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Ascension of Muḥammad

(299 words)

Author(s): Barrucand, Marianne
[German Version] The widely-held belief in the ascension of Muḥammad is based on the Qurʾān verse, sura 17:1, the interpretation of which is not clear, however: “Glory be to him, who traveled with his servant by night from the holy place of worship to the remote place of worship, whose surroundings we have blessed, to show him some of our signs”. In the Qurʾān the Arabic word for ascent, ascension (originally ladder), miʿrāj, is not used, but rather the term isrāʾ, night journey. Strictly speaking, the ascension is therefore not in the Qurʾān. Already in the 9th century, however, the ex…


(15,859 words)

Author(s): Nagel, Tilman | Ende, Werner | Radtke, Bernd | Rudolph, Ulrich | Krawietz, Birgit | Et al.
[German Version] I. Origin and Spread – II. Doctrine – III. Islamic Philosophy – IV. Islamic Art (Architecture and Book Art) – V. Islamic Studies – VI. Christianity and Islam – VII. Judaism and Islam – VIII. Islam in Europe – IX. Islam in North America – X. Political Islamism I. Origin and Spread 1. Muḥammad and his message In 569 ce, Muḥammad was born in Mecca, a city with the shrine of the Kaʿba at its center. Mecca enjoyed good relations with the Sasanian Empire and its Arab vassal princes in Ḥīra, but considered itself politically independen…

Art and Religion

(16,087 words)

Author(s): Krech, Volkhard | Lentes, Thomas | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Imorde, Joseph | Ganz, David | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies, Systematics – II. Academic Research Disciplines – III. History – IV. Christian Theology I. Religious Studies, Systematics 1. Methodology. In defining the relationship between art and religion from the perspective of religious studies, one cannot speak of a universal concept of art and religion on the phenomenal level. To do comparative work, however, sufficient abstract characteristics must be established as a tertium comparationis to enable a systematic examination of the relationship betwe…

Veneration of Images

(6,489 words)

Author(s): Gladigow, Burkhard | Uehlinger, Christoph | Levine, Lee I. | Barrucand, Marianne | Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Veneration of gods in the form of man-made images (I) is part of the development of human ideas about God. The nature of such images varies widely, from natural objects with little or no human work involved (rocks, posts, trees) to professionally produced works of “art.” For the structure of the idea of God reflected in images, the crucial question is whether they “merely” facilitate epiphany rituals or whether the gods regularly manifest themselves in the images through ritual guarantee, i.e. are made prese…