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Syn(n)ada

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύν(ν)αδα/ Sýn(n)ada; Lat. Synnas). City in Greater Phrygia (Diod. 20,107,3 f.; Cic. Fam. 3,8,3; 5 f.; 15,4,2; Cic. Att. 5,16,2; 5,20,1; Liv. 38,15,14; 45,34,11 f.; Synnas: Plin. HN 5,105,8; Tab. Peut. 9,4; Suda s. v. Συνᾴδων: Sýnada), modern Şuhut. At the village of Docimeum (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.: Dokímeia kṓmē) in S.'s territory there were quarries in which an alabaster-like marble (with map) was obtained, named by the local inhabitants after Docimeum, and by the Romans after S. (Str. 12,8,13 f.: Synnadikòs líthos). Roman necropoleis, rock graves, and r…

Pedasa

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Persian Wars | Delian League (τὰ Πήδασα/ tà Pḗdasa, Πήδασος/ Pḗdasos). City of the Leleges in Caria in the mountainous country to the north of Halicarnassus (Str. 13,1,59; 7,7,2) near Gökçeler, to the east of the modern village of Bitez, which has preserved the name P. In individual cases accounts of P. give rise to doubt as to whether P., Pidasa or Pedason is meant (cf. [1. vol. 1, 535-538]). In 545/4 BC in the Lide mountains near P. (modern…

Plataniston

(46 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πλατανιστών; Platanistṓn). River in southern Arcadia (Paus. 8,39,1), rising on Mount Tetrazio (1389 m high), flowing north through  Lycosura and east of Calivia Carion into the left side of the Alpheius [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. P. (2), RE 20, 2335.

Tarusco

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in Gallia Narbonensis City in Gallia Narbonensis in the territory of the Salluvii (Str. 4,1,3; 12: Ταρούσκων; Ptol. 2,10,15), modern Tarascon. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis, 1988, 300. [German version] [2] City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees (Pyrene [2]; Plin. HN 3,37), modern Tarascon sur Ariège. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Symaethum

(122 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύμαιθος/ Sýmaithos, Latin Symaethum). Border river between Leontini and Catane (Thuc. 6,65,2) in the east of Sicily. It rises according to Str. 6,2,2 like the Pantacyas at Mount Etna (Aetna [1]) and flows into the sea to the north of Catane (Ptol. 3,4,9; cf. Plin. HN 3,89). The modern Simeto, however, which can without doubt be identified with the S., rises on Mount Nebrodes and its mouth is to the south of Catane; the displacement of the mouth can be explained by the activities of…

Hodometron

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ὁδόμετρον; hodómetron). Hero (Dioptra 34) and Vitruvius (10,9) describe a mechanical device for distance measurement on land in which a connection of endless screws and sprockets mounted on different levels, driven by a cart wheel, transmits each rotation of the wheel to a display system in a retarding manner (Hero: pointer; Vitruvius: falling balls). The hodometron was sufficient for one day trip and then had to be put back to the initial position. Vitruvius knew of a corresponding device for sea trips based on a bucket wheel. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliograp…

Insulae Gorgades

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Unlocated archipelago mentioned by Pliny (HN 6,200; Mela 3,99: Dorcades), who refers to  Xenophon [8] of Lampsacus (location of the island two days' journey from the African west coast; name derived from the Gorgons who once lived there) and  Hanno [1] (characterization of the inhabitants as savages; their women are said to have hairy skin). In Hanno's report, which is available in a much altered form (Peripl. 18, GGM 1,1-14), the women of the Insulae Gorgades are called Goríllai (Γορίλλαι, possibly a misspelling of the Greek translation for Gorgades). Olshausen, Ecka…

Hyporon

(28 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Bruttium (bronze coins around 300 BC: HN 105), probably identical to Hipporum in It. Ant. 115. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 949.

Leucosyri

(273 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Λευκόσυροι; Leukósyroi, ‘White Syrians’, meaning and origin of the term are unclear). Indigenous inhabitants (App. Mith. 292; Σύριοι/ Sýrioi, Hdt. 1,6,1; 2,104; Ἀσσύριοι/ Assýrioi, Dionys. Per. 975) considered by the Greeks as an ethnic entity of the Anatolian northern part of the region Assyria (Λευκοσυρία/ Leukosyría, schol. vetera ad Apoll. Rhod. 196,9; 198,10; 201,6; Λευκοσυριακή/ Leukosyriakḗ, 200,1; Λευκοσυρική/ Leukosyrikḗ, 198,3). According to Ps.-Scyl. 89, the area where they lived extended from the river Thermodon (modern Term…

Nedon

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νέδων; Nédōn).The largest river in Messenia after the  Pamisus; it rises on Mt. Taygetus and, following a south-westerly direction, it traverses Denthaliatis (Denthalii) with its numerous wellsprings (cf. Tac. Ann. 4,43; Steph. Byz. s.v. Δενθάλιοι), then flows into the Messenian bay at Pherae (Str. 8,3,29; 4,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 406.

Larinum

(123 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | (Λάρινα; Lárina). Town of the Dauni (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.), afterwards of the Frentani (Ptol. 3,1,65) in Samnium on Monte Arone (475 m) to the right of the Tifernus (modern Biferno), south of Cigno, surrounded by a tributary of the Tifernus; 1 km east of modern Larino. Municipium, tribus Clustumina, regio II (Plin. HN 3,105; Mela 2,66). From the middle of the 3rd cent. BC, Greek (Campanian) and Latin (Apulian) bronze coins (HN 28f.). Considerable remains: city wall, bat…

Hellespontus

(520 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἑλλήσποντος; Hellḗspontos, Dardanelles, Turkish Çanakkale Boğazı). Strait, formed from a river valley during the glacial epoch, between the Propontis in the north and the  Aegean Sea in the south, the Thracian peninsula Chersonesus [1] in the west (Europe) and the Troad in the east (Asia; cf. Plin. HN 4,49), c. 65 km long, between 1.2 km (between Sestus and Abydus [1]) and 7.5 km wide, between 57 m and 103 m deep. As in the  Bosporus [1], a strong (maximum 5 knots; cf. Hom. Il. 2,845; 12,30; Hsch. s.v. Ἑ.; Aristot. Mete. 2,8; A…

Orestae

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρέσται/ Oréstai). People in the upper Haliacmon valley around Lake Kastoria (Celetron, cf. Liv. 31,40,1-4 [1. 236-239; 3. 163-166; 4. 110-116]). Hecat. FGrH 1 F 107 and Str. 7,7,8 and 9,5,11 (cf. also Thuc. 2,80,6) numbered them among the Molossi or the Epeirotae, Str. 9,5,11 among the Macedones (for a discussion of this contradiction cf. [5]). From the 4th cent. BC under Macedonian rule (a division of O. in Alexander [4] the Great's army in Diod. Sic. 17,57,2). In 196 BC, the O. were declared independent by Rome and organised as a koinón  (Pol. 18,47,6; Liv. 33,34,…

Uspe

(42 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] High-lying fortified chief town of the Sarmatic Siraci on the bank of the Panda [1] in the north of the Caucasus (Tac. Ann. 12,16,3); not located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography D. D. Kacharava, G. T. Kvirkveliia, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoi epokhi, 1991, 284.

Pirustae

(170 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πειροῦσται/ Peiroûstai). Illyrian tribe (Str. 7,5,3; Ptol. 2,16,8) in the ore-rich region between Lim and Drin in modern Albania, first mentioned in Liv. 45,26,13 in the context of the conclusion of the 3rd Macedonian War, 167 BC, as a civitas libera et immunis. At that time, its relationship with Rome was governed by a treaty. However, in 54 BC the P. undertook excursions into the Roman province of Illyricum for plunder. In reaction, the proconsul of the province, Caesar, restored order in the frontier region by taking h…

Gazioura

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni (Γαζίουρα). Fortress of the Pontic kings in Zelitis on an isolated mountain peak near Turhal with a flight of steps from the Hellenistic period and late Byzantine wall remains. Also an inscription from the time of Mithridates VI, and two Roman milestones on the road from  Amasea to Nicopolis [1. 251-253 no. 278; 2. 348f. no. 960f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Anderson/Cumont/Grégoire 3,1 2 D. French, Roman Roads and Milestones of Asia Minor 2 (British Institute of Arc…

Eupatoria

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Patricius The town established by Mithridates the Great in Pontus at the confluence of the Iris (modern Yeşilırmak) into the Lycus (modern Kelkit Cayı) had without a fight opened the gates to the Romans under Lucullus in 71 BC in the 3rd Mithridatic War; as a result it was totally destroyed by the king four years later. The reconstruction had not yet been completed when Pompey captured E. in 65 BC and, renamed Magnopolis, incorpor…

Thymbrium

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Θύμβριον; Thýmbrion). City in eastern Phrygia, 10 parasangai ( Parasángēs ; 57 km) both from Caystru Pedion [2] in the west and Tyriaeium in the east, to be found in the area of modern Doğanhisar to the southeast of Akşehir (Xen. An. 1,2,13; Plin.  HN 5,95: Thymbriani in Lycaonia in the early Imperial period  province of Asia; Hierocles, Synecdemus 673,9: Τιμβριάδων in the late Antiquity  province of Pisidia). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Magie, 792 f.

Zabida

(127 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζάβιδα/ Zábida). Village settlement in the centre of a large oasis in the interior of Arabia Felix (Arabia), on the Wādī Zabīd to the northeast of modern Zabīd (in Yemen), mentioned by Uranius [3] in the third book of his Arabiká (in Steph. Byz. s. v. Z.). Z. and its port on the Erythra Thalatta [1] was the starting point of an important trade route into the high mountains through Achoma (modern Aḫum) and Adana (modern Al-Udain) to Tarphara (modern Ẓafār), the chief town of the Homeritae, the Ḥimyar of Arab literature. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Dietric…

Xodrace

(44 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξοδράκη; Xodrákē). City in the western part of India, left of the lower reaches of the Indus [1] (Ptol. 7,1,60), on the southeast border between modern Pakistan and India; not precisely locatable. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2149-2152.

Zaliches

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζαλίχης/ Zalíchēs). Coastal city on the coastal river of the same name (Marcianus [1], Epit. Peripl. Menipp. 10: Ζάληκος/ Zálēkos; Peripl. m. Eux. 24; Ptol. 5,4,3: Ζαλίσκος ποταμός/ Zalískos potamós) in Pontus, in late Antiquity one of the seven cities of the consular province of Helenopontus: Σάλτος ( Saltus ) Ζαλίχης/ Sáltos Zalíchēs (Hierocles, Synekdemos 701,6 - an imperial domain?) with the suffragan bishopric of Amasea, now also called Leontoupolis (possibly from the reign of the emperor Leon [4] I, 457-474, onwards; Not. Episc. 1, 240: Ζ. ἤτοι Λεοντούπολις/ Z.…

Mithridatic Wars

(1,388 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Mithridatic Wars (MW) is the term for the military conflicts between Mithridates [6] VI Eupator, the ruler of the kingdom of Pontus, and Rome. The wars each originated in Mithridates' attempts to expand his domain in the manner of the Diadochi in Asia Minor and constantly led to conflicts with Rome, which did not wish to permit a concentration of power in the region. [German version] A. The First Mithridatic War (89-85 BC) It was out of the attempt by Mithridates after the death of Nicomedes [4] III (94) to pass over the legitimate successor, enthrone Nicomedes' brot…

Philomelium

(168 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Φιλομήλιον; Philomḗlion). City in southern Phrygia, in the valley of the Gallus [1] (coins: HN 683), on the road leading east from Ephesus at the crossroads to Dorylaeum and Caesarea (Str. 11,6,1; 12,8,14; Ptol. 5,2,25; Tab. Peut. 9,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φιλομήλειον; Cic. Verr. 2,3,191; MAMA 7,38-42). It was founded in the 3rd cent. BC by a Macedonian dynast named Philomelus (Lit. in [1. 131317]). At the time of Cicero's proconsulship, P. was part of the province of Cilicia (Cic. Fam. 3,8,5f.; 1…

Pleraei

(103 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πληραῖοι; Plēraîoi). Illyrian people, whose area of settlement on the Ionios Kolpos stretched from the left bank at the mouth of the  Naro and from Corcyra Melaina to Risinium (Strab. 7,5,5; 7; Mela 2,3,56f.; Plin. HN 3,144; cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Πλαραῖοι, who also has the form Πλάριοι). Like the neighbouring Ardiaei, they were notorious pirates (Piracy). In 135 BC they were subjugated by the Romans (App. Ill. 29: Παλάριοι). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, The Kingdoms in Illyria circa 400-167 BC, in: ABSA 61, 1966, 239-253  G. Alföldy, A. Mó…

Lebedus

(176 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League (Λέβεδος; Lébedos). A harbour town founded by Ionians in the area settled by Carians (Paus. 7,3,2; formerly Ἄρτις/ Ártis, Str. 14,1,3 Hecat. FGrH 1 F 219; Hdt. 1,142), member of the Delian League, surrendered by Lysimachus in favour of Ephesus (Paus. 1,9,7), refounded in 266 BC by Ptolemy II as Ptolemaïs; but the name L. was soon revived again. In the 2nd cent. BC, seat of the Artists of Dionysus ( technítai ), who were originally located in Teos. If - on the basis of Hor.…

Tanager

(51 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tributary of the Silarus, modern Torrente Tanagro in Lucania (Verg. Georg. 3,151 and Serv.: siccus T.; Plin.  HN 2,225 without giving a name; Vibius Sequester 151 R.; ad Tanarum, the station at the river crossing:  It. Ant. 109,5). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Philipp, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2153.

Celadon

(92 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κελάδων; Keládōn). Tributary of the  Alpheius between Pylos and Arcadia, rising on Mt. Lycaeum -- its identification is a Homeric problem (Hom. Il. 7,133-135: Nestor's tale of the fight of the Pylians against the Arcadians ‘by the rapid river C. under the walls of Pheia, and round about the waters of the river Iardanus’). Even ancient Homeric philologists tried in vain to determine the location of the C. in the coastal region (cf. Didymus, schol. Hom. Il. 7,135; Str. 8,3,21; cf. also Paus. 8,38,9: Κέλαδος/ Kélados). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Seleucus mons

(137 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in the territory of the Vocontii (It. Ant. 357,8; It. Burdigalense 555; Seleucus is the Latin form of a Celtic personal name [1. 1462]) on the road from the Matrona Pass to Valentia (modern Valence) on the Rhodanus, modern La Bâtie-Montsaléon in the département of Hautes-Alpes, about 6 km to the northeast of Serres. Numerous finds (inscriptions, votive gifts; now in the museum of Gap) attest to its having been a frequently visited cult site (Allobrox, Silvanus, Mars, Victoria, Isis, Mithras). Magnentius was decisively…

Oanis

(67 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὤανις/Ṓ anis). Small river on the south coast of Sicily, probably the present-day Rifrascolaro, which flows into the sea to the east of Camarina. The MS tradition for Pind. Ol. 5,11 wavers between Ὤανις/ Ṓanis and Ὤανος/ Ṓanos; cf. the discussion for [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 K. Ziegler, s.v. O., RE 17, 1675-1677 2 E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 118.

Themisonium

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θεμισώνιον/ Themisṓnion). City in southwestern Phrygia (Str. 12,8,13; Paus. 10,32,4; Ptol. 5,2,26; Hierocles, Synekdemos 666,3), presumably to the north of Acıpayam at modern Dodurga in the valley of the Kazanes (coins: BMC Phrygia 418 f.); this river can probably be identified as the Casus (modern river Karayük), which Manlius [I 24] crossed on his march from Tabae to Cibyra in 189 BC (cf. Liv. 38,14,1). T. was named after Themison, a fri…

Mare Suebicum

(492 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Baltic Sea). Shallow marginal sea of the Atlantic or the North Sea ( mare Germanicum ); since about 8000 BC the connection with the North Sea has been broken in various ways. Subdivisions are the shallow Kattegat and the shallow Bælt Sea, the actual Baltic Sea with various basins and depths up to 50 m (west of Bornholm), 100 m (east of Bornholm), 249 m (east of Gotland), 459 m (east of Landort, maximum depth of the Mare Suebicum (MS)) and larger islands (Fyn and Sjæland in th…

Themiscyra

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θεμίσκυρα/ Themískyra). Highly fertile coastal region (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 7a; Apollod. 2,101; Plin. HN 6,9; Just. Epit. 2,4,1) or Greek city (at modern Terme, Peripl. m. Eux. 29; Ps.-Scyl. 89; possibly destroyed in the third of the Mithridatic Wars since for later times there is no information) in the north of the Paryadres mountains on the southern shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) on the lower River Thermodon [2], where in Greek myth the Amazons lived (cf. Aesch. PV 724 f.; Hdt. 4,110). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Naresii

(72 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ναρήσιοι; Narḗsioi). Illyrian tribe (Ptol. 2,16,8) on the upper and lower Neretva/Hercegovina. The N. were among those conquered by the future Augustus in connection with his Dalmatian campaign (Dalmatae) of 35/33 BC (App. Ill. 47). Incorporated into the Roman province of Illyricum, they participated in the conventus of Narona (Plin. HN 3,143) with 102 decuriae. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography I. Bojanovski, Bosna i Hercegovina u antičko doba, 1988, 379.

Phrixa

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φρίξα/ Phríxa). Settlement in western Arcadia or south-eastern Elis or Triphylia (Xen. Hell. 3,2,30), east of Pisatis on the left bank of the Alpheius [1], where the Leucyanias flows into it from the north (Hdt. 4,148,4: Φρίξαι/ Phríxai; Paus. 6,21,5f.; Str. 8,3,12; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μάκιστος). It stood on a prominent hill (305 m; modern Paliophanaro) at what today is once more known as Phrixa, 9 km east of Olympia. P. later adopted the name Phaestus, probably also Phaesana (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φαιστός). Even by the tim…

Peltae

(123 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Πέλται; Péltai). Settlement, already in existence by the end of the 5th cent. BC (cf. Xen. An. 1,2,10) and subsequently a Seleucid military colony (coin: HN 682: ΠΕΛΤΗΝΩΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ; PELTĒNŌN MAKEDONŌN) in Phrygia (Str. 12,8,13; 13,4,13: τὸ Πελτηνὸν πεδίον; tò Peltēnòn pedíon; Ptol. 5,2,25; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; Hsch. s.v. Βέλτη/ Béltē, possibly misspelled for Π./ P., cf. [1. 120 § 145]; Pelteni, Plin. HN 95; 106) on the upper reaches of the Meander [2] (cf. the coin HN 682: ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ; MAIANDROS), presumed south of…

Azanes, Azania

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀζάνες, Ἀζανία; Azánes, Azanía). Tribe and region (of proverbial inhospitableness, cf. Zenob. 2,54; Diogenianus 1,24) between the rivers of Erymanthus and Ladon, at the border of Arcadia with  Elis (Str. 8,3,1; 8,1).  Paeon was a town of the A. (Hdt. 6,127). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 1, 1959, 211.

Chalybes

(116 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Χάλυβες; Χάλυβοι; Chálybes, Chályboi, Hecat. FGrH 1 F 203). A people famous for their skill in ironwork; they were even credited with the invention of iron; indeed the extraction and working of gold and silver were associated with the C. Sometimes located on the north shore of the Black Sea (original homeland? Aesch. PV 714f.), but generally in the northern Anatolian mountains west of the  Halys (Hdt. 1,28), extending in the east as far as  Pharnacaea and  Trapezus (Str. 12,3,19ff.), in the south to the territory of the Armenians. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Gerunium

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Apulia, 200 stadia (= 24 miles) from  Luceria (Pol. 3,100,3) on a side-road reaching the coastal road between Larinum and Teanum Apulum (Tab. Peut. 6,3), can probably be located near Castel Dragona to the south of Fortore. In 217-216 BC, it served as Hannibal's winter quarters (Pol. 3,100ff.; Liv. 22,18ff.; App. Hann. 15f). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 785.

Tauris

(56 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Island between Pharus [2] and Corcyra [2] Melaina off the Dalmatian coast (Tab. Peut. 6,4), modern Šćedro (in Croatia). Caesar's legate P. Vatinius [I 2] was victorious at T. over the fleet of Pompey's party in 47 BC (Bell. Alex. 45,1,2). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Kozlic̆ić, Historical Geography of the Eastern Adriatic, 1990, 300.

Apuli, Apulia

(385 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Oscan tribe between the Daunii and the  Frentani (Str. 6,3,8); after the establishment of Roman rule (Liv. 8,25; 37; 9,12 ff.; 20,4 ff. for 317 BC) they gave their name to the territory from the Adriatic (with the Diomedeae insulae, today Isole Tremiti) to the  Appenninus, with the Bradanus (today Brádano) flowing into the Gulf of  Tarentum, from the  Tifernus to  Calabria. Mesozoic limestone and dolomite determine the soil on   mons Garganus (today Monte Gargano with the Montenero 1012 m), and their topsoil does on the Apulian pl…

Paryadres

(128 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Παρυάδρης/ Paryádrēs, Lat. Pariades, Parihedri montes). Part of the Alpide belt in the region of Pontus and Armenia, which may be roughly identified with the eastern part of the North Anatolian border range (Karadeniz Dağları, with the Kaçkar Dağı, 3937 m) and the Alborz (with the Damāvand, 5604 m). In the north, the P. slopes down over a narrow coastal plain to the Pontos Euxeinos (river valleys: Halys, Iris [3]); to the south, it slopes down along the earthquake-prone North Anatolia…

Meris

(141 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ἡ μερίς; merís, ‘part, portion’, Verb μερίζειν; merízein). As a term in Greek administrative language, meris describes any type of systematic division and is used e.g. generally in Hellenistic administrative practice, especially e. g. in the Ptolemaic-Roman administration of Egypt in which the Arsinoite nomós [2] was divided into three merídes (OGIS 177,8 f., 2nd cent. BC). There is another interpretation in the territorial administrative classification in Egypt which describes it as the smallest element in the series nomós, tópos [1], kṓmē (B.), meris and henc…

Grumentum

(91 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Coloniae Town in Lucania ( Lucani) where the Sora (modern Sciaura) flows into the Aciris (modern Agri) (cf. Str. 6,1,3; Ptol. 3,1,70); ruins 1.5 km east of Grumento. Place of fierce battles in the 2nd Punic War (Liv. 23,37,10; 27,41,3) and in the Social War (cf. App. B Civ. 1,41). Municipium, tribus Pomptina ( regio III). Pliny speaks of the good wine from Lagarina near G. (HN 14,69). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caeadas

(77 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καιάδας; Kaiádas). A ravine in Taygetus into which the Spartans pushed criminals and prisoners of war condemned to death. It is presumed to be located south-east of Mistra near Parori [1] or north-west of Mistra near Tripi [2]. Documented in: Καιάδας, Thuc. 1,134,4; Κεάδας, Paus. 4,18,4; Καιέτας, Str. 8,5,7. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 E. Curtius, Peloponnesos 2, 1852, 252 2 O. Rayet, in: Annales de la Faculté des Lettres de Bordeaux 2, 1880, 353 n. 2.

Zaraspadum

(33 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in modern Afghanistan, according to the context in Plin. HN 6,94 in the area of the Etymander, not precisely located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Zaraspad(r)um, RE 9 A, 2317 f.

Halycus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἅλυκος; Halykos). River (84 km long) on the south-west coast of Sicily, empties into the sea north-west of Capo Bianco near Heraclea Minoa, modern Plátani. The H. was mentioned in the treaties between Dionysius I (376 or 374 BC: Stv 2, no. 261) and Timoleon (339 BC: Stv 2, no. 344) respectively and the Carthaginians as the demarcation line between the two spheres of control. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Triparadisus

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τριπαράδεισος τῆς ἄνω Συρίας/ Triparádeisos tês ánō Syrías, literally 'in Upper Syria', Diod. Sic. 18,39,1; 19,12,2). Ancient city in northern Syria; to date there has been no success in identifying it unambiguously. It is presumed that it can be identified with Paradisus on the upper Orontes [7] (Jusiye? cf. [1. 112]). It was in T. that the Diadochi agreed on a redistribution of Alexander's empire after the death of Perdiccas [4] in 321 BC. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 R. Dussaud, Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale (B…

Elusa

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Rome Chief place (Amm. Marc. 15,11,14) of the Celtic Elusates (Caes. B Gall. 3,27,1; Plin. HN 4,108) in Aquitania, mod. Eauze (Dép. Gers). Roman colonia from the early 3rd cent. AD (CIL XIII 546), in the 4th cent. metropolis of the prov. Novempopulana (Notitia Galliarum 14). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Metrophanes

(208 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μητροφάνης; Mētrophánēs). An official under Mithradates [6] VI. During the 1st Mithradatic War (89-85), he transported Pontic troops to Greece in 87 BC [2. 89, n. 318], at the same time as Neoptolemus [10] and Archelaus [4]. M. conquered Chalcis [1] in Euboea, and laid waste to the Magnesian coast as far as Demetrias [1], where the Roman proquaestor Braetius [1] inflicted some losses on his fleet (App. Mithr. 113, cf. Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,20,10; [1. 140]). M. may have been one of the envoys who in 79 negotiated an agreement with Sertoriu…

Climax

(50 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Κλῖμαξ; Klîmax). [German version] [1] Pass Wide pass provided with steps, which led out of the Inachus Valley of the Argolis near Melangea (possibly modern Pikerni) into the high plain of Mantinea (Paus. 8,6,4; cf. 2,25,3), modern Portes. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] see Pamphylia see  Pamphylia
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