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Abū ʾl-Barakāt al-Baghdādī

(2,228 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman | Shlomo Pines
1. Life Abū ʾl-Barakāt Hibat Allāh ibn Malkā al-Baghdādī al-Baladī was a physician and philosopher in twelfth-century Iraq. His contemporaries dubbed him “the Singular One of the Age” (Ar. awḥad al-zamān), and some claimed that as a philosopher he had attained the level of Aristotle himself. Born in Balad, near Mosul, around 1077, Abūʾl-Barakāt was one of the foremost Jewish intellectuals of his time. Under his Hebrew name, Baruch ben Melekh, he wrote Bible and Talmud commentaries in Judeo-Arabic, including commentaries on the Book of Ecclesiastes and on tractate Soṭ…

Sao Pãulo

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Brazil Norman A. Stillman

Miṭrani

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ṭrani Norman A. Stillman

Raphael Hayyim Moses

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Sephardi Impact on Islamicate Jewry

(2,362 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
1.    Demographic Impact The arrival of Sephardim in the Islamic world following the expulsion from Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1497 marked a veritable watershed in the history of the Jews of the Muslim world. Many of the exiles sought a refuge in the Islamic kingdoms of the Maghreb, in Mamluk Egypt and the Levant, and in the expanding Ottoman Empire, which within a generation would take over all of the Middle East and North Africa from Persia to Morocco. The Iberian refugees infused new vitality—de…

Ibn ʿAṭāʾ, Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm (Abraham ben Nathan)

(471 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm Ibn ʿAṭāʾ (Abraham ben Nathan) was leader of Qayrawanese Jewry in the first third of the eleventh century. He was a member of a wealthy elite that included the Ben Berekhiah, Tahertī, and Ibn al-Majjānī families. His father, Nathan, may have been a communal official, although this is not clear. He was a major supporter of the academy ( bet midrash) in Qayrawan and was also a generous contributor to the Babylonian yeshivot, particularly to the Sura yeshiva, the renewal of which he helped to finance. Ibn ʿAṭāʾ served as court physician to the Zirid amirs Bādis (r. 996–10…

Los Angeles

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Gikatilla/Ibn Jikatilla

(24 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
See Ibn Chiquitilla, Isaac (fl. 10th Century) , and Ibn Chiquitilla, Moses ben Samuel ha-Kohen (11th century) Norman A. Stillman

Qudsī, Murād al- (Mourad El-Kodsi)

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Karaism Norman A. Stillman

Interfaith Relations

(4,378 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman | Maurits H. van den Boogert
1.   Medieval Period It would be anachronistic to think in contemporary post-Enlightenment terms of interfaith relations in the medieval Islamic world. The modern virtues of social, religious, and political equality would have been totally incomprehensible to anyone living in the Dār al-Islām (Domain of Islam)—or in Byzantium and Latin Christendom, for that matter. Muslims, Christians, and Jews all believed that they had been granted the most perfect of divine dispensations and, whether they had been given te…

Yeshuʿa ben Judah

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Jeshua ben Judah (Abu 'l-Faraj Furqan ibn Asad) Norman A. Stillman

Money Changing

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Banking Norman A. Stillman

Sefrou

(2,036 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
1.   General Description and History  Sefrou is a large town in north-central Morocco that had over thirty thousand inhabitants at the end of the twentieth century. It is located at an altitude of 850 meters (2,790 feet) in the foothills of the Middle Atlas just above the Sais plain only 30 kilometers (18 miles) south of Fez. The town is situated in a green, picturesque setting surrounded by gardens and fruit orchards (most notably cherry) that give it an oasislike aspect. The area is watered by seve…

Egyptian Riots (1945, 1947)

(393 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Mass demonstrations against Zionism were called for November 2, 1945 ( Balfour Declaration Day) in the major cities of Egypt by several Egyptian nationalist and Islamist groups, such Miṣr al-Fatāt, the Muslim Brotherhood, and the Young Men’s Muslim Association. A report by the British police commissioner of Cairo written three days before the demonstrations noted “considerable ill-feeling . . . against Jews,” but stated that security precautions in place alleviated any cause for concern. Events proved othe…

Baḥuṣim

(368 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Baḥuṣim (Heb. outsiders), or sometimes baḥūṣiyya, a slightly arabized variant of the Hebrew, was the name Jewish townsfolk gave to the semi-nomadic, tent-dwelling Jews who lived in duwwārs, or small encampments, in the area extending from the region around Jerid and Le Kef in western Tunisia to the province of Constantine across the border in Algeria, where they could be found between Suq-el-Ahras and Tébessa and in the southern oases. Muslims referred to them as Yahūd al-cArab (Ar. Bedouin Jews). The baḥuṣim were often allied with or under the protection of larger Arab tribal confed…

Israel Andalusian Orchestra

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music Norman A. Stillman

Rav ve-Metropolit

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
See Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi) Norman A. Stillman

Marseilles

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman

Ṣarrāf

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Banking (Modern Period) Norman A. Stillman

Megorashim

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Toshavim Norman A. Stillman
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