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Tegianum

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (modern Teggiano). City in Lucania (Lucani) on the left bank of the Tanager (modern Tanagro) on the via Popilia from Consentia to Aquilonia [1] (Plin. HN 3,98: Tergilani = Tegianenses?; Liber Coloniarum 209). Municipium , which under Nero [1] was elevated to a colonia, tribus Pomptina. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography V. Bracco, Nuove scoperte archeologiche in Lucania, in: RAL 20, 1965, 283 f.

Cotyora

(103 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Xenophon | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius (Κοτύωρα; Kotýōra). Port town on the south coast of  Pontus Euxinus, assumed to be near Ordu, where remains of an ancient harbour pier are located. The ‘Ten Thousand’ of  Xenophon rested there for 45 days before they took to the sea in the west. Under Pharnaces I (185-160/154 BC), C. was united in a synoikismós with Cerasus in Pharnacaea and declined to a small town (πολίχνη, Str. 12,3,17) (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 24; Peripl. m. Eux. 34). Olshausen, Eckart (S…

Ximene

(78 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξιμήνη; Ximḗnē). Region in the territory of Amasea, which in the south of Diacopene and Pimolisene "reaches as far as the river Halys... In X. there are salt mines, from which the Halys, it is surmised, took its name" (Str. 12,3,39). According to the sequence of mentions in  Str. loc.cit. the X. is to be looked for in the area between Çorum and the River Kızılırmak. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Olshausen/Biller/Wagner, 174 (with map A 3).

Istros

(32 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴστρος; Ístros). Island documented by Steph. Byz. s.v. I. with homonymous city at the promontory of Triopium (modern Deveboynu Burnu or Kıriyo Burnu) near Cnidus. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Clepsydra

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Κλεψύδρα; Klepsýdra). [German version] [1] Spring near Messene Spring from which the well named after Arsinoe, the mother of Asclepius, in the agora in Messene was fed (Paus. 4,31,6; 33,1), possibly corresponds to the village spring in Mavromati or a spring below Ithome peak ( Ithome [1]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messene, RE Suppl. 15, 142ff. D. Musti, M. Torelli, Pausania. Guida della Grecia 4, 1991, 252ff. [German version] [2] Spring of the Acropolis of Athens Since the Neolithic period the most important spring of the Acropolis of …

Temnus

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τῆμνος/ Têmnos, Aeolic Τᾶμνος/ Tâmnos). Aeolian city to the southeast of Dumanlı Hill on the right bank of the Hermus [2], where in Antiquity the river flowed into the Aegean (Plin. HN 5,119); its ruins (fortress of Nemrut) are at modern Görece. Although not a member of the Delian League, in the 5th and 4th cents. BC T. was able to preserve its independence of the Persian Great King (Xen. Hell. 4,8,15). Apparently, by the end of the 3rd cent. BC T. was under the rule of the Attalids (Attalus; cf. the isopoliteía treaty between T. and Pergamum StV 2, 5…

River

(230 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Terrestrial relief and climate determine the size and direction of river courses; and for their part, the major river valleys of the inhabited world determined the trade and commerce of those societies through whose regions they passed, offering them both infrastructural and economic advantages. They seldom represented insurmountable obstacles to traffic. Rather, in varying degree they directed traffic flow over particular routes (fords, bridges). The economic usefulness of river …

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Pelorias

(222 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πελωριάς; Pelōriás). Northeastern cape of Sicily (Pol. 1,11,6; 42,5; Diod. Sic. 4,23,1; 5,2,2; 23,1,3; Diod. 4,85,5; 14,56,3; 6; 57,2: Πελωρίς/Pelōrís), modern Capo Peloro or Capo di Faro; in a narrower sense a narrow easterly tongue of land, in a broader sense the whole mountainous promontory running northeast. According to myth, Orion [1] constructed the tongue of land and built a temple to Poseidon there (Hes. fr. 183). According to erroneous ancient ideas about the orientation…

Motyca

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυκα, Μότουκα; Mótyka, Mόtouka). City of the Siculi in the southeast of Sicily (Ptol. 3,4,14), modern Módica to the south of Ragusa. Finds from as early as the prehistorical period. Ancient inscriptions from the area (IG XIV 243-253). The ager Mutycensis was the ager decumanus of the Roman province of Sicilia (Cic. Verr. 2,3,101; 120), the Mutycenses were stipendiarii (Plin. HN 3,91). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. M., RE 16, 407  BTCGI 10, 169-177  Morgantina Studies, 5 vols., 1981-1996.

Sebastopolis

(180 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Σεβαστόπολις; Sebastópolis). [German version] [1] City in Caria City in the mountainous country of southeastern Caria between Tabae and Themisonium on the road from Heraclea [6] and Apollonia Salbace to Cibyra, at modern Kızılca. The original place name is unknown; in the Imperial period the city was renamed S. and is recorded in inscriptions and on coins (HN 624; [1. 150 f.]). In literature it is first mentioned in the early Byzantine period (Hierocles, Synékdēmos 689). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 F. Imhoof-Blumer, Kleinasiatische Münzen, 1901/2. L. Bürchner,…

Melanthium

(24 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River flowing into the Pontos Euxeinos to the east of Ordu, modern Melet Irmağı (Plin. HN 6,11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Dioptra

(376 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Werner (Graz)
[German version] (ἡ διόπτρα; hē dióptra). Surveyor's instrument for measuring angles and distances or the lateral width of distant objects (e.g. the apparent distance of stars from one another and the height of walls and mountains). The applications included the construction of aqueducts, house-building or fire-telegraphy (cf. Pol. 8,37,2; 9,19,8f.). At the beginning of his work entitled D., which covers the theory and practice of surveying and mapping (πραγματεία διοπτρική), Hero of Alexandria (1st cent. AD?) documented in detail the construction and…

Buphagus

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βουφάγος; Bouphágos). Right-hand tributary of the Alpheius [1], rising in the north of Buphagium (city wall and other remains near Paliokastro; its source marked the border between Heraea and Megalopolis. The eponymous hero B., son of the Titan  Iapetus, was killed by Artemis in the Pholoe region (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,26,8; 8,27,17). Buthoinas appears, meaning the same as B., as an approximation of Hercules in Lindus (cf. Anth. Plan. 123). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 103ff.

Olbia

(1,082 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία/ Olbίa). [German version] [1] Milesian colony This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Wine | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Apollo | Patricius | Patricius | Rome | Rome Milesian colony (Colonisation) south of modern Parutino (Ukraine) at the confluence of the Hypanis and Borysthenes (Ps.-Scymn. 808f.), and for that reason also known as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης; Hdt. 4,24; 78); founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f…

Aristion

(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀριστίων; Aristíōn). [German version] [1] Epicurean philosopher, ' Tyrant' of Athens (88-86 BC) Epicurean philosopher, who, in 88 BC, became very influential in Athens with the help of  Mithridates VI (‘Tyrant’). In order to win the Greeks over to Mithridates, A. supported  Archelaus, e.g. in the battle against the proquaestor Q. Braetius Sura at  Chaeronea. In the spring of 87 BC, he retreated from  Sulla back to Athens. The city fell on 1 March 86 BC; A. managed to hold out on the Acropolis for a short w…

Duranus

(43 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern-day Dordogne; rises at 1680 m. on the Puy de Sancy (Mont-Dore), and after a course of 490 km flows into the Atlantic with the Garumna to its left (Auson. Mos. 464; Geogr. Rav. 4,40). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Plutarchus

(7,856 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Pelling, C. B. R. (Oxford) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Πλούταρχος/ Ploútarchos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Eretria, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1]. As the guest-friend of Meidias [2], the rich opponent of Demosthenes (Dem. Or. 21,110; 21,200), he turned to Athens for help in 349 BC when the exiled Cleitarchus [1] and Callias [9] of Chalcis, supported by Phalaecus of Phocis and Philippus [4] II, threatened his position (Aeschin. In Ctes. 86-88 with schol.). Phocion led the inglorious and expensive expedition in early 348 BC (Dem. Or. 5,5 with schol.; …

Orcistus

(113 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρκιστός/ Orkistós). Originally probably a polis in Galatia, south of modern Ortaköy (formerly Alikel Yayla), added to Nacolea (Phrygia) at the end of the 3rd cent. AD, but Constantine [1] the Great undid this before 331 AD (MAMA 7, 69-75). The small town of Malcaeteni [1. 2020] was part of the territory of O. Attested as a see from the 5th cent. (Domnus at the Council of Ephesus in 431, Longinus at the Council of Chalcedon in 451: Acta Conciliorum Oecumenocorum 1,1 no. 121; 2,1,1 no. 192). A few ancient or Byzantine remains. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography T. Dr…

Naustathmus

(208 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Ναύσταθμος; Naústathmos). [German version] [1] Harbour town in the south east of Sicily Harbour town in the south east of Sicily, on the coast between Syracusae and the mouth of the Helorus [2] (Plin. HN 3,89), probably at Fontane Bianche. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 58. [German version] [2] Harbour in the north eastern Cyrenaica Harbour in north eastern Cyrenaica, on the eastern side of the promontory of the same name (modern Ras el-Hilal). Sources: Ps.-Scyl. 108 (GGM 1,83); S…
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