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Hercyna

(84 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἕρκυνα; Hérkyna). River in Boeotia, whose powerful, in part lukewarm springs originate in  Lebadea at the mouth of a rock canyon (cave sanctuary and temple) and were closely connected to the cult of the neighbouring oracle of  Trophonius. References: Paus. 9,39,2-8; Plin. HN 31,15; Plut. Mor. 771f; Philostr. VA 8,19. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. H., RE 8, 690f. H. G. Lolling, Reisenotizen aus Griechenland (1876 und 1877), 1989, 609-614 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις 5, 21981, 244-250 Philippson/Kirsten 1, 445-448.

Libethria, -um

(111 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Λειβήθριον, Λιβήθριον; Leibḗthrion, Libḗthrion). Boeotian mountain range with a cult cave and spring sanctuary of the Muses and ‘L(e)ibethridian’ nymphs c. 7 km from Coronea; either the part of Helicon situated in the south-west between the mountains Megali Lutsa (1,548 m) and Paliovuna (1,747 m) or the mountain range stretching from modern Coronea east to modern Petra. Sources: Paus. 9,34,4; Str. 9,2,25; 10,3,17; Verg. Ecl. 7,21 with Serv. Ecl. 7,21. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862, 236 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίο…

Hysiae

(210 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ὑσίαι; Hysíai). Boeotian town on the northern slope of the  Cithaeron east of Plataeae, west of Erythrae (Eur. Bacch. 751; Thuc. 3,24,2; Paus. 9,1,6), c. 2 km east of modern Erythres (formerly Kriekouki) near the church of Pantanassa. Before the battle of Plataeae in 479 BC, the Persian encampment on the Asopus stretched from Erythrae through H. to Plataeae, whereas the Greek army initially took up a position near Erythrae, then moved via H. to the sanctuary o…

Messapium

(77 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Μεσσάπιον; Messápion). Mountain chain (modern Ktypas) in the northeast of Boeotia, the eastern edge of which separated the mainland territory of Chalcis on Euboea from the rest of Boeotia. Sources: Aeschyl. Ag. 293 (with schol.); Aeschyl. fr. 55,10 Mette; Strab. 9,2,13; Paus. 9,22,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography S. C. Bakhuizen, Salganeus and the Fortifications on Its Mountains, 1970 Philippson/Kirsten 1,2, 497f. P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979, 61.

Glisas

(158 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Γλίσ[σ]ας/ Glís[s]as, Γλισ[σ]άς/ Glis[s]ás). Town already mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Il. 2,504), located on the southern slope of the Hypatus mountain range by modern Hypaton (formerly Sirtzi) c. 10 km northeast of Thebae, to which G. belonged (Hdt. 9,43,2; Str. 9,2,31; Paus. 9,19,2f.; Stat. Theb. 7,306; Steph. Byz. s.v. G.); settlement traces reach back into the Neolithic period; extant are graves from the Early Helladic, geometric and c…

Oeroe

(57 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὠερόη/ Ōeróē). River (present-day Livadostras) which rises on the northern slope of Mt. Cithaeron at Plataeae and flows into the bay of Creusis in the Corinthian Gulf. References: Hdt. 9,51,2; Paus. 9,4,4. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. O., RE 17, 2031-2033  H.G. Lolling, Reisenotizen aus Griechenland: 1876 und 1877, 1989, 556-562  Müller, 528f.

Hyria

(140 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὑρία; Hyría). Boeotian town on the  Euripus near Aulis and Chalia, mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships. Hometown of Lycus, Nycteus, Orion, Euphemus and Antiope. Dependent on Thebes in the classical period, from the Hellenistic period on Tanagra; the localization north of modern Paralia Avlidas (formerly Dhramesi) or on a hill called Tseloneri (also Glypha) on the west side of the Euripus Bay across from Chalcis remains …

Eteonus

(132 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἐτεωνός; Eteōnós). Boeotian city on the northern slope of Cithaeron, described in Hom. Il. 2,497 as πολύκνημος ( polýknēmos, ‘with many mountain forests’); renamed in the classical period as Σκαφ(λ)αί/Σκάρφη ( Skaph(l)ai/ Skárphē); References: Str. 7,3,6; 9,2,24; Plin. HN 4,26; Stat. Theb. 7,266; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; inscriptions in [2. 84f.]. E. belonged to one of the regions in the Boeotian League under the control of Thebes (Hell. Oxy. 19,3,387; 20,3,438). The tomb of Oedipus was visible in the Demeter sanct…

Hadylium

(80 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἁδύλιον, Ἡδύλε[ι]ον; Hadýlion, Hēdyle[i]on). Mountain range (modern Vetritza) with an average ridge height of 300-400 m (highest point: 543 m) on the northern border of Phocis and Boeotia. In the west at Parapotamioi separated from  Parnassus by the Kephisos. In the east and southeast bordering on the mountains Palaiovouna (ancient Hyphanteion?) and Akontion. Evidence: Dem. Or. 19,148 (with schol.); Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 157; Str. 9,3,16; Plin. HN 4,25; Plut. Sulla 16f. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, I,2, 425.

Celones

(80 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κέλωνες; Kélōnes). Tribe, only mentioned in Diod. Sic. 17,110,4, who during Xerxes' campaign were deported from Boeotia to Media, where Alexander the Great still found them in 326 BC. Probably a mix-up with the Euboean  Eretria [1] whose inhabitants were deported by Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC (Hdt. 6,119,1f.; Str. 16,1,25; Anth. Pal. 7,256; 259; cf. also the Gortuae, mentioned in Curt. 4,12,11, who supposedly followed the Persians from Euboea to Media). Funke, Peter (Münster)

Boium

(139 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Βοιόν, Βοῖον; Boión, Boîon). City in Doris, belonging, along with Erineus, Cytenium and Acyphas, to the Doric tetrapolis of cities allegedly founded by Doris (Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; schol. Pind. Pyth. 121; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6). B. is still mentioned in the 6th cent. AD in Hierocles, Synekdemos 643,9. The only attested historical event was the Phocian attack of 458/7 BC (Thuc. 1,107,2; Diod. Sic. 11,79,4). Probab…

Cyrtones

(144 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κύρτωνες; Kýrtōnes). Small Boeotian city (πόλισμα) on the border with eastern Locris, north-west of Hyettus on a pass to Korseia leading across the Chlomon mountains; probably to be identified with the sparse ancient remains near modern Kolaka. The old name was Cyrtone (Κυρτώνη; Kyrtṓnē, Paus. 9,24,4). In the Roman period there was a temple and grove of Apollo and Artemis in C., as well as a spring sacred to the nymphs. References: Paus. 9,24,4; cf. also Hdn. De prosodia catholica 3,1,293; 337; Hdn. De paronymis 3,2,861; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kyrtones. Funke, Peter (Münste…

Hippotae

(94 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱππόται; Hippótai). Boeotian settlement (κώμη; kṓmē) between Thisbe and Coronea, probably identifiable with ancient remains near modern Koukoura on a high plateau on the eastern slope of the southern peak of Helicon, known as Paliaovouna. Thebes besieged and destroyed H. at an indeterminate time and divided the land between Thisbe and Coronea. Named in Plut. Mor. 775 A-B. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography A. R. Burn, Helikon in History, in: ABSA 44, 1949, 317f., 321 Fossey, 339 Pritchett 5, 156 A. Schachter, Reconstructing Thespiai, in: A. Hurst, A. Schachter…

Coralius

(83 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κωράλιος; Kōrálios, Κουράλιος; Kourálios). River north-east of  Coronea. The river's banks were home to the Boeotian central sanctuary of Athena Itonia (Alc. 3 D.; Alc. 4). Callim. H. 5,64 calls it Kurálios. Str. (9,2,29; 33; 9,5,14; 17) confuses the C. and the other river by the same name near the sanctuary of Athena Itonia in Achaea Phthiotis with the Kuarios, a tributary of the river Peneius in Thessaliotis. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979, 116.

Hippocrene

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱπποκρήνη; Hippokrḗnē, Ἵππου κρήνη; Híppou krḗnē, ‘horse spring’; on the names, see [5. 1853]). A well, modern Kriopigadhi, below the eastern peak of the  Helicon to the west of the chapel of Agios Ilias which is built from ancient re-used architectural fragments [1. 186f.; 2. 239f.; 3. 97-99; 4. 621-624]. Documented as early as in Hes. Theog. 1ff. as a place of the Muses and poetic inspiration. From the Hellenistic period, the creation of the well was put down to a kick from the hoof…

Gargaphia

(70 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Γαργαφία; Gargaphía). Source fountain near  Plataeae, from which the Greek army drew water before the battle in 479 BC until it was filled in by the Persians (Hdt. 9,25,2; 49,2-51,1; 52; Paus. 9,4,3; Plin. HN 4,25); located by [2. 557; 3. 113-115]; regarding G.'s identification as the place where  Actaeon surprised Artemis while bathing [1. 757]. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Bölte, s.v. G. 2), RE 7, 757 2 Müller 3 Pritchett, 1.

Eilesium

(83 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Εἰλέσιον, Εἱλέσιον, Εἰρεσίαι, Εἰρέσιον, Ἐρέσιον; Eilésion, Heilésion, Eiresíai, Eirésion, Erésion; on the names: [2. 106f.]). City mentioned already by Homer (Il. 2,499; H. in Apollinem 32) in the south-east of Boeotia near modern Asopia (formerly: Khlembotsari) [1. 127-130]; a description of the ancient remnants (with a different identification) also in [2. 91]. Sources: Str. 9,2,17; Plin. HN 4,26; Dionysius Kalliphontos 90; EM s.v. Εἰρέσιον; Suda s.v. Ἐρέσιον; Steph. Byz. s.v. Εἰλέσιον. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey 2 P. W. Wallace, St…

Cytenium

(230 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κυτίνιον, Κύτινον, Κυτένιον; Kytínion, Kýtinon, Kyténion). Along with Boium, Erineus and Acyphas/Pindus one of the cities of central Greek Doris supposedly founded by  Dorus (Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6; Conon, FGrH 26 F 1,27; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Aristid. 12,40; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κύτινα; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121; 126). Aeschin. Leg. 116 with schol. emphasizes the special status of C. among the Dorian cities; for Hsch. s.v. Λιμοδωριεῖς (‘hungry Dorians’) see  Doris [II 1]. C. is to be located on the southern slope…

Chaeronea

(522 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Χαιρώνεια, Χηρώνια; Chairṓneia, Chērṓnia). Westernmost town of  Boeotia on the border to Phocis, located in the northern foothills of the Thurion range in the Cephissus valley near the modern C. (formerly Kapraina). Sources: Paus. 9,40,5-41,7; Str. 9,2,37. A prehistoric settlement has been found to the north-east on the banks of the Cephissus [2. 382f.], a Mycenaean chamber tomb close t…

Eleon

(130 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἐλεών , Ἑλεών; Eleṓn, Heleṓn). Boeotian town (Plin. HN 4,26), already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,500, between Thebes and Tanagra near the mod. Harma (formerly: Dritsa). The town, which was fortified anew during the Middle Ages, was settled from the Early Helladic to the Roman period. Still independent in the classical period (Paus. 1,29,6), later E. together with Harma, Mycalessus, and Pharae formed a synoecism dependent on Tanagra (…
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