinity of Mecca. In Egypt they are found south of Ḥelwā…

Ḥuraimila

(143 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥoreymela), a town in Arabia in the north of Riyāḍ [q. v.], the capital of Ned̲j̲d, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) on the borders between the latter and the province of ʿĀriḍ, the birthplace of the founder of the Wahhābī sect, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb. It is surrounded by strong fortifications and in 1861 had, according to Palgrave, 10,000 inhabitants. Inside the town on an elevation is a large fortified citadel of architectural importance, which was erected along with the other citadels in Ned̲j̲d after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] by the Egyptians under ¶ Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. Durin…

Ḥaws̲h̲abī

(244 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(plural Ḥawas̲h̲ib), a tribe in South Arabia, of pure Ḥimyarite descent. Their land lies roughly between 44° 45′ and 45° 5′ East Long. (Greenw.) and between 13° 11′and 13° 30′ North Lat. and is bounded in the south by Laḥd̲j̲ (Laḥed̲j̲) [q. v.], in the west by the land of the Ṣubaiḥī (Šobēḥī) [q. v.] and of the Ḥud̲j̲rīyā [q. v.], in the north by the land of the Ḏj̲aʿda [q. v.] and in the east by the lower Yāfiʿ. The climate is tropical, the land fertile, producing wheat, coffee and cotton. Among…

Had̲j̲arēn

(312 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲arīn), a town in Ḥaḍramūt on the d̲j̲ebel of the same name, S.W. of Mes̲h̲hed ʿAlī [q. v.] on the Wādī Dawʿān (Dōʿan) situated in extremely picturesque country. It is surrounded by extensive palmgroves and reminds one of many mediaeval castles on the Rhine. As a centre of traffic between the coast and the interior of Ḥaḍramūt it is of importance. The houses of the town are built of bricks and are large but the streets are narrow and dirty. It belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.], who are represented in it by a member of their family, who bears the title naḳīb and lives in a splendid p…

Ḥās̲h̲id and Bakīl

(1,804 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large confederation of tribes in South Arabia. The genealogy of the Ḥās̲h̲id is given by the Arabs of South Arabia at the present day as Ḥās̲h̲id al-Aṣg̲h̲ar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Nawf b. Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Hamdān. Bakīl is held by them to be the son of Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar. Their land, called by Niebuhr Balad al-Ḳabāʾil “land of the tribes”, lies near Ṣanʿāʾ [q. v.] and stretches eastwards to Maʾrib [q. v.].and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and northwards right up to the desert as far as eastwards of Ṣaʿda [q. v.]. The Ḥās̲h̲id, who number 22,000 warriors, are divided into three main g…
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