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(85 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] (in linguistics). The third letter of the Greek  alphabet was used for the voiced/g/ (as in New High German Gold) in accordance with the Semitic model; also used for the nasal [], e.g. in ἄγκος ( ánkos). However, the Etruscans gave this letter the sound of [k]; it was also used accordingly in Rome, where later on a new letter was invented for a voiced/g/. More under  G;  K; Italy (alphabetic scripts). Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen) Bibliography Leumann, 9f. R. Wachter, Altlat. Inschr., 1987, 14-18.

Word families

(317 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] Within the lexicon of an Indo-European language, words which share a meaning-bearing core element form a WF. It is always particular words belonging to the class of verbs, substantives, adjectives, and adverbs ('content words') that together make up a WF. The core element is often the stem of a primary verb, i.e. a verbal root: Gr. ἀγ(-ω), δεικ(-νυμι), φερ(-ω); or Lat. ag(-o), dīc(-o), fer(-o). A WF is enriched by word formation, particularly by suffixation (φορ-ά, in combination with ablaut; ag-men) and compounding (καρπο-φόρ-ος; frūgi-fer: these two each belon…

I (linguistics)

(533 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] A. Phonology The tenth letter of the Greek  alphabet had the following sounds: 1. vocalic (syllabic) ı̆ in δίκη, τίς, 2. vocalic ı̄ in ἴς ‘strength’, 3. consonantal (non-syllabic.) i̯, the latter applies to short diphthongs ( ai̯; early classical ei̯; oi̯), long diphthongs ( āi̯; ę̄i̯; ǭi̯) as well as after vocalic i (non-phonematic): αἴθω, δείκνυμι, οἰνή, τοῖο; χώρᾹι dat., τιμῆι, ἀγρῶι, ἠῶιος; Pamphylian διια [5. 312]. I had a similar value in Latin: 1. ı̆ in dictus, quis, 2.  ı̄ in uı̄s ‘strength’, fı̄o, 3. in Old Latin aide accusative ‘temple’, ex-deicendum, oino ac…

Y (linguistics)

(77 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] In Greek, the letter Y (ypsilon) first represented the vowel [u], later [ü]; the first was kept in Greek dipthongs (ναῦς = [nau̯s]; Ζεύς = [zeu̯s]) and in the Old Latin letter V (RVFVS; AVT). The Y that was later adopted into the Latin alphabet mainly represented Greek [ü] (LYRA, LYDVS), as well as a similar sounding variation in original Latin words (inscriptional FYDES) [1. 9, 51 f.]. V (linguistics) Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen) Bibliography 1 Leumann.

A (linguistics)

(160 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] The first letter of the Greek  alphabet designates two Greek sounds, short a and long ā; the same thing applies to the Latin (and other languages). In the Indo-European  ablaut, a and ā, despite their dispersal among the languages of the world, were notably not basic vowels. In many inherited Greek and Latin words, a-vowels came into existence only through the effect of a vanished or transformed  laryngeal: ἄγ-ω, ag-o <  2eǵ-; ἀντ-ί, ant-e <  2ent-i; στα-τός, sta-tus <  st2-tos; στᾶ-θι, stā-men <  ste2-; lat. gnā-tus <  ǵn̥1-tos. Furthermore, the Greek ă(…

B (Linguistically)

(155 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] The second letter in the Greek and Latin  alphabet. Originally, it denoted a plosive (as in New High German Band) but later became a fricative at times (Lat. epigraphy IVVENTE = iubente; Modern Greek). In the Indo-European base language, the sound/b/ was probably quite rare. In words inherited from Greek or Latin, the letter b rarely harks back to the sound b (as in βελτίων) and more often to different sounds: for instance, to gw in βοῦς, bōs ( Gutturals); to m- in βραχύς, breuis; to bh in lubet; to dh in ruber, iubeō; to du̯ in bis (Old Latin duis). However, b is predominantly k…

G (linguistics)

(193 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] The letter G is a Latin peculiarity. Because the Latin  C, which had taken the place of the Greek Gamma, had acquired the phonetic value/k/, there was a need for a letter to represent the common Latin phoneme/g/; the new letter was produced by adding a line to the letter C, and in the Latin alphabet took the place of the redundant  Z. This major achievement is ascribed to a certain Sp.  Carvilius [2] (GRF 3 [5. 324-333; 3. 70-72]). In words with Indo-European roots, the Greek and Latin media/g/ as a rule continues from the proto-Indo-European g (velar) or ǵ (palatal) [4. 83; 2…

E (linguistics)

(437 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] The fifth letter of the Greek  alphabet was at first called εἶ (pronounced ẹ̄; see below), later ἒ ψιλόν ( èpsilón) [1. 140]. It could indicate various e vowels in local alphabets, e.g in Old Attic: 1) the Early Greek short ĕ (ΕΧΣΕΝΕΝΚΕΤΟ ( EXSENENKETO); also in ΤΕΙΧΟΣ ( TEICHOS) with ‘true ει’), only the first value surviving (i.e. as short ĕ: ἐξενεγκέτω; exenenkétō; τεῖχος ( teîchos) soon became tẹ̄khos); 2) an open, long ę̄ from original Greek ē (ΑΝΕΡ; ANER, ΑΝΕΘΕ̱ΚΕ; ANETHEKE, later ἀνήρ; anḗr, ἀνέθηκε; anéthēke) or ā (ΜΝΕΜΑ, later μνῆμα; mnêma); 3) a closed, long ẹ̄ [2. …

Homeric language

(1,214 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] A. Archaic character Because of the great age of the Iliad and Odyssee, Homeric language (HL) contains archaicisms that disappeared in an early stage in Greek and in later texts are attested usually only on the basis of imitation of Homer (see below E.): in the noun the instr. in -φι (ἶφι, ναῦφι; otherwise only in Mycenaean), Ζῆν' (accusative) ‘Zeus’ (in the verse end before a vowel) = Old Indian dyā́m, the suffix of ἀνδρο-μέος; in the verb, additional root presents (ἔδ-μεναι, στεῦ-ται) and aorists (ἔ-κτα-το, ὦρ-το), presents (δάμ-νη-μι), short-vowelled subjuncti…

J (linguistics)

(129 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] Already in antiquity there were attempts to render the different phonetic values of the Latin letter I with different characters. But in general the same character applied to syllabic sounds ( i, ı̄) as well as to consonantal sounds ( , i̯i̯), a difficulty ancient grammarians were aware of [2. 2, 12-44]. Grammarians of early modern times, especially P. Ramus (P. La Ramée), made another attempt by first applying the purely graphic variant J to the consonantal sound [1. 12]. In this way jam, jocus, jubeo, Julius, cujus could be differentiated externally from etiam, ias…

Greek literary lan­guages

(1,321 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] A. General and historical Only utility texts have survived from the Mycenaean period. The oldest extant literary texts, Homer's Iliad and Odyssey (8th cent. BC), are written in the epic literary language. While predominantly in the Ionic dialect, the language also displays the influences of earlier, partly linguistically different (Aeolic), sources and artificialities. Consequently, the epic literary language does not correspond to any particular local dialect. Even after Homer, however, it displays a…


(121 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] (Ἀρταῖοι; Artaîoi). A. was the name, according to Hdt. 7,61, by which the Persians were formerly referred to, by themselves and by their neighbours; Artaeus was also in common use as a Persian personal name (Hdt. 7,22; 66; Diod. Sic. 2,32,6). A. is derived from the Indo-Iranian noun árta-/r̥tá- = truth, consistency, order; cf. the many Persian personal names, formed with this prefix (e.g. Artabanus, Artaphrenes). The relationship between the tribal and the personal name is uncertain (cf. FGrH 4 Hellanicus fr. 60; Hsch. s.v. Ἀ.). Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen) Bibliogr…

D (linguistics)

(208 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] The fourth letter of the Greek and Latin  alphabet denoted a voiced plosive (as in New High German Ding, Modern English dove); its partial development into a fricative (Mod. Greek δέκα with  as in Engl. there) did not take place until fairly late. The similarity in  pronunciation between Greek and Latin is shown by  loan-words: diadēma, κουστωδία ( koustōdía). In Greek and Latin inherited words, d frequently represents Proto-Indo-European d: δέκα; déka, decem < * deḱṃ; ἰδ-εῖν; ideĩn, uid-ēre < * u̯id-; δεξιτερός; dexiterós, dexter etc. On the other hand, e.g. Lat. medius…

H (linguistics)

(412 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] A. History of writing The eighth letter of the Greek alphabet is based on the Semitic consonant letter ḥet. Consequently H described the consonant phoneme/h/ in several local Greek alphabets, e.g. in ancient Attic ΗΟΡΟΣ = ὅρος; from this stems also the Latin use of H. In other Greek alphabets, e.g. that of Miletus (where/h-/ had disappeared), H was used for e-vowels. Occasionally H in the early period is also a symbol for the syllable /hē/ or /he/; hence in the Naxian Nicander inscription C…

F (linguistics)

(303 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] The use of the sixth letter of the alphabet  was restricted at an early stage in Greek, as the sound designated by it ( at the opening of the syllable) was already no longer available in the decisive Ionic-Attic language at the beginning of written records; in other dialects  is however still frequently attested ( Digamma). For the aspirated articulation that originated from * su̯- there was in Greek the spelling H [3. 23]. It was used in Italy for the fricative sound /f/ [1], in Etruscan and Venetian alternately with HF, also in early Latin FHE:FHAKED (Fibula Praen…

W (linguistics)

(46 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[German version] W is a letter that does not appear until after antiquity, arising out of the ligature of V V that represents consonantal in Western Germanic languages [1. 102 § 105]. V (linguistics) Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen) Bibliography 1 W. Braune, H. Eggers, Althochdeutsche Grammatik, 141987.

F (sprachwissenschaftlich)

(248 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[English version] Der Gebrauch des sechsten Alphabetbuchstabens  wurde im Griech. frühzeitig eingeschränkt, da der dadurch bezeichnete Laut ( im Silbenanglitt) im maßgebenden Ion.-Att. bereits bei Beginn der Überl. nicht mehr vorhanden war; in anderen Dial. ist  jedoch noch häufig bezeugt (Digamma). Für die aus * su̯- entstandene aspirierte Lautung gab es im Griech. die Schreibung H [3. 23]. Sie wurde in Italien für den spirantischen Laut /f/[1] verwendet, im Etr. und Venetischen im Wechsel mit HF, dazu in frühlat. FHE:FHAKED (Fibula Praenestina, CIL I2 3). Da der Buch…

Griechische Literatursprachen

(1,231 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[English version] A. Allgemeines und Geschichtliches Aus myk. Zeit sind nur Gebrauchstexte erhalten. Die ältesten überl. lit. Texte, Homers Ilias und Odyssee (8. Jh. v.Chr.), sind in der ep. Literatursprache (= LS) abgefaßt. Sie ist hauptsächlich durch den ion. Dial. geprägt; außerdem weist sie Einwirkungen älterer, z.T. sprachlich andersartiger (aiol.) Quellen sowie auch Künstlichkeiten auf. Folglich deckt sich die ep. LS mit keinem bestimmten Lokaldial. Doch zeigt sie auch nach Homer in Werken derselben oder einer…

Homerische Sprache

(1,064 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[English version] A. Altertümlichkeit Infolge des hohen Alters von Ilias und Odyssee enthält die h.S. Altertümlichkeiten, die im Griech. früh zurückgegangen und in späteren Texten gewöhnlich nur aufgrund von Homernachahmung (s.u. E.) bezeugt sind: im Nomen den Instr. auf -φι (ἶφι, ναῦφι; sonst nur im Myk.), Ζῆν' Akk. “Zeus” (am Versende vor Vok.) = altind. dyā́m, das Suffix von ἀνδρο-μέος; im Vb. einen zusätzlichen Bestand an Wz.-Präs. (ἔδ-μεναι, στεῦ-ται) und -Aor. (ἔ-κτα-το, ὦρ-το), das -Präs. (δάμ-νη-μι), den kurzvok. Konj. (ἐρεί-ο-μεν, δαμάσσ-ε-ται), die freiere…

K (sprachwissenschaftlich)

(307 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen)
[English version] Der elfte Buchstabe des griech. Alphabets ist bis h. in Gebrauch. Anders im Lat.: Für den Laut /k/ standen zunächst C K Q zur Verfügung. Infolge einer - wohl durch die Buchstabennamen cē kā qū bedingten - orthographischen Regelung wurde K namentlich vor a-Vokal verwendet [3. 10; 5. 15-18]; da es aber neben C (und Q) eigentlich überzählig war, kam es schon im 6. Jh.v.Chr. weitgehend außer Gebrauch. Die Schreibung <KA> erhielt sich aber neben <CA> in alteingeführten Wörtern: in Eigennamen ( Karthago, Kastrum, Kaeso, Karus) sowie in juristischen ( iudika-, kaput) und r…
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