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Abū Ṭālib

(307 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, son of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hās̲h̲im and Fāṭima bint ʿAmr (of Mak̲h̲zūm), and full brother of Muḥammad’s father. His own name was ʿAbd Manāf. He is said to have inherited the offices of siḳāya and rifāda (providing water and food for pilgrims) from his father, but at the Ḥilf al-Fuḍūl and war of the Fid̲j̲ār his brother al-Zubayr seems to have been the leading man of Hās̲h̲im. He fell into debt, and to meet this surrendered the siḳāya and rifāda to al-ʿAbbās. Nevertheless he seems to have remained chief of the clan of Hās̲h̲im, and their quarter of the town was called the s̲h̲iʿb

Dahr

(381 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, time, especially infinitely extended time (cf. Lane; al-Bayḍāwī on K. 76.1). The pre-Islamic Arabs, as is shown by many passages in their poetry, regarded time (also zamān , and al-ayyām , the days) as the source of what happened to a man, both good and bad; they thus give it something of the connotation ¶ of Fate, though without worshipping it (W. L. Schrameier, Über den Fatalismus der vorislamischen Araber , Bonn 1881; Th. Nöldeke, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics , i, 661 b; for possible parallels cf. A. Christensen, Iran , 149 f., 157—Zurvān as both time …

al-ʿAḳaba

(228 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a mountain-road, or a place difficult of ascent on a hill or acclivity. There are many places of this name: the best-known is that between Minā and Mecca. Here, according to traditional accounts, Muḥammad had secret meetings with men from Medina at the pilgrimages of the years 621 and 622 A. D. In 621, at “the first ʿAḳaba”, twelve were present, and they gave to Muḥammad an undertaking known as ‘the pledge of the women’ ( bayʿat al-nisāʾ ); at “the second ʿAḳaba” seventy-three men and two women promised to defend Muḥammad, if necessary, by arms, in what is known as ‘the pledge of war’ ( bayʿat al-ḥ…

Ḥums

(367 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, people observing rigorous religious taboos, especially Ḳurays̲h̲ and certain neighbouring tribes. The word is the plural of aḥmas , “hard, strong (in fighting or in religion)”, but one of the Ḥums is called aḥmasī (fern, aḥmasiyya ). Ibn His̲h̲ām (126) thinks that taḥammus , the observance of the taboos in question, was an innovation of Ḳurays̲h̲ about the time of Muḥammad’s birth, and some changes may have been made to emphasize the superiority of Ḳurays̲h̲ to other tribes; but the nature of the taboos makes it li…

D̲j̲ahmiyya

(693 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an early sect, frequently mentioned but somewhat mysterious. Identity. No names are known of any members of the sect, apart from the alleged founder D̲j̲ahm [ q.v.]. The basic fact is that “after the translation of the Greek books in the second century a doctrine ( maḳāla ) known as that of the D̲j̲ahmiyya was spread by Bis̲h̲r b. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Marīsī [ q.v.] and his generation (IbnTaymiyya, ʿAḳīda Ḥamawiyya , ap. M. Schreiner in ZDMG, liii, 72 f.; lii, 544). A pupil of Abū Yūsuf (d. 182/798), Bis̲h̲r (d. 218/833 or a little later) was questioned about his strange v…

Fazāra

(456 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a North Arabian tribe, reckoned part of D̲h̲ubyān, which was itself included in G̲h̲aṭafān [ q.v.]. Its main pasture-grounds were in Wādi ’l-Rumma in Nad̲j̲d, and the names of many localities associated with it have been preserved (cf. Yāḳūt, index, s.v. Fazāra). In the Ḏj̲āhiliyya the famous war of Dāḥis between Abs and D̲h̲ubyān arose out of a wager between Ḳays b. Zuhayr, chief of Abs, and Ḥud̲h̲ayfa b. Badr of Fazāra about their respective horses Dāḥis and G̲h̲abrā. The latter won because of underhand acts by some men of Fazāra, and this led to the killing of a brother of Ḥud̲h̲ayfa. ¶ In t…

Banū Ḥanẓala b. Mālik

(403 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a branch of the tribe of Tamīm [ q.v.], of the group of Maʿādd, descended from Zayd Manāt b. Tamīm. The chief subdivisions were Dārim (from which came the poet al-Farazdaḳ), Yarbūʿ (to which D̲j̲arīr belonged) and the Barād̲j̲im (five families descended from Mālik b. Ḥanẓala). They inhabited the Yamāma between the hills D̲j̲urād and Marrūt, near ḥimā Ḍariyya [ q.v.]. Among their villages were al-Ṣammān (with wells, cisterns and irrigation) and al-Raḳmatān; but they were mainly nomadic. In history they appear at the first “day of Kulāb” (probably before 550 A.D.) as suppo…

Badr

(974 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, or Badr Ḥunayn, a small town south-west of Medina, a night’s journey from the coast, and at the junction of a road from Medina with the caravan route from Mecca to Syria. It lies in a plain, 5 m. (8 km.) long and 2½ m. (4 km.) broad, surrounded by steep hills and sand-dunes, and was a market centre. Here occurred on 17 (or 19 or 21) Ramaḍān, 2 A. H. (= 13 or 15 or 17 March, 624) the first great battle of Muḥammad’s career. Though there is a wealth of detail in the early sources, it is difficult to give a clear account of the battle and the events which…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ubayy

(555 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. Salūl (Salul being Ubayy’s mother), chief of Ba ʾl-Ḥublā (also known as Sālim), a section of the clan of ʿAwf of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, and one of the leading men of Medīna. Prior to the hid̲j̲ra he had led some of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ in the first day of the Fid̲j̲ār at Medīna, but did not take part in the second day of the Fid̲j̲ār nor the battle of Buʿāt̲h̲ since he had quarreled with another leader, ʿAmr b. al-Nuʿmān of Bayāḍa, over the latter’s unjust killing of Jewish hostages, perhaps because he r…

al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲

(483 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, one of the two main Arab tribes in Medina. With the other tribe, al-Aws [ q.v.], it formed the Banū Ḳayla in pre-Islamic times and the Anṣār [ q.v.] or “helpers” (sc. of Muḥammad) under Islam. The ancestors of al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ are given under al-Aws. The following are the main subdivisions of the tribe: Al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ and al-Aws settled together in Yat̲h̲rib or Medina after leaving the Yemen, and for a time were subordinate to the Jews there. The ¶ leader in gaining independence from the Jews was Mālik b. al-ʿAd̲j̲lān of the clan of Sālim (Ḳawāḳila) of al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲. …

al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(458 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, with the kunya Abu ’l-Faḍl, half-brother of Muḥammad’s father, his mother being Nutayla bint ¶ Ḏj̲anāb of al-Namir. The ʿAbbāsid dynasty took its name from him, being descended from his son ʿAbd Allāh. Consequently there was a tendency for historians under the ʿAbbāsids to glorify him, and in his case it is particularly difficult to distinguish fact from fiction. He was a merchant and financier, more prosperous than his half-brother Abū Ṭālib, who, in return for the extinction of a debt, surrendered to him the office of providing pilgrims to Mecca with water ( siḳāya

Isḥāḳ

(556 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the Biblical Isaac, mentioned in fifteen passages of the Ḳurʾān. God gives Abraham ¶ “good tidings of Isaac, a prophet, of the righteous”, and blesses them both (XXXVII 112 f.). In a fuller description, when messengers concerning Lot corne to Abraham; his wife “laughed, and we gave her good tidings of Isaac, and af ter Isaac of Jacob” (XI, 71/74); and it is explained that this will happen despite their age. Several verses speak of Isaac and Jacob being given to Abraham (VI, 84; XIX, 49…

al-Muhād̲j̲irūn

(837 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
(a.), the Emigrants, are primarily those Meccan Muslims who made the hid̲j̲ra or emigration from Mecca to Medina either just before Muḥammad himself or in the period up to the conquest of Mecca in 8/630. The word hid̲j̲ra [ q.v.] implies not only change of residence but also the ending of ties of kinship and the replacement of these by new relationships. In the document known as the Constitution of Medina (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 341-4), which is an agreement “between the Emigrants and the Anṣār (the Muslims of Medina)”, the Emigrants appear a…

Ḥalīma Bint Abī Ḏh̲uʾayb

(220 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
foster-mother of the prophet Muḥammad. She and her husband belonged to the tribe of Saʿd b. Bakr, a subdivision of Hawāzin. Muḥammad was given to her to suckle from soon after his birth until he was two years old. Well-to-do families thought desert-life healthier for infants than that in Mecca. Some modern scholars have doubted the whole episode, but Muḥammad probably lived with this tribe for a time. After the battle of Ḥunayn he honoured his fostersister al-S̲h̲aymā, and responded favourably w…

Id̲j̲āra

(765 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
the granting of protection ( d̲j̲iwār [ q.v.]) to a stranger according to ancient Arab practice. This form of protection was especially important for those who travelled about, but it was also used in other cases. The d̲j̲ār (pl. d̲j̲īrān ) is mostly the person protected, but may also be the protector (as in Sūra VIII, 48/50; Mufaḍḍaliyyāt , 760, 18). To ask for protection is istad̲j̲āra (Sūra IX, 6). The granting of protection was announced publicly (cf. Zaynab’s id̲j̲āra of her former pagan husband in Ibn His̲h̲ām, 469); and thus, when ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Maẓʿūn wanted to renounce the d̲j̲iwār of …

al-Ḳayn

(635 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
or banū ’l-ḳayn , often contracted ¶ to Bal-Ḳayn (cf. Bal-Ḥārit̲h̲, etc.), the name of one or more Arab tribes. The best known is part of the tribal group of Ḳuḍāʿa, and al-Ḳayn is here interpreted as the nickname of al-Nuʿmān b. D̲j̲asr, so that the tribe is known as al-Ḳayn b. D̲j̲asr. The word ḳayn means “worker in iron”, “smith”, or possibly “slave”, and is used as a term of contempt in the Naḳāʾid D̲j̲arīr wa’l-Farazdaḳ . There is no evidence, however, of any connexion of Bal-Ḳayn b. D̲j̲asr with smiths. They act as a normal Bedouin tribe, and …

Muʾāk̲h̲āt

(419 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
(a.) “brothering”, is a practice found in the early days of Islam by which two men became “brothers”. The best-known example is the “brothering” by Muḥammad of Emigrants from Mecca with Muslims from Medina. This may have happened soon after he reached Medina, but is placed by Ibn Isḥāḳ just before the battle of Badr, accompanied by a list of thirteen such pairs (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 344-6). It is clear, however, from Ibn Ḥabīb ( Muḥabbar , 70 f.) that there had previously been some “brothering” at Mecca, and he gives a list of nine pairs. This is confirm…

Abū Sufyān

(676 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. Ḥarb b. Umayya , of the clan of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams of Ḳurays̲h̲, prominent Meccan merchant and financier (to be distinguished from Muḥammad’s cousin, Abū Sufyān b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib). His name was Ṣak̲h̲r, and his kunya is sometimes given as Abū Ḥanẓala. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams had been at one time a member of the political group known as the Muṭayyabūn (which included the clan of Hās̲h̲im), but about Muḥammad’s time had moved away from this group and in some matters cooperated with the rival group, Mak̲h̲zūm.…

Ḥanīfa b. Lud̲j̲aym

(413 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, ancient Arab tribe, part of Bakr b. Wāʾil [ q.v.] on a level with T̲h̲aʿlaba and ʿId̲j̲l. The chief subdivisions were al-Dūl (or al-Duʾil), ʿAdī, ʿĀmir, Suḥaym. They were partly nomadic, partly agricultural (date-palms and cereals), and also partly pagan, partly Christian. The town of al-Had̲j̲r, capital of al-Yamāma, belonged chiefly to them, also the town of Ḏj̲aww (later al-K̲h̲idrima). Other localities mentioned as belonging to them (and as chiefly occupied by them) include: the wādī of al-ʿIrḍ, al-Awḳa, Fays̲h̲ān, al-Kirs, Ḳurrān, al-Manṣif …

Āmina

(254 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Muḥammad’s mother. Her father was Wahb b. ʿAbd Manāf of the clan of Zuhra of the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲, and her mother Barra bint ¶ ʿAbd al-ʿUzzā of the clan of ʿAbd al-Dār. It is said that She was the ward of her uncle Wuhayb b. ʿAbd Manāf, and that on the day he betrothed her to ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib he also betrothed his own daughter Hāla to ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (Ibn Saʿd, i/1, 58). If this report is correct it may be an example of some forgotten marriage-custom. Āmina seems to have remained…
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