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(904 words)

Author(s): Irvine, A.K.
, a district of South Arabia on the wādī of the same name and lying immediately to the west of Bayḥān [ q.v.]. The Wādī Ḥarīb rises under the name of Wādī ʿAyn in Bilād al-Ḏj̲uraybāt in the highlands of Murād [ q.v.] and runs northeastwards for about 30 miles through rugged and barren hills to disappear into the desert of Ramlat Sabatayn. About halfway along its course it is joined from the east by the Wādī Mablaḳa and widens into a broad silt plain. Some ten miles further north it unites ¶ with the Wādī Muḳbal which runs almost parallel to it a short distance to the west. Finally, jus…


(1,023 words)

Author(s): Irvine, A.K.
, a mountain complex and district in the Yemen, situated between the Wādī Surdud and the Wādī Sihām, with the Tihāma districts of Liʿsān and the Banū Saʿd to the west and Ḥaymat al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲iyya [ q.v.] to the east. Apparently composed of rocks of the trap series (basalt) and of granite, it has the shape of an irregular star with Ḏj̲abal S̲h̲ibām or Ḥarāz (2930 m.) at the centre. A northern projection consists of Ḏj̲abal Banī ʿAyt̲h̲arī (2450 m.), Ḏj̲abal Ḥaṣabād (2600 m.). Ḏj̲abal Banī Luʿf (2300 m.) and Ḏj̲abal Mag̲h̲āriba. T…


(1,658 words)

Author(s): Irvine, A.K.
, a term found in several Sabaean inscriptions with apparent reference to Aksumite Abyssinia. Despite the absence of explicit evidence, it has generally been assumed to apply not only to the territory and people of the Aksumite empire but also to a South Arabian tribe related to the former and in close contact with them. To E. Glaser the term in its widest and most ancient usage signified no more than “incense-collectors” (Arabic ḥabas̲h̲a “to gather”) and was applicable to all the peoples of the incense regions, that is, o…


(243 words)

Author(s): Irvine, A.K.
( arḳa ), township and district on the southern coast of Arabia, situated just within the Ḥaḍramawt [ q.v.], about midway between Aḥwar and Ḥawra [ q.v.]. the population of about 500 depend mainly on fishing for their livelihood. Prior to the creation of the People’s Republic of Southern Yemen, ʿIrḳa formed an independent s̲h̲ayk̲h̲dom within the territories of the Wāḥidī sultanates, and came under the protection of the Aden authorities under an agreement concluded in 1888. According to Landberg the town was the residence of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Bā Dās, a division of the D̲h̲iʾāb [ q.v.], who …

wādī al-K̲h̲ārid

(368 words)

Author(s): Irvine, A.K.
or G̲h̲ayl al-K̲h̲ārid, one of the principal watercourses of the Yemen. It originates about twenty km. north of Ṣanʿāʾ, near Ḥadaḳān in Arḥab, and runs inland in a north-by-north-easterly direction, draining the eastern scarp of the highlands, towards the oasis of the D̲j̲awf, where it is joined by the Wādī Mad̲h̲āb and veers to the south-east. After leaving the oasis, it unites with the Wādī al-ʿAṭf and is lost in the sands of Ramlat Sabʾatayn. According to popular belief, it reappears in the Ḥ…


(237 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a small independent region of South Arabia, now in the Upper ʿAwlaḳī Sultanate. It is one of the most fertile districts of South Arabia and is irrigated by canals from the Wādī ʿAbadān. The products of the soil, which is of volcanic origin, include indigo, which is exported to al-Ḥawṭa, d̲h̲ura and millet. Al-Ḥāḍina is inhabited by the tribe Ahl K̲h̲alīfa which claims descent from the Hilāl [ q.v.]. When the Hilāl emigrated from South Arabia they remained behind, whence their name K̲h̲alīfa. In the past they ordinarily acknowledged no authority, but in time of …


(1,474 words)

Author(s): Fischer, A. | Irvine, A.K.
, according to the consensus of opinion among Muslim genealogists, historians, and geographers, ¶ and in popular tradition, the ancestor of all the South-Arabian peoples [see yaman ], whence he is sometimes known as “father of all Yaman”, the Yamanīs themselves being called banū Ḳaḥṭān , ḳabāʾil Ḳaḥṭān , or simply Ḳaḥṭān . He thus corresponds to ʿAdnān [ q.v.], the common ancestor of the northern Arabs, though some authorities prefer to contrast him with one or other of ʿAdnān’s descendants, e.g., his son, Maʿadd (al-Dīnawarī, 281; al-Ṭabarī, ii, 1056, 1084; al-Masʿūdī, al-Tanbih


(417 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a town in the Wāḥidī Sultanate of the former Aden Protectorate, situated in the wādī of the same name. It is very old and may be referred to as early as 400 B.C. in the inscription RES 3945. Many ancient graffiti have been copied in the vicinity and a subterranean water-conduit leading to a cistern within the city may be pre-Islamic. The population figure is not known but was estimated at 4,000 in the mid-nineteenth century. The town is dominated by the walled fortress of Maṣnaʿa Ḥāḳir which stands on an isolated hill in the midd…


(340 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a town in Ḥaḍramawt on the D̲j̲abal of the same name, about five miles south of Mas̲h̲had ʿAlī [ q.v.] on the Wādī Dūʿan. Situated amid extensive palm-groves, it is built against the slopes of the D̲j̲abal. The surrounding land is very fertile and produces d̲h̲ura . Irrigation is provided through channels from the say ! and from very deep wells. The town is of importance as a centre on the motor road between Mukallā and S̲h̲ibām. Its houses are built of brick and are large but the streets are narrow and steep. It belongs to the Ḳuʿaytīs of S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] who are represented in it by a member…


(482 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
( Ḥaḍūr Nabī S̲h̲uʿayb ), a mountain massif in the Yemen on the eastern edge of the Sarāt Alhān, some twelve miles west of Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], lying between the wādīs Sihām and Surdūd. It is separated from the Ḥarāz range to the west by the Ḥaymat al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲iwa [ q.v.], known in Hamdānī’s time as the Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ and inhabited by the Sulayḥ, a branch of Hamdān. The massif is named after Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, an ancestor of the Prophet S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mahdam, who is mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (cf. Sūra VII, 83 f. and XI, 85 f.). He had been sent to preach to an…


(1,172 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Irvine, A.K.
1. The name of a South Arabian tribe, of great antiquity and now divided into two branches. The larger section, which al-Hamdānī calls K̲h̲awlān al-ʿāliya , is now known as K̲h̲awlān al-ṭiyāl and dwells south-east of Ṣanʿāʾ on the upper reaches of the Wādī D̲h̲ana, with the lands of Murād to the south-east and Nihm, in the highlands proper, to the north-west. The tribe now belongs to Bakīl. Their territory, which was described by Carsten Niebuhr in 1763 and visited by Eduard Glaser in 1885-6, is a very m…