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(373 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Musayyib, Ḥusām al-Dawla Abū Ḥassān , member of the Arab ʿUḳaylid dynasty of ʿIrāḳ and al-D̲j̲azīra (d. 391/1000). After the death in 386/996 or 387/997 of the ʿUḳaylid amīr Abu ’l-D̲h̲awwād Muḥammad b. al-Musayyib, a quarrel arose between his brothers, ʿAlī and al-Muḳallad, each of whom claimed power. ʿAlī was the elder, but al-Muḳallad wrote to the Būyid amīr Bahāʾ al-Dawla [ q.v. in Suppl.] and promised him an annual tribute, and then told his brother that Bahāʾ al-Dawla had appointed him governor of al-Mawṣil and asked ʿAlī’s help to take the town…


(423 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
li-amr allāh , abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad , ʿAbbāsid caliph (reigned 530-55/1136-60), born on 12 Rabīʿ II 489/9 April 1096, the son of al-Mustaẓhir [ q.v.] and a slave girl. After the deposition of his nephew al-Rās̲h̲id [ q.v.], al-Muḳtafī was acknowledged as caliph on 8 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 530/17 September 1136. While the Sald̲j̲ūḳs were fighting among themselves, he did his best not only to maintain his independence but also to extend his rule, and one district after the other in ʿIrāḳ fell into his hands. In 543/1148 a number of amīrs denounced their allegiance…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥad̲jd̲j̲ād̲j̲

(311 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd al-Malik , Umayyad general. He was a faithful partisan of his cousin Yazīd III and one of his ¶ most eminent assistants. Already in al-Walīd II’s reign he helped Yazīd, who headed the malcontents, to enlist troops against the caliph. When they had succeeded in getting together an army in Damascus, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz received the supreme command and marched against al-Walīd. Yazīd’s brother ʿAbbās, who was about to go to the caliph’s assistance, was attacked and forced to pay homage to Yazīd. Shortly afterwards ʿ…

Rabīb al-Dawla

(242 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
Abū Manṣūr b. Abī S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn , vizier of the ʿAbbāsids and Sald̲j̲ūḳs. When the vizier Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī [ q.v.] made the pilgrimage to Mecca in 481/1089, he appointed his son Rabīb al-Dawla and the naḳīb al-nuḳabāʾ Ṭirād b. Muḥammad al-Zaynabī his deputies, and in 507/1113-14, on the death of Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Muḥammad b. D̲j̲ahīr [see d̲j̲ahīr , banū ], Rabīb al-Dawla was appointed vizier of the caliph al-Mustaẓhir [ q.v.]. In D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 511/April 1118 the fourteen-year old Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad [ q.v.] succeed…

D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla

(730 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Ṭāhir b. Bahā ʾal-Dawla , a Būyid, born in 383/993-4. When Sulṭān al-Dawla, after the death of his father Bahāʾ al-Dawla in 403/1012, was named amīr al-umarāʾ , he entrusted his brother D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla with the office of governor of Baṣra. The latter stayed there for several years without becoming involved in the private quarrels of the Būyids. In 415/1024-5 Sulṭān al-Dawla died and his brother Mus̲h̲arrif al-Dawla died in the following year. D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla was then proclaimed amīr al-umarāʾ, but, as he did not appear at B…


(406 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, properly Kür-Bug̲h̲a (T. “stouthearted bull, stallion”) Abū saʿīd Ḳiwām al-Dawla , Turkish commander of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period and lord of al-Mawṣil. In the wa…

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ṣāliḥ

(286 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Alï , cousin of the caliphs Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. In the reign of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd ʿAbd al-Malik led several campaigns against the Byzantines, in 174/790-1, in 181/797-8, and according to some authorities also in 175/791-2, although other sources assert that in this year the forces were commanded not by ʿAbd al-Malik but by his son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. He was also for some time governor of Medina and held the same office in Egypt. At length, however, he could not escap…

Ibn al-Baladī

(102 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Saʿīd , vizier of al-Mustand̲j̲id. In 563/1167-8 Ibn al-Baladī, who at that time was Nāẓir in Wāsiṭ, was appointed vizier. There was an old feud between him and the ustād-dār ʿAḍūd al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. After the murder of the caliph in Rabīʿ II 566/December 1170 by ʿAḍud al-Dīn and the amīr Ḳuṭb al-Dīn, they forced his successor al-Mustaḍīʾ to appoint ʿAḍud al-Dīn vizier, whereupon Ibn al-Baladi was executed. (K.V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā, al-Fak̲h̲rī, ed. Derenbourg, 426-9 (Eng. tr. Whitting, 305 f.) Ibn al…

Amir al-Umarāʾ

(260 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, chief Emīr, commander-in-chief of the army. As the name shews this dignity was originally confined to the military command. But the pretorians continued to become more powerful, and already the first bearer of the title, the eunuch Mūnis, soon became the real ruler, for it was to him that the weak and incapable Caliph al-Muḳtadir owed his rescue on the occasion of the conspiracy on behalf of ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Muʿtazz in 296 (908). After the appointment of Muḥammed b. Rāʾiḳ the governor of Wāsiṭ…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd

(155 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, son of the caliph al-Walīd I. In 91/709-10, he took part in the campaign against the Byzantines, under the orders of his uncle, Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik, and during the following years, he also participated in the battles against the same enemies. In 96/714-5, al-Walīd, whose designated successor was Sulaymān b. ʿAbd al-Malik, tried to exclude Sulaymān from the succession in favour of his son ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, but his attempt failed. After the death of Sulayman at Dābiḳ, 99/717, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz wan…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya

(519 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, ʿAlid rebel. After the death of Abū Hās̲h̲im, a grandson of ʿAlī, claims were laid to the Imamate from several quarters. Some asserted that Abū Hās̲h̲im had formally transferred his right to the dignity of Imām to the ʿAbbāsid Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Others said that he had spoken in favor of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAmr al-Kindī and wanted to proclaim him Imām. As he, however, did not come up to the expectations of his followers, they turned from him and declared ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya, a great-grandson of ʿ…

Hibat Allāh b. Muḥammad

(94 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Muṭṭalib mad̲j̲d al-Dīn abu ’l-Maʿālī , vizier of the caliph al-Mustaẓhir. Hibat Allāh was appointed vizier in Muḥarram 501/August-September 1107, but he was dismissed in Ramaḍān under pressure from the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Muḥammad b. Maliks̲h̲āh. It is true that the caliph soon restored him to office, forbidding him to employ any

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān

(239 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, son of the caliph Marwān I and father of ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was appointed governor of Egypt by his father, and the appointment was confirmed by ʿAbd al-Malik, when he ascended the throne. During his twenty years’ sojourn in Egypt, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz proved himself a capable governor, who really had the welfare of his province at heart. When in the year 69/689, ʿAbd al-…

al-Rāḍī Bi ’llāh

(790 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ( Muḥammad ) b. al-Muḳtadir , the twentieth ʿAbbāsid caliph. He was born in Rabīʿ II 297/December 909; his mother was a slave named Ẓalūm. He was proposed for the caliphate immediately after the assassination of his father al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.], but the choice fell upon al-Ḳāhir [ q.v.]. The latter had him thrown into prison; after the fall of al-Ḳāhir, he was released and put upon the throne (D̲j̲umādā I 322/April 934). As his adviser in this difficult period, al-Rāḍī chose al-Muḳtadir’s vizier ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā [ q.v.] who asked, however, to be excused on account of hi…


(308 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
bi-Amr ’llāh , Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan , ʿAbbāsid caliph (566-75/1170-80), born on 23 S̲h̲aʿbān 536/23 March 1142, son of al-Mustand̲j̲id [ q.v.] and an Armenian slave named G̲h̲aḍḍa. After his father’s death on 9 Rabīʿ II 566/20 December 1170, al-Mustaḍīʾ succeeded him, and at the beginning of the following year was formally recognised as caliph in Egypt also, which passed into the hands of the Ayyūbids at this time [see fāṭimids ]. The assassins of al-Mustand̲j̲id soon quarrelled among themselves. ʿAḍud al-Dīn [ q.v.], whom al-Mustaḍīʾ had been forced to make vizier, was dismi…

al-Walīd b. al-Mug̲h̲īra

(502 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh , member of the powerful and numerous clan of Mak̲h̲zūm [ q.v.] in pre-Islamic Mecca, opponent of the Prophet Muḥammad and uncle of another opponent, Abū D̲j̲ahl [ q.v.] ʿAmr b. His̲h̲ām b. al-Mug̲h̲īra, d. just after the Hid̲j̲ra. Little is known of his life, but he clearly represented the aristocratic interests of his clan and was himself prosperous, seen in the fact that he is said to have owned a garden in Ṭāʾif which he planted for pleasure only and never gathered the fruit in it (Sprenger, i, 3…

Muḥammad b. Yāḳūt

(580 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Bakr , a chief of police ( ṣāḥib al-s̲h̲urṭa ) in Bag̲h̲dād. In 318/930 Muḥammad, whose father was chief chamberlain or ḥād̲j̲ib to the caliph al-Muḳtadir, was appointed chief of police. The maintenance of order in the capital at this time was much neglected, and the Turkish guards conducted a regular reign of terror. In a fracas between infantry and cavalry, Muḥammad intervened on behalf of the latter; their opponents ¶ were cut down, some driven from the city and only a small contingent of negroes, who at once surrendered, remained unscathed (Muḥarram 318/Fe…

ʿAbbād b. Ziyād

(139 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Abī Sufyān , Abū Ḥarb , Umayyad general. Muʿāwiya appointed him governor of Sid̲j̲istān, where he stayed seven years; in the course of his expeditions to the East, he conquered Ḳandahār. In 61/680-1 he was dismissed by Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya who appointed in his place his brother Salm b. Ziyād to be governor of Sid̲j̲istān and Ḵh̲urāsān. In 64/684, he joined in the battle of Mard̲j̲ Rāhiṭ [

Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir

(346 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir D̲h̲i ’l-Yamīnayn , last Ṭāhirid governor of K̲h̲urāsān. After the death of his father, Muḥammad received the governorship of K̲h̲urāsān (Rad̲j̲ab 248/September 862). In 250/864-5 the ʿAlid al-Ḥasan b. Zayd rebelled in Ṭabaristān, which led to a long and serious struggle [see muḥammad b. ʿabd allāh ]. When ʿAbd Allāh al-Sid̲j̲zī rebelled against Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲ al-Ṣaffār of Sīstān, and appealed for help to Muḥammad, who appointed him governor of al-Ṭabasayn and Ḳuhistān, Yaʿḳūb found a welcome pretext to invade K̲h̲urāsān. Muḥammad sent an embassy to him; but as Yaʿḳūb had already found a following among discontented K̲h̲urāsānians, all negotiations were in vain. In S̲h̲awwāl 259/August 873, or according to another statement in 258, he entered Nīs̲h̲āpūr without str…

ʿAmr b. Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ b. Umayya al-Umawī, known as al-As̲h̲dak

(365 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Umayyad governor and general. Governor of Mecca when Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya came to the throne (60/680), he was the same year appointed governor of Medina. On Yazīd’s orders, he sent an army to Mecca to subdue the anti-Caliph ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, and entrusted the command to a brother of the latter, ʿAmr; but ʿAmr was taken prisoner and, with his brother’s consent, flogged to death by his personal enemies. At the end of the following year, al-As̲h̲daḳ was dismissed. Later he went with the Calip…
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