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Aptara, Aptera

(165 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete | Education / Culture (Ἀπτάρα, Ἀπτέρα; Aptára, Aptéra). Port in the north-west of  Crete on a 230 m high plateau, today Aptara; on coins and in inscriptions Aptara, in literature Aptera (ancient explanation of the name: Steph. Byz. s. v. A.; Paus. 10,5,10). Signs of settlement from the 2nd millennium BC. Frequently involved in interstate politics in early Hellenistic times. In 220 BC under pressure from  Polyrrhenia A. terminated its alliance with  Knossos (Pol. 4,55,4). There is evidence of a   symmachia

Sam(m)onium

(133 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Greek: Σαμ(μ)ώνιον/ Sam(m)ṓnion). Promontory on the northeastern tip of Crete, modern Kavo Sidero. Strong winds often prevented seafarers from rounding the cape. S. served ancient authors as a fixed point of reference for geographical information and the communication of distances between the islands of the Aegean Sea (cf. Str. 2,4,3; 10,3,20; 10,4,2 f.; 10,4,5; 10,4,12; 10,5,18; Dionys. Per. 110; Mela 2,112; Plin. HN 4,58; 60 f.; 71: promunturium Samonium; Ptol. 3,17,5; Stadiasmus maris magni 318 f.; 355; Acts 27:7: Σαλμώνη/ Salmṓnē in connection with the…

Antissa

(108 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Ἄντισσα; Ántissa). Harbour town in the north-west of  Lesbos, c. 9 km north-east of the modern Antissa, settled from the 14th cent. BC. A. was a member of the  Delian League, and participated in the secession of Lesbian towns on the initiative of  Mytilene (Thuc. 3,18. 28). It was a member of the Second Athenian Confederacy. In 167 BC, it was destroyed by the Romans, and its population resettled in  Methymna (Liv. 45,31,14; Plin. HN 5,139). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. …

Galaesus

(71 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] River, also known as Eurotas (Pol. 8,35,8), 40 stades (Pol. loc. cit.) or 5 miles (Liv. 25,11,8) from Tarentum. In 212 BC, Hannibal built a camp on its banks. Mentioned in Virgil (Georg. 4,12,6), Horace (Carm. 2,6,10), and Propertius (2,34,67). Its water is praised as particularly suited for the washing of wool (Mart. 2,43,3; 4,28,3; 5,37,2; 8,28,3; 12,63,6; Stat. Silv. 3,3,93). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 870.

Camirus

(369 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Delian League (Κάμιρος; Kámiros, Lat. Camirus). City on the western coast of  Rhodes near the modern Kalavarda; it was one of the three ancient Rhodian cities, together with  Ialysus and  Lindus (this configuration is already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,656). According to the evidence of grave finds, C. was already inhabited in Mycenaean times. Its true foundation was by Dorian settlers. Together with Ialysus and …

Hierapytna

(200 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ἱεράπυτνα; Hierápytna). Town on Crete, modern Ierapetra, at the narrowest point of the island between eastern and central Crete (Str. 10,4,3). In the Hellenistic period a significant political player as attested by several treaties primarily from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC with other Cretan towns (Praesus, Itanus, Gortyn, Lyttus, Lato) [1]. There were links to powers outside Crete (Macedonia, Rhodes, Pergamum: Stv III 502; 551; Syll.3 627). An aggressive territorial policy in eastern Crete, especial…

Itanus

(129 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states | Crete | Apollo (Ἴτανος; Ítanos). Port in the extreme north-east of Crete, between two acropoleis, modern Erimupolis. Traces of settlement date as far back as the Minoan period. In the 7th cent. BC, Corobius, a purple fisher from I., allegedly led colonists from  Thera to  Cyrene (Hdt. 4,151). In the Hellenistic period, it served as the Aegean base of the Ptolemies [1]. In 112 BC, rivalries with  Hierapytna were mediated on Roman i…

Nareste

(45 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Roman castellum in Dalmatia on the Salona - Narona road (Plin. HN 3,142: N.; Nerate: other MS traditions; Geogr. Rav. 4,16: Netrate; 5,14: Nerente), modern Jesenice east of Split/Croatia. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Mayer, Die Sprache der alten Illyrier, 1957, 240f.

Antium

(258 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Tribus | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Latini, Latium | Oracles | Regio, regiones Harbour town in southern Latium, modern Anzio. According to first treaty between Rome and Carthage, dated by Polybius back to 508/507 BC [1], this town, rich in tradition (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,32), was at that time under Roman control (Pol. 3,22,11). Soon after, A. came under the influence of the  Volsci, and was thus inv…

Ager Pomptinus

(558 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Region in  Latium between   mons Albanus and the coast of the mare Tyrrhenum. Its name is derived from the town of Pometia (Cic. Rep. 2,44; Liv. 2,16,8; 17,5 f.; 25,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,50; 6,29), which it has not been possible to localize. Probably towards the end of the 6th cent. BC, the ager Pomptinus (AP) came into the possession of the neighbouring  Volsci. Rome's reaction to this was -- supposedly as early as 492 BC -- the foundation of the colony of  Norba (Liv. 2,34,6; Dion. Hal. …

Rhytium

(92 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ῥύτιον/ Rhýtion). City in southern central Crete (Plin. HN 4,59), today's Rhotasi. Traces of settlements from late Minoan to Venetian periods. First literary mention at Hom. Il. 2,648 (reference to its being well populated). Rhytium was important beyond its borders as a cultic site for Zeus Skylios [1. 141]. Politically, R. was dependant on Gortyn  (Str. 10,4,14). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H. Verbruggen, Le Zeus crétois, 1981. H. Beister, s. v. Pyrgos, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 580  M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae 1, 1935, 303 f.  I. F.…

Marathesium

(78 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μαραθήσιον; Marathḗsion). Town on the west coast of Asia Minor (ruins at the Ambar Tepe [1]); after an exchange with Samos, it belonged to the territory of Ephesus (Scyl. 98; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Plin. HN. 5,114). From 478/7 BC it was a member of the Delian League (ATL 1,336f.; 515; 2,80; 3,204; 307). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Meriç et al (Ed.) IK 17,1, 1981, 111 (with inscriptions 3112-3114), 100 (map). Magie 2, 886.

Lebena

(231 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine (Λεβήνα; Lebḗna). City on the southern coast of Crete (Str. 10,4,12; Plin. HN 4,59) near the modern village of Lendas. Older form of the name: Λεβήν/ Lebḗn. There is evidence that it was already settled in the Minoan period. Initially important as the harbour for Gortyn, L. became a religious centre from the 4th cent. BC onwards because of its sanctuary of Asclepius founded at a healing spring (the visible remains of the temple as well as the stoa and nympha…

Elyrus

(152 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ἔλυρος; Élyros). Extensive urban settlement in south-western Crete (Steph. Byz. s.v. E.) near Rodovani east of Kandans. Archaeological data: some Roman ruins (town walls, theatre, aqueduct). Syia was Elyrus' port (Steph. Byz. s.v.). It is possible that E. belonged to the koinon of the western Cretan Oreioi, who probably entered an alliance with Magas of Cyrene between 280 and 250 BC [1. 1; 2. 468]; from 183 BC, it was part of the alliance of thirty-one Cretan cities with Eumenes…

Ceraea

(77 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κεραία; Κεραῖαι; Keraía, Keraîai). Town on Crete in the north-west of the island, of undetermined location between Lappa and Polyrrhenia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Βήνη). In the Lyttian War (220 v.Chr.), C. -- together with other Cretan towns -- seceded from Cnossus and Gortyn (Pol. 4,53,6). In 183 BC, it was one of the Cretan towns to enter an alliance with Eumenes II of Pergamum [1. 179]. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 M. Guarducci (ed.), Inscriptiones Creticae IV, 1950.

Leuka (Ore)

(76 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Λευκὰ ὄρη; Leukà órē). The ‘white mountains’ in western Crete, up to 2,482 m high (Str. 10,4,4). Uncultivated and inaccessible with a remarkable stand of cypress trees (Plin. HN 16,142; cf. Theophr. Hist. pl. 4,1,3), in Plin. HN 31,43 also mentioned in connection with the search for sources. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. Bowman, Kreta, 1965, 271ff. P. Faure, Noms de montagnes crétoises, in: L'Association G. Budé. Lettres d'humanités 24, 1965, 426-446.

Forest

(294 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Linguistically, a forest in Latin (Serv. Aen. 1,310) is differentiated according to the degree of human cultivation ( silva, nemus,   saltus ) and the associated religious sphere ( lucus,  ‘Grove’). On one hand, forests caused fear and discomfort (Cic. Nat. D. 2,6; Plin. HN 12,3), on the other hand they were valued as places of (even productive) rest and recuperation (Plin. Ep. 1,6,2; 9,10,2; Tac. Dial. 9,6; 12,1). Forests received an extremely negative connotation among Romans in the context of the military …

Halex

(55 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἅληξ; Hálēx). River in southern Bruttium, modern Alice. According to Timaeus (FGrH 566 F 43b) and Strabo (6,1,9) the border river between Rhegium and Locri (Paus. 6,6,4, however, says Caecinus). In the Peloponnesian War (426 BC) scene of an Athenian expedition against Locri (Thuc. 3,99). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 955.

Lisus, Lissus

(156 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Λισος; Lisos in inscriptions, Λισ(σ)ός; Lis(s)ós in literature; cf. Λίσσα; Líssa, Scyl. 47; Ptol. 3,15,3; Tab. Peut. 8,5). City on the south-western coast of Crete, to the west of modern Sougia, in a position protected by mountains and only open to the sea. From the late 4th cent. BC, L. with Elyrus, Hyrtacina and Tarrha formed the koinón of the oreíoi (‘mountain dwellers’). The city was occupied from the Classical to the Byzantine periods. Of supraregional importance was the Asclepium with the me…

Dicte

(106 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Δίκτη; Díktē). Mountain in Crete, not identifiable with certainty. In particular Str. 10,4,12 indicates that in antiquity, D. was not in the Lassithi Hills as today, but rather designated the Modi ridge (539 m) on the eastern tip of Crete and that this was the birthplace of Zeus (cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,61; Diod. Sic. 5,70,6; Ath. 9,375f.). At the Minoan town of Palaikastro there was a sanctuary of Zeus Diktaios. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography P. Faure, Nouvelles recherches de spéléologie et de topographie crétoises, in: BCH 84, 1960, 189-220 E. Meyer,…
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