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Mare Suebicum

(492 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Baltic Sea). Shallow marginal sea of the Atlantic or the North Sea ( mare Germanicum ); since about 8000 BC the connection with the North Sea has been broken in various ways. Subdivisions are the shallow Kattegat and the shallow Bælt Sea, the actual Baltic Sea with various basins and depths up to 50 m (west of Bornholm), 100 m (east of Bornholm), 249 m (east of Gotland), 459 m (east of Landort, maximum depth of the Mare Suebicum (MS)) and larger islands (Fyn and Sjæland in th…

Themiscyra

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θεμίσκυρα/ Themískyra). Highly fertile coastal region (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 7a; Apollod. 2,101; Plin. HN 6,9; Just. Epit. 2,4,1) or Greek city (at modern Terme, Peripl. m. Eux. 29; Ps.-Scyl. 89; possibly destroyed in the third of the Mithridatic Wars since for later times there is no information) in the north of the Paryadres mountains on the southern shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) on the lower River Thermodon [2], where in Greek myth the Amazons lived (cf. Aesch. PV 724 f.; Hdt. 4,110). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Naresii

(72 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ναρήσιοι; Narḗsioi). Illyrian tribe (Ptol. 2,16,8) on the upper and lower Neretva/Hercegovina. The N. were among those conquered by the future Augustus in connection with his Dalmatian campaign (Dalmatae) of 35/33 BC (App. Ill. 47). Incorporated into the Roman province of Illyricum, they participated in the conventus of Narona (Plin. HN 3,143) with 102 decuriae. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography I. Bojanovski, Bosna i Hercegovina u antičko doba, 1988, 379.

Phrixa

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φρίξα/ Phríxa). Settlement in western Arcadia or south-eastern Elis or Triphylia (Xen. Hell. 3,2,30), east of Pisatis on the left bank of the Alpheius [1], where the Leucyanias flows into it from the north (Hdt. 4,148,4: Φρίξαι/ Phríxai; Paus. 6,21,5f.; Str. 8,3,12; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μάκιστος). It stood on a prominent hill (305 m; modern Paliophanaro) at what today is once more known as Phrixa, 9 km east of Olympia. P. later adopted the name Phaestus, probably also Phaesana (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φαιστός). Even by the tim…

Peltae

(123 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Πέλται; Péltai). Settlement, already in existence by the end of the 5th cent. BC (cf. Xen. An. 1,2,10) and subsequently a Seleucid military colony (coin: HN 682: ΠΕΛΤΗΝΩΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ; PELTĒNŌN MAKEDONŌN) in Phrygia (Str. 12,8,13; 13,4,13: τὸ Πελτηνὸν πεδίον; tò Peltēnòn pedíon; Ptol. 5,2,25; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; Hsch. s.v. Βέλτη/ Béltē, possibly misspelled for Π./ P., cf. [1. 120 § 145]; Pelteni, Plin. HN 95; 106) on the upper reaches of the Meander [2] (cf. the coin HN 682: ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ; MAIANDROS), presumed south of…

Azanes, Azania

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀζάνες, Ἀζανία; Azánes, Azanía). Tribe and region (of proverbial inhospitableness, cf. Zenob. 2,54; Diogenianus 1,24) between the rivers of Erymanthus and Ladon, at the border of Arcadia with  Elis (Str. 8,3,1; 8,1).  Paeon was a town of the A. (Hdt. 6,127). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 1, 1959, 211.

Chalybes

(116 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Χάλυβες; Χάλυβοι; Chálybes, Chályboi, Hecat. FGrH 1 F 203). A people famous for their skill in ironwork; they were even credited with the invention of iron; indeed the extraction and working of gold and silver were associated with the C. Sometimes located on the north shore of the Black Sea (original homeland? Aesch. PV 714f.), but generally in the northern Anatolian mountains west of the  Halys (Hdt. 1,28), extending in the east as far as  Pharnacaea and  Trapezus (Str. 12,3,19ff.), in the south to the territory of the Armenians. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Gerunium

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Apulia, 200 stadia (= 24 miles) from  Luceria (Pol. 3,100,3) on a side-road reaching the coastal road between Larinum and Teanum Apulum (Tab. Peut. 6,3), can probably be located near Castel Dragona to the south of Fortore. In 217-216 BC, it served as Hannibal's winter quarters (Pol. 3,100ff.; Liv. 22,18ff.; App. Hann. 15f). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 785.

Tauris

(56 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Island between Pharus [2] and Corcyra [2] Melaina off the Dalmatian coast (Tab. Peut. 6,4), modern Šćedro (in Croatia). Caesar's legate P. Vatinius [I 2] was victorious at T. over the fleet of Pompey's party in 47 BC (Bell. Alex. 45,1,2). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Kozlic̆ić, Historical Geography of the Eastern Adriatic, 1990, 300.

Dokimeion

(69 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Marble (Δοκίμειον; Dokímeion). Town in Phrygia maior (Steph. Byz. s.v. Δ.; Str. 12,8,14: Δοκιμία κώμη; Ptol. 5,2,24: Δοκίμαιον; Hierocles [8], Synecdemus 677: Δοκίμιον;  Asia Minor III E.) on the road from Apamea [2] to Amorion (modern Hisar Köyü) near modern İscehisar. On the broken marble at D. cf.  Syn(n)ada.  Marble (with map) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Belke/Mersich, 237f.

Achaia

(723 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] In its meeting of 13 January 27 BC, the Senate resolved to set up A. as a senatorial province (Cass. Dio 53,12; Str. 17,3,25), comprising central Greece and the  Peloponnese together with  Epirus, Acarnania ( Acarnanians) including the Ionian islands, also  Aetolia,  Thessaly,  Sporades,  Cyclades excluding Astypalaea and Amorgus, but with  Euboea. A. was to be governed by a   proconsul pro praetore (residing in the Roman colony of Laus Iulia Corinthus), alongside a   legatus Augusti pro praetore and a   quaestor ; several procuratores looked after the imperial i…

Notou keras

(118 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νότου κέρας; Nótou kéras). Modern Ras Guardafui or Ras el-Kheil in East Africa [2]. Artemidorus [3] (1st half of the 1st cent. BC) followed geographical knowledge of the time when he called the eastern point of Africa ‘the horn of the south’, that is the southern end of the known world. Ptolemaeus (Ptol. 4,7,11) acted accordingly in the 2nd cent. AD, obviously referring to modern Ras el-Kheil by NK after terms like Ἀρωμάτων ἀκρωτήριον ( Arōmátōn akrōtḗrion) or the like had come into use for the former NK [2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 J. Desanges, Reche…

Drilae

(50 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Δρῖλαι; Drîlai). Tribe in the north Anatolian mountains south of  Trapezus; the Greeks with Xenophon were unable to capture their mountain refuge in 400 BC (Xen. An. 5,2,1-27; cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. D.), identified with the Sanni by Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 15. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sea

(630 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] The world inhabited by Graeco-Roman Antiquity was essentially determined by its geographical centre, the Mare Nostrum and the large adjacent seas, the Ionios Kolpos, the Aigaion Pelagos, and the Pontos Euxeinos; the peripheral seas - Mare Germanicum, Mare Suebicum, Caspian Sea, Erythra Thalatta and the adjacent seas Arabios Kolpos (the modern Red Sea), the Persian Gulf, and the Oceanus - formed fundamentally different worlds (particularly the Persian Gulf at the time of the Near E…

Mossynoeci

(166 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μοσσύνοικοι; Mossýnoikoi). People in the Paryadres mountains to the south of the Black Sea coast between Cerasus and Trapezus (Hekat. FGrH 1 F 204f.; Xen. An. 5,4,2; 5,1; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1016ff.; Diod. 14,30,5-7) to the east of the Tibareni and Chalybes, from time to time with a large sphere of influence (to the south: Strab. 11,14,5; to the west: Xen. An. 5,5,1). Under Darius I and Xerxes, the M. belonged to the 19th satrapy (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78), in Xenophon's time they were independ…

Solus

(211 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Punic Wars (Σολοῦς/ Soloûs, Σολόεις/ Solóeis, Latin Soluntum). City on the northern coast of Sicilia at Cannita near modern Santa Flavia about 20 km to the west of Palermo (burial finds from the 6th cent. BC). Like Motye and Panormus S. was one of the bases to which the Phoenicians, under pressure from Greek colonists, retreated at the turn from the 8th cent. BC to the 7th (Thuc. 6,2,6). Dionysius [1] I captured the city in 397 BC, and after a…

Sipylus

(102 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σίπυλος/ Sípylos). Mountain range in Lydia (modern Manisa Dağı), extending between the Hermus [2] and Smyrna and about 30 km inland. Lake Saloe, in which the city of S. and its predecessor Tantalis are supposed to have been submerged, are presumed to be on the mountain range of S. (Plin. HN. 2,205; 5,117; Paus. 7,24,13; Tantalus). At the S. some 100 m above the Hermus valley, near two Hittite graffiti there is a rock sculpture the interpretation of which has been discussed since Antiquity [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 B. André-Salvini, M. Salvini…

Tyraeum

(71 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τυραῖον; Tyraîon). City on the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa near Philomelium (Xen. An. 1,2,14; Artem. in  Str. 14,2,29: Τυριαῖον; Plin. HN 5,95: Tyrienses; Anna Komnene, Alexias 3,211 f.) in the area of modern Ilgın. On his march against his brother Artaxerxes [2] II in 401 BC, Cyrus [3] the Younger also passed through T. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography W. Ruge, s. v. T. (1), RE 7 A, 1800-1802  Belke/ Mersich, 409f.

Mare Nostrum

(941 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (μεγάλη θάλασσα/ megálē thálassa, Mediterranean). Because of various earth movements that are still ongoing (rising, sinking; formation of numerous islands, e.g. the archipelago between Greece and Anatolia and Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearic Islands; still active volcanoes and earthquakes) the appearance of the Mare Nostrum (MN) changed constantly (connections to the various adjoining seas, e.g. the Atlantic, the Miocene seas in the northern foothills of the Al…

Nesactium

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Settlement in Istria at modern Vizac̆e, approx. 8 km north-east of modern Pula/Croatia (Plin. HN 3,129). Suburb of the Histri on a bank with a sanctuary dated to 1,000 BC; conquered by the Romans in 177 BC (Liv. 41,11,1: oppidum Nesattium). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography K. Mihovilić, Rezultati sondanog istraivanja u sjevernoj bazilici u Nezakciju (1977 godine), in: Histria Archaeologica 15/6, 1984/5, 5-29  M. Zaninović, Apsorus, Crexa e Nesactium. Badò sulla rotta marittima adriatica, in: Quaderni dell' Antiquità di Venetia 10, 1994, 179-188  V.Ved…

Himeras

(83 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of two rivers in Sicily which, rising not far from one another in opposite directions on S. Salvatore (1910 m) near Polizzi (modern Imera Settentrionale, Imera Meridionale), were regarded as a single river and as the north-south central line of the island, although the eastern half of the island, thus divided, is almost twice as big as the western half. Evidence: Pol. 7,4,2; Liv. 24,6,7; Str. 6,2,1; Mela 2,119; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,7; Sil. Pun. 14,233. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Gaeson

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γαίσων; Gaísōn). Small river on the southern slopes of the Mycale mountains (Samsun Dağı), cf. Hdt. 9,97; Mela 1,87 ( Gaesus); Plin. HN 5,113 ( Gessus). Scolopoeis (Σκολοπόεις) with a temple of the Eleusinian Demeter was located at the G.; it was the location of the battle between Greeks and Persians in 479 BC (Hdt. 9,97). A lake named after the river (Γαισωνὶς λίμνη; Gaisōnìs límnē, Ath. 7,311e) is also to be located in the vicinity. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Isindus

(30 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴσινδος; Ísindos, Ἴσινδα; Ísinda). Place name ocurring with these two name forms only in Steph. Byz. s.v. Isindos as a town in  Ionia. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sebaste

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σεβαστή/ Sebast ). City in Phrygia, founded under Augustus by means of synoikismós (involving, i.a., Διοσκωπητεῖς/ Dioskōpēteís, probably also Φλημεῖς/ Phlēmeís; [1. 85 f. no. 16]) on the eastern edge of the valley of the Sinder (Σινδρός/ Sindrós, coins HN 684; modern Banaz river) (IGR IV 635; 682 l. 18). Hellenistic wall remains at modern Selçikler, 2 km to the southwest of Sivaslı (cf. name!) suggest that a polis already existed there. A portion of the ancient road to the east of Selçikler has been discovered. Bishopric in Late Antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 6…

Apuli, Apulia

(385 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Oscan tribe between the Daunii and the  Frentani (Str. 6,3,8); after the establishment of Roman rule (Liv. 8,25; 37; 9,12 ff.; 20,4 ff. for 317 BC) they gave their name to the territory from the Adriatic (with the Diomedeae insulae, today Isole Tremiti) to the  Appenninus, with the Bradanus (today Brádano) flowing into the Gulf of  Tarentum, from the  Tifernus to  Calabria. Mesozoic limestone and dolomite determine the soil on   mons Garganus (today Monte Gargano with the Montenero 1012 m), and their topsoil does on the Apulian pl…

Paryadres

(128 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Παρυάδρης/ Paryádrēs, Lat. Pariades, Parihedri montes). Part of the Alpide belt in the region of Pontus and Armenia, which may be roughly identified with the eastern part of the North Anatolian border range (Karadeniz Dağları, with the Kaçkar Dağı, 3937 m) and the Alborz (with the Damāvand, 5604 m). In the north, the P. slopes down over a narrow coastal plain to the Pontos Euxeinos (river valleys: Halys, Iris [3]); to the south, it slopes down along the earthquake-prone North Anatolia…

Meris

(141 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ἡ μερίς; merís, ‘part, portion’, Verb μερίζειν; merízein). As a term in Greek administrative language, meris describes any type of systematic division and is used e.g. generally in Hellenistic administrative practice, especially e. g. in the Ptolemaic-Roman administration of Egypt in which the Arsinoite nomós [2] was divided into three merídes (OGIS 177,8 f., 2nd cent. BC). There is another interpretation in the territorial administrative classification in Egypt which describes it as the smallest element in the series nomós, tópos [1], kṓmē (B.), meris and henc…

Grumentum

(91 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Coloniae Town in Lucania ( Lucani) where the Sora (modern Sciaura) flows into the Aciris (modern Agri) (cf. Str. 6,1,3; Ptol. 3,1,70); ruins 1.5 km east of Grumento. Place of fierce battles in the 2nd Punic War (Liv. 23,37,10; 27,41,3) and in the Social War (cf. App. B Civ. 1,41). Municipium, tribus Pomptina ( regio III). Pliny speaks of the good wine from Lagarina near G. (HN 14,69). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caeadas

(77 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καιάδας; Kaiádas). A ravine in Taygetus into which the Spartans pushed criminals and prisoners of war condemned to death. It is presumed to be located south-east of Mistra near Parori [1] or north-west of Mistra near Tripi [2]. Documented in: Καιάδας, Thuc. 1,134,4; Κεάδας, Paus. 4,18,4; Καιέτας, Str. 8,5,7. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 E. Curtius, Peloponnesos 2, 1852, 252 2 O. Rayet, in: Annales de la Faculté des Lettres de Bordeaux 2, 1880, 353 n. 2.

Zaraspadum

(33 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in modern Afghanistan, according to the context in Plin. HN 6,94 in the area of the Etymander, not precisely located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Zaraspad(r)um, RE 9 A, 2317 f.

Halycus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἅλυκος; Halykos). River (84 km long) on the south-west coast of Sicily, empties into the sea north-west of Capo Bianco near Heraclea Minoa, modern Plátani. The H. was mentioned in the treaties between Dionysius I (376 or 374 BC: Stv 2, no. 261) and Timoleon (339 BC: Stv 2, no. 344) respectively and the Carthaginians as the demarcation line between the two spheres of control. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Triparadisus

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τριπαράδεισος τῆς ἄνω Συρίας/ Triparádeisos tês ánō Syrías, literally 'in Upper Syria', Diod. Sic. 18,39,1; 19,12,2). Ancient city in northern Syria; to date there has been no success in identifying it unambiguously. It is presumed that it can be identified with Paradisus on the upper Orontes [7] (Jusiye? cf. [1. 112]). It was in T. that the Diadochi agreed on a redistribution of Alexander's empire after the death of Perdiccas [4] in 321 BC. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 R. Dussaud, Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale (B…

Elusa

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Rome Chief place (Amm. Marc. 15,11,14) of the Celtic Elusates (Caes. B Gall. 3,27,1; Plin. HN 4,108) in Aquitania, mod. Eauze (Dép. Gers). Roman colonia from the early 3rd cent. AD (CIL XIII 546), in the 4th cent. metropolis of the prov. Novempopulana (Notitia Galliarum 14). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Metrophanes

(208 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μητροφάνης; Mētrophánēs). An official under Mithradates [6] VI. During the 1st Mithradatic War (89-85), he transported Pontic troops to Greece in 87 BC [2. 89, n. 318], at the same time as Neoptolemus [10] and Archelaus [4]. M. conquered Chalcis [1] in Euboea, and laid waste to the Magnesian coast as far as Demetrias [1], where the Roman proquaestor Braetius [1] inflicted some losses on his fleet (App. Mithr. 113, cf. Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,20,10; [1. 140]). M. may have been one of the envoys who in 79 negotiated an agreement with Sertoriu…

Climax

(50 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Κλῖμαξ; Klîmax). [German version] [1] Pass Wide pass provided with steps, which led out of the Inachus Valley of the Argolis near Melangea (possibly modern Pikerni) into the high plain of Mantinea (Paus. 8,6,4; cf. 2,25,3), modern Portes. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] see Pamphylia see  Pamphylia

Xoana

(44 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξόανα; Xóana). City in the Indian subcontinent on the left of the lower reaches of the Indus [1] (Ptol. 7,1,61), to the northeast of Patala, probably at modern Hyderabad in Pakistan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X. (1), RE 9 A, 2138-2140.

Stoechades

(137 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Στοιχάδες νῆσοι/ Stoichádes nêsoi), 'row islands' (from στοῖχος/ stoîchos, row). Island group directly offshore, c. 70 km east of Massalia/Marseille (Str. 4,1,10; Mela 2,124), present-day Îles d'Hyères. Among them are the islands of Prote ('the first'), Mese ('the middle one'), as well as Pomponiana, Hypaea ('the one below'), Sturium, Phoenice, Phila, Lero and Lerina (Plin. HN 3,79). The assignment of the corresponding modern names to the various islands is a matter of debate (present-day Le L…

Machatas

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μαχάτας; Machátas). [German version] [1] A brother-in-law of Philip II, 4th cent. BC Member of the Macedonian [1. 200] dynasty of Elimea, brother of Derdas [3], through his sister Phila brother-in-law of Philippus II (Satyrus, FHG 3,161 fr. 5 in Ath. 557c). It is possibly this M. who is mentioned as the father of Harpalus (Arr. Anab. 3,6,4; [2. 2,75-80 no. 143]), Philip (Arr. Anab. 5,8,3; [2. 2,384f. no. 780) and Tauron (IG XII 9, 197, 4; [2. 2,371f. no. 741]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Envoy in Sparta and Elis, end of the 3rd cent. BC Aetolian who was active on beh…

Symaethum

(122 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύμαιθος/ Sýmaithos, Latin Symaethum). Border river between Leontini and Catane (Thuc. 6,65,2) in the east of Sicily. It rises according to Str. 6,2,2 like the Pantacyas at Mount Etna (Aetna [1]) and flows into the sea to the north of Catane (Ptol. 3,4,9; cf. Plin. HN 3,89). The modern Simeto, however, which can without doubt be identified with the S., rises on Mount Nebrodes and its mouth is to the south of Catane; the displacement of the mouth can be explained by the activities of…

Hodometron

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ὁδόμετρον; hodómetron). Hero (Dioptra 34) and Vitruvius (10,9) describe a mechanical device for distance measurement on land in which a connection of endless screws and sprockets mounted on different levels, driven by a cart wheel, transmits each rotation of the wheel to a display system in a retarding manner (Hero: pointer; Vitruvius: falling balls). The hodometron was sufficient for one day trip and then had to be put back to the initial position. Vitruvius knew of a corresponding device for sea trips based on a bucket wheel. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliograp…

Insulae Gorgades

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Unlocated archipelago mentioned by Pliny (HN 6,200; Mela 3,99: Dorcades), who refers to  Xenophon [8] of Lampsacus (location of the island two days' journey from the African west coast; name derived from the Gorgons who once lived there) and  Hanno [1] (characterization of the inhabitants as savages; their women are said to have hairy skin). In Hanno's report, which is available in a much altered form (Peripl. 18, GGM 1,1-14), the women of the Insulae Gorgades are called Goríllai (Γορίλλαι, possibly a misspelling of the Greek translation for Gorgades). Olshausen, Ecka…

Hyporon

(28 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Bruttium (bronze coins around 300 BC: HN 105), probably identical to Hipporum in It. Ant. 115. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 949.

Leucosyri

(273 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Λευκόσυροι; Leukósyroi, ‘White Syrians’, meaning and origin of the term are unclear). Indigenous inhabitants (App. Mith. 292; Σύριοι/ Sýrioi, Hdt. 1,6,1; 2,104; Ἀσσύριοι/ Assýrioi, Dionys. Per. 975) considered by the Greeks as an ethnic entity of the Anatolian northern part of the region Assyria (Λευκοσυρία/ Leukosyría, schol. vetera ad Apoll. Rhod. 196,9; 198,10; 201,6; Λευκοσυριακή/ Leukosyriakḗ, 200,1; Λευκοσυρική/ Leukosyrikḗ, 198,3). According to Ps.-Scyl. 89, the area where they lived extended from the river Thermodon (modern Term…

Nedon

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νέδων; Nédōn).The largest river in Messenia after the  Pamisus; it rises on Mt. Taygetus and, following a south-westerly direction, it traverses Denthaliatis (Denthalii) with its numerous wellsprings (cf. Tac. Ann. 4,43; Steph. Byz. s.v. Δενθάλιοι), then flows into the Messenian bay at Pherae (Str. 8,3,29; 4,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 406.

Larinum

(123 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | (Λάρινα; Lárina). Town of the Dauni (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.), afterwards of the Frentani (Ptol. 3,1,65) in Samnium on Monte Arone (475 m) to the right of the Tifernus (modern Biferno), south of Cigno, surrounded by a tributary of the Tifernus; 1 km east of modern Larino. Municipium, tribus Clustumina, regio II (Plin. HN 3,105; Mela 2,66). From the middle of the 3rd cent. BC, Greek (Campanian) and Latin (Apulian) bronze coins (HN 28f.). Considerable remains: city wall, bat…

Hellespontus

(520 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἑλλήσποντος; Hellḗspontos, Dardanelles, Turkish Çanakkale Boğazı). Strait, formed from a river valley during the glacial epoch, between the Propontis in the north and the  Aegean Sea in the south, the Thracian peninsula Chersonesus [1] in the west (Europe) and the Troad in the east (Asia; cf. Plin. HN 4,49), c. 65 km long, between 1.2 km (between Sestus and Abydus [1]) and 7.5 km wide, between 57 m and 103 m deep. As in the  Bosporus [1], a strong (maximum 5 knots; cf. Hom. Il. 2,845; 12,30; Hsch. s.v. Ἑ.; Aristot. Mete. 2,8; A…

Neoclaudiopolis

(211 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νεοκλαυδιόπολις/ Neoklaudiópolis, Latin Neoclaudiopolis). City in the Paphlagonian district of Phazemonitis to the east of the lower Halys, near the village of Phazemon (Φαζημών/ Phazēmṓn, OGIS 532, 40f.) in the territory of the neighbouring township of Andrapa (Ἄνδραπα/ A'ndrapa, Ptol. 5,4,6,4; Hierocles, Synekdemos 701,7; Nov. 28 praef.); founded by Pompey in 65 or 62 BC with the name Neapolis (Strab. 12,3,38) as part of the new province of Bithynia et Pontus [7. 33f., 38f., 71ff.], renamed N. under Claudius (IGR 3…

Grudii

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] One of the five tribes in Gallia Belgica dependent on the  Nervii (the others being the  Ceutrones [1],  Levaci,  Pleumoxii and  Geidumni: Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1). Their area of settlement lay in what is now Flanders. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography TIR M 31 Paris, 1975, 133 H. Boone, Ceutrones et Nervii, in: Mémoires de la Societé d'Emulation de Cambrai 73, 1926, 105-206.

Vologesocerta

(75 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Zenobia (Plin. HN 6,122; Ptol. 5,20,6: Οὐλογαισία/ Ou ologaisía; Amm. Marc. 23,6,23: Vologessia; Tab. Peut. 11,4: Volocesia; Steph. Byz. s. v. Βολογεσσίας/ Bologessías). City in Babylonia, founded by the Parthian king Vologaeses I on the Naarmalcha near Seleucia [1] and in competition with it; presumably at modern Abū Ḫalafīya. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Oppenheimer, Babylonia Judaica in the Talmudic Period (TAVO Beiheft B 47), 1983, 198-207.

Cabira

(136 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states (Κάβειρα; Kábeira). The residence of Mithridates VI, king of Pontus, on the southern slope of the Paryadres. Pompey elevated C. to city status as Diospolis and then embellished it. C. received numerous new names (Sebaste, Neocaesarea, Hadrianopolis); today, it is Niksar/Turkey with ruins of a large castle that reveals Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Seldshukian building phases. There are also inscriptions, a milestone on the g…
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