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Salmydessus

(201 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαλμυδησσός/ Salmydēssós). [German version] [1] Coastal region Coastal strip of the Pontos Euxeinos [I] without harbours, dangerously shallow for navigation, 700 stadia in length (Ps.-Scymn. 724-727; Ptol. 3,11,4: Σ. ἤτοι Ἁλμυδησσὸς αἰγιαλός ( Salmydēssòs ḗtoi Halmydēssòs aigialós) 'shore of S. or Halmydessus') from the Bosporus [1] to Cape Thynias, where the Astae (Ἀσταί/ Astaí) settled near other Thraci (Str. 7,6,1; cf. 1,3,4; 7). In 513 BC, the Thraci on the S. surrendered without a fight to Darius [1] I on his campaign against the Scythae (Hd…

Albani

(148 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀλβανοί; Albanoí). Group of tribes in  Albania (Str. 11,4), in modern Dagestan. They fought with  Darius against  Alexander III [4] (Arr. Anab. 3,8,5; 11,4; 13,1). A. appear again in connection with the 3rd Mithridatic War (74 to 63 BC): Oroizes, the king of A., attacked Pompey in 65 BC with 60,000 men infantry and 22,000 riders at Cyrus (today Kura), when the former was on the march from Armenia to the Caspian Sea through their land. Beaten, they made peace with Rome (Liv. Per. 1…

Borysthenes

(120 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βορυσθένης; Borysthénēs). After the Ister, the largest river in the northern area of the Black Sea (Hdt. 4,53), the modern Dnieper. Debouches into the west of the Black Sea, into the same lagoon as does the Hypanis. The B. was navigable for 600 stades upstream (Str. 7,3,17). The Skythai georgoi settled on its fertile lower reaches. Antiquity had no clear idea as to its course in the hinterland (Hdt. 4,18; Str. 7,2,4; Procop. Goth. 4,5). It had the name Danapris or Danaper from the 4th cent. AD; the Huns called it by the Iranian…

Deultum

(300 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia (Δεβελτός; Debeltós). Settlement c. 25 km west of  Burgas, modern Debelt/Bulgaria. Traces from the late Bronze Age, and afterwards Thracian Hallstatt settlement that later flourished because of its trade with the Greek colonies of the Black Sea. D. was connected with the sea via Lake Mandra which in antiquity stretched further south than it does today. Attic goods of the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC, Hellenistic c…

Regnum Bosporanum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
The 'Bosporan kingdom' on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), the heart of which was the Kerč peninsula on the so-called Cimmerian Bosporus [2], called Kimmerikòs Bósporos or simply Bósporos (Diod. Sic. 12,36; 20,22). Cf. the two maps below. [German version] I. The founding of the kingdom The Greek cities on the straits of Kerč joined together c. 480 BC under the leadership of Panticapaeum, probably originally as a protective alliance against the native Scythians. The first dynasty was the Archaeanactids, whose founder Archaeanax proba…

Cypsela

(125 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium (Κύψελα; Kýpsela, Cypsala). Inland Thracian town on the lower left bank of the  Hebrus at the via Egnatia (Str. 7,7,4), in a very marshy area (Str. 7,7,4; 6; 7a,1,9f.; 48; 57), mod. Ipsala. In the 4th cent. BC, C. was residence and mint of the  Odrysae dynasty. Because it was in Ptolemaic possession, the town was besieged by  Antiochus [3] II in 254 BC (Polyaenus, Strat. 4,16); in c. 200 BC, it was taken by Philip V. In 188 BC, Cn. Manlius Vulso was attacked by Thracians near C. In the Byzantine perio…

Cabyle

(323 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Moesi, Moesia (Καβύλη, Kabýlē). City near today's Kabile on the bend of the river Tonzo in the district of Jambol/Bulgaria. Traces of settlements have been documented from the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. During the mid 5th cent., C. developed intensive connections to the Aegean region. A mountain sanctuary with Cybele relief was created on the acropolis. In 342/41 BC, C. was conquered by Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,44; 10,14)…

Burgas

(151 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] City on the west coast of the Black Sea. Several prehistoric and ancient settlements have been recorded in modern B. (the oldest from the Chalcolithic period up until the Late Bronze Age). There was a Thracian settlement in Zlatkite kladenci; from the 6th cent. BC into the 2nd cent. BC possibly an empórion of  Apollonia [2]. There were three necropolises; on the height of Siloto there was a Thracian fortress and 6 km away from this were copper mines (today Vărli brjag) owned by Thracian princes. A Thracian settlement, Tyrsis, was l…

Pagrae

(82 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πάγραι; Págrai). Port settlement on the Caucasian coast of the Pontos Euxeinos, 180 stadia from Hieros Limen (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 28; Anon. Peripl. m. Eux. 10r 9; possibly identical with Toricus in Scyl. Peripl. m. Eux. 74), near modern Gelenǧik, 43 km to the southeast of modern Novorossiysk. Probably part of the Regnum Bosporanum. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 237f.  D.D. and G.T. Kacharava, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoy epochi, 1991, 207, 280f.

Tyle

(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τύλη; Týlē). [German version] [1] City in Thrace Capital of the Celtic kingdom in Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), founded under Comontorius in 278 BC, abandoned in 212 BC after the Thracians' victory over the Celtic king Cavarus (Pol. 4,46). On the basis of Steph. Byz. s.v. Τύλις, T. is generally localized near Haemus, in the region around modern Tulovo (district of Kazanlăk in Bulgaria). A textual variant in Steph. Byz. loc.cit., however, suggests a location in the Late Antiquity province of Haemimontus in southeastern Thrace, where the fortress Τουλεοῦς/ Touleoûs (Procop. Aed. 4,11,20…

Iazyges, Iazuges

(208 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰάζυγες; Iázyges). Iranian-Sarmatian tribe, first documented around the birth of Christ. They probably settled from the 3rd cent. BC at the earliest on the  Maeotis east of the Tanais in the area of the Roxolani (Ptol. 3,7; Amm. Marc. 22,8,31). In the 1st cent. BC a branch of the I. turned towards the southwest, crossed the Carpathians and settled on the plains between the lower Danube and the Tibiscus (later the province of Pannonia; cf. Ov. Pont. 4,7,9; Tr. 2,191; Ἰάζυγες μετανάσται/ lázyges metanástai with a list of the Iazygian cities, Ptol. 7,1f.; Str. 7…

Sale

(104 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάλη; Sálē). City on the northern shore of the Aegean Sea, west of Doriscus in the south east of the foothills of the Serrheum, probably at present-day Alexandrupolis. Built as part of the peraia of Samothrace (Hdt. 7,59,2), S. belonged to the territory of Maronea [1] in 188 BC at the time of the Syrian Wars (Liv. 38,41,8: vicus Maronitarum). In the Roman Imperial Period, S. was a road-station ( mutatio) on the road from Traianopolis to Philippi (It. Burd. 602). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until th…

Tearus

(171 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τέαρος/ Téaros). Tributary of the Contadescus (modern Kaynarca), which in turn flows into the Agrianes, a tributary of the Hebrus. According to Hdt. the T. had healing water from 38 springs, some warm, some cold; the area of the source was two days' journey both from Apollonia [2] on the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) and from Heraeum near Perinthus on the Propontis. On his campaign against the Scythae in 513 BC Darius [1] I erected a column with  inscription on the T. (Hdt. 4,89 f.)…

Eunones

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] King of the Aorsi, supported C.  Iulius Aquila and  Cotys I against  Mithridates IX. However after the capture of Uspe, he received the latter but handed him over later on the condition that his life would be spared (Tac. Ann. 12,15-20).  Aorsi von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 342f.

Naparis

(21 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νάπαρις; Náparis). Left-bank tributary of the Danube in Scythia (Hdt. 4,48); not identifiable. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Theodoropolis

(165 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Θεοδωρόπολις/  Theodōrópolis, also Θεοδωρούπολις/ Theodōroúpolis). Name of several towns and forts in the northern Balkan peninsula founded by Iustinianus [1] I and named after his wife Theodora [2], which have not all been located. [German version] [1] City in Moesia Secunda City in Moesia Secunda (Moesi, with map) on the Danube (Ister [1]), between Securisca (modern Cherkovitsa) and Iatrus (modern Krivina; Proc. Aed. 4,7,5). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] Fort in Dacia Ripiensis Fort in Dacia Ripiensis (Proc. Aed. 4,6,18) on the right b…

Zerynthus

(183 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ζήρυνθος/ Zḗrynthos, Ζηρυνθία/ Zērynthía). City with a grotto (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ζήρυνθος) to the west of the mouth of the Hebrus (modern Marica; Liv. 41,38,4; Nicander, Theriaka 461f.) on the coast (Ov. Trist. 1,10,19: Zerynthia litora) of the Thracian peraia of Samothrace; there was a grotto sanctuary Z. on Samothrace as well (schol. Aristoph. Pax 277b α 3f.). The cult connected with the two Z.es was that of the goddess Zerynthia (Lycophron, Alexandra 958: Μήτηρ Ζηρυνθία/ Mḗtēr Zērynthía), probably a Thracian chthonic deity with a local epiclesis, who wa…

Xanthi

(45 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξάνθοι; Xánthoi). Thracian people (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 180), whose location cannot be determined; mentioned in Str. 13,1,21 in a list of Thracian/Trojan homonyms as a parallel to the River Xanthus (Hom. Il. 20,74; Scamander) in the Troad. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Beos

(50 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βέος; Béos). Ancient settlement between Aprus and Resisto, today's Bunarli. The name B. often appears on products of Thracian Hellenistic toreutic: Rogozen, Vraza, Borovo and Agighiol. Probably identical with the mutatio Bedizus (IH 570,1; 601,9). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Mihailov, Rogozen Linguistique Balkanique 1, 1987, 5-19.

Macrones

(143 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάκρωνες; Mákrōnes). Mountain people, already mentioned by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 206, who belonged to the 19th tax district under Darius [1] (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78; mentioned here between the Tibareni and the Mossynoeci). According to Xen. (An. 4,7,24; 8,1-22), their region lay south-west of Trapezus. Modern Meryemana Deresi (righthand tributary of Maçka Dere) then formed the border river between M. and Scythae; the border fortress of the Colchi was located outside Cevrilik. Colchic influence…
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