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Volsci

(1,026 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
The Volsci, an Italian people in central Italy. [German version] I. Immigration and first clashes with Rome The V. migrated from the central Appenninus into the south of Latium (Latini) probably towards the end of the 6th cent. BC or the beginning of the 5th. This assumption is confirmed by the relationship between the Volscan and Umbrian dialects; cf. the inscription on the Tabula Veliterna (4th/3rd cent. BC; Vetter, no. 222). The legendary pre-history of the V. we know mainly from Vergil, who introduces the V.…

Bovianum

(242 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae Drawing on Plin. HN 3,107 ( colonia Bovianum vetus et alterum cognomine Undecumanorum), some people had concluded that there existed two B. in Samnium ( Samnites): B. Vetus (now La Piana in Pietrabbondante, cf. [1]), a colonia of the III viri lege Iulia since 43 BC; B. Undecumanorum (now Bojano), Flavian colonia since AD 73/75 (veterans of the legio Claudia, and thus of the undecumani). Others thought there was only one city, which underwent a change in name [2-5]. The place was a Samnite sanctuarium. A settl…

Aequum Tuticum

(89 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] Important   mansio on the via Traiana at its crossing with the via Herculia in the territory of the  Hirpini (Itin. Anton. 112,2; alternative forms of the name: Equo tutico, Equum tuticum, Aequum tuticum, Aequo tutico, Equum magnum), modern San Eleuterio near Ariano Irpino. Aequum Tuticum (AT) was probably never raised to become a   municipium , but remained dependent on  Beneventum (cf. inscriptions found on two graves in AT: genius coloniae Beneventanae, CIL IX 1418; permissus decurionum coloniae Beneventanae, CIL IX 1419). Buonocore, Marco (Rome)

Caudium

(106 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars Capital of the Samnite  Caudini, modern Montesarchio; mansio on the via Appia between  Capua and  Beneventum, possibly municipium. Grave gifts, found in the necropolis near Montesarchio, indicate habitation from the 8th to the 3rd cents. BC. C. was twice enclosed by a walled circle; the later ring, established in the south-east of the town, was possibly built in conjunction with the renormatio, which Augustus undertook after 31 BC for the veterans of the legio XXX. Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography G. D'Henry…

Caiatia

(109 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town of the  Caudini in Samnium at the junction of the roads connecting Capua, Allifae and Telesia, modern Caiazzo. Possibly a civitas sine suffragio prior to 306 BC, C. became a civitas foederata after the Second Punic War and, following the Social Wars, in 89 BC a municipium of the tribus Falerna, with II viri. There is documentary evidence of a bishop's seat after AD 967. Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography G. Chouquer (ed.), Structures agraires en Italie centro-méridionale, Collection de l'Ecole Fra…

Cubulteria

(81 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] Samnite city (tribal name Kupelternum on Oscan coins), civitas foederata after the Second Punic War, and municipium with IIviri after the Social War. In AD 599 elevated to a bishopric. C. is thought to be c. 2 km north of Alvignano near the churches S. Ferdinando or S. Ferrante. Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography G. Couquer (ed.), Structures agraires en Italie Centroméridionale (Collection de l'École Française de Rome 100), 1987, 149f. H. Solin, Le iscrizioni antiche di Trebula, Caiatia e C., 1993, 145-173.

Vestini

(559 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] (Οὐηστῖνοι/ Ouēstînoi). Italian people (name possibly Indo-European, cf. e.g. Vesta ) on the eastern slopes of the Appenninus, to the south of the Picentes (Str. 5,4,2), east of the Sabini (Str. 5,2,1; 5,3,1), and north of the Paeligni. From the time of Augustus onwards, their predominantly mountainous and barren territory (hunting, cattle husbandry, cf. Sil. Pun. 8,516 ff.; Plin. HN 11,241; Mart. 13,31) was part of Regio IV (Regio with map). By means of a conjecture in Plin. HN 3,107 (cf. Ptol. 3,1,59: settlements of the V.) [ Trasmontani; Aveiates] after Pennenses, […

Caudini

(34 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] Samnite tribe, capital  Caudium (Liv. 23,41,13; Plin. HN 3,105). Subjugated in 275 BC by L. Cornelius Lentulus, whose family from then on bore the cognomen of ‘Caudinus’. Buonocore, Marco (Rome)

Histonium

(89 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles Coastal settlement of the Samnite Frentani, modern Vasto. Did probably not become a Roman municipium until after the Social War, tribus Arnensis ( quattuorviri; incorrect in the Liber coloniarum 2, 260, 10f. L.: colonia). No autonomous bishopric. Byzantine base (Kastron Reunias) in the 6th and 7th cents. Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography M. Buonocore, H., in: Supplementa Italica 2, 1983, 97-144 A. R. Staffa (ed.), Dall'antica Histonium al Castello del Vasto, 1995 A. R. Staffa, Vasto (H.), in: EAA2 Suppl. 5…

Beneventum

(273 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Regio, regiones | Rome City of the  Hirpini in Samnium on the confluence of Calore and Sabato, where the via Traiana branches off the via Appia, 11 miles distant from  Caudium. After the defeat of Pyrrhus in 275 BC, the original (Illyrian) name Mal(e)ventum (Liv. 9,27,14) was changed into B. As a colony under Latin law in 268 BC (Liv. 15,13,9; Vell. Pat. 1,14,7), the city was loyal to Rome in the 2nd Punic war (Liv. 22,13,1). There are records of consules, praetores, censores, interreges a…

Aufidena

(128 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] Excavations of the Italic  necropoleis (6th to 5th cents. BC) in Alfedena (Campo Consolino and Valle del Curino) and Latin inscriptions in Castel di Sangro (Contrada Campitelli and Piano della Zittola) suggest that the Samnite settlement of A. should be localized in the modern Alfedena, the Roman settlement of the same name in the modern Castel di Sangro. Taken by the Romans in 298 BC (Liv. 10,12,9), A. only became a   municipium after 49 BC (cf. the   duoviri ); ILS 5896 ( praefecti operi faciundo) provides no proof for the assumption that A. might have been a   praefectura

Hortona

(74 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] Frentanian coastal town ( regio IV Samnium, Plin. HN 3,106), modern Ortona. Mentioned in connection with the Byzantine-Gothic War (AD 535-540) during the conquest of the coastal strip by the Byzantines (Marcellinus [14] Comes on the year 538); bishopric toward the end of the 6th cent. Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography M. Buonocore, G. Firpo, Fonti latine e greche per la storia dell'Abruzzo antico 1, 1991, 528-537 A. R. Staffa, Ortona, in: EAA2 Suppl. 4, 1996, 133.

Carricini

(99 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] Central Italian tribe between the Frentani and the  Samnites, in whose territory lay the municipia Cluviae and Iuvanum of the regio IV ( Caraceni is transmitted, cf. Ptol. 3,1,66ff., but incorrect). Mentioned in connection with the Second Samnite War in 311 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,26,3f.; Liv. 9,31,2-5) and with the revolt of the Samnite Lollius against Rome, who in 269 BC found refuge with the C. (Zon. 8,7,1). Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography A. La Regina, Cluvienses Carricini, in: ArchCl 25/26, 1973/74, 331-340 G. Firpo, in: G. Firpo, M. Buonocore (ed.), Fonti la…

Interamna

(533 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] [1] Town in Umbria This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Tribus | Umbri, Umbria ( Interamna Nahars, CIL XI 4213; ethnic designation Interamnates Nartes, CIL VI 140). Town in Umbria, modern Terni. The place name refers to its location on the confluence of the Nera (Umbrian Nahar [1], Latin Nar) and the Serra (which had a different course in antiquity). Settlement phases of the 10th-7th cents. are attested in Pentima and in San Pietro in Campo. A 7th cent. settlement in the town's Clai district appears to confirm the …

Aquilonia

(228 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Italian town on Monte Vairano near Campobasso Italian town on Monte Vairano near Campobasso [1]. The description of the military operations of 293 BC at Liv. 10,38-44, decisive for the outcome of the 3rd  Samnitic War, corresponds with the results of more recent excavations (city wall from the 4th cent. BC, three city gates); traces of streets indicate a planned urbanization. Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography 1 Vetter no. 200 C: Akudunniad. G. De Benedittis, in: S. Capini, E. Arslan (ed.), Samnium, 1991, 127-130. [German version] [2] A town of the  Hirpi…