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Strymon

(93 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris
[English version] (Στρυμών). Thrakisch-maked. Fluß, der im Skombros (Hdt. 8,115) entspringt, durch das Siedlungsgebiet der Maidoi, Agrianes, Laioioi, Sintoi, Bisaltai und Odomantoi (Thuk. 2,96,3; Strab. 7,7,4), dann durch die Prasias limne fließt und nach 408 km westl. von Eion in die Ägäis (Aigaion pelagos) mündet, h. Struma. Der S. war im Unterlauf befahrbar. Xerxes ließ 481 v. Chr. bei Ennea hodoi (nachmals Amphipolis) eine Brücke über den S. schlagen (Hdt. 7,24-25,1). Vor Philippos [4] II. war S. Grenzfluß zw. Thrake und Makedonia (Strab. 7 fr. 4; 34; 36 f.). von Bredow, Iris Bi…

Tyle

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris
(Τύλη). [English version] [1] Stadt in Thrake Hauptstadt des keltischen Königreichs in Thrake (Thrakes), unter Komontorios 278 v. Chr. gegr., 212 v. Chr. nach dem Sieg der Thrakes über den Keltenkönig Kavaros verlassen (Pol. 4,46). Aufgrund von Steph. Byz. s. v. Τύλις sucht man T. in der Nähe des Haimos und lokalisiert die Stadt allg. im Gebiet des h. Tulovo (Bezirk Kazanlăk, Bulgarien). Eine Textvariante bei Steph. Byz. l.c. macht allerdings eine Lokalisierung in der spätant. Prov. Haimimontos im SO von Thrake wahrscheinlich, wo sich auch ein Kastell Τουλεοῦς/ Tuleús (Prok. aed.…

Tanais

(350 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris
(Τάναϊς). [English version] [1] Fluss Der 1970 km lange Strom, der die Grenze zw. Skythai und Sarmatai bildete (Hdt. 4,21; nach Plin. nat. 6,20 von den Skythai Silis genannt) und in die Maiotis mündete, h. Don. An seinem Unterlauf lebten seit dem 4. Jh. v. Chr. sarmatische Stämme; arch. sind hier etwa 15 ant. Siedlungen bekannt. von Bredow, Iris [English version] [2] Stadt Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Handel | Kolonisation | Regnum Bosporanum | Regnum Bosporanum | Roma | Schwarzmeergebiet | Skythen Von bosporanischen Griechen im 3. Jh. v. Chr. wohl unter …

Zygaktes

(18 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris
[English version] (Ζυγάκτης). Küstenfluß östl. von Philippoi (App. civ. 4,105; 4,128); nicht identifiziert. von Bredow, Iris

Skombros

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris
[English version] (Σκόμβρος). Stark bewaldetes Gebirge mit Erzvorkommen im Westen von Thrake (Thuk. 2,96,3; Scopius, Plin. nat. 4,35), h. Vitoša im Süden von Sofia. Aristot. meteor. 350b 16 f. läßt hier irrtümlicherweise auch Nestos [1] und Hebros entspringen. von Bredow, Iris

Serreion

(105 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris
[English version] (Σέρρειον ἄκρα, Σέρρειον τεῖχος, Σέρριον; lat. Serrheum). Kap (Strab. 7a,1,48; App. civ. 4,101 f.) und Kastell an der Nordküste der Ägäis (Aigaion Pelagos), im Westen der Ebene von Doriskos (Hdt. 7,59) im Siedlungsgebiet der thrakischen Satrai, h. Makri westl. vom h. Alexandrupolis. Das vom Attisch-Delischen Seebund besetzte Kastell wurde 346 v. Chr. von Philippos [4] II. erobert (Aischin. or. 3,82; Demosth. or. 6,64; 7,37; 9,15; 10,8; 65; 18,27; 70). 200 v. Chr. nahm Philippos [7] V. im 2. Makedonischen Krieg S. der ptolem. Garnison ab (Liv. 31,16,4). von Bredo…

Madytus

(138 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάδυτος; Mádytos). City on the Thracian Chersonesus between Elaeus and Sestus, founded by Lesbos (6th cent. BC; Scyl. 67, Ps.-Scymn. 709; Str. 7, fr. 55). North of M., Xerxes had the pontoon bridge built over the Hellespontus (Hdt. 7,33; 9,120). In 465 BC, M. was a member of the Delian League (Plut. Cimon 4); a few tributes are recorded for 443/440 BC (ATL 1,336f.). In the Peloponnesian War, M. was used as a harbour by the Athenian fleet (Xen. Hell. 1,1,3). Conquered in 200 BC by …

Criu Metopon

(72 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κριοῦ μέτωπον, ‘Ram's Forehead’). The designation of the two southernmost peaks of the Taurian  Chersonesus [2]: Cape Capyc and Cape Ai Todor (Plin. HN 4,86; Ps.-Scymn. 953; Ptol. 3,6;2) opposite Cap Carambis in Paphlagonia. According to legend the golden ram carried  Phrixus from there to the Colchi (Ps.-Plut. De fluviis 14,4). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. D. Blavatskij, Očerki noennogo dela v antičnih gosudarstvah severnogo Pričernomor'ja, 1954, 133f.

Pactye

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πακτύη/ Paktýē). Fortress on the Propontic coast of Chersonesus [1], to the south of present-day Bolayır Iskelesi (Ps.-Scyl. 67; Str. 7a,1,52; 54; 56). Here stood the east end of the wall which ran from Miltiades [1] via the Chersonesus [1] to Cardia (Hdt. 6,36; Scymn. 711). Alcibiades [3] retreated here in 407 BC after the loss of his position as strategos (Nep. Alcibiades 7,4; Diod. Sic. 13,74,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Müller 2, 895f.  B. Isaak, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Conquest, 1988.

Mygdones

(147 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μυγδόνες; Mugdónes). Thracian inhabitants of the Mygdonia [1] region (Μυγδονία/ Mygdonía; Macedonia) between the lower Axios, the Gulf of Thermae, the Bolbe and the Kruša and Bogdanska mountains in the east (Hdt. 7,123f.; 127; Strab. 7a,1,11; 36). At the time of Herodotus (5th cent. BC) it was home to groups of Paeones, Sitones and Crestones; according to Thucydides 2,99,4 the Edones were expelled from Mygdonia by the Macedonian kings (after 479 BC? [4. 15]), at the time of Strabo it was i…

Maiotae

(146 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαιῶται; Maiôtai). Greek collective name for the tribes on the east coast of the Maeotis and in the lower and middle reaches of Kuban/north-west Caucasus (Hdt. 4,123; Str. 11,2,2-4; 11). These probably include Iranian and Caucasian tribes of the Sindi, Cercetae, Toretae, Dandarii and Psessii among others. Farming and fishing formed the primary basis of their livelihood (Str. 11,2,4). They traded actively with Tanais in particular. The M. had to pay tributes to the Regnum Bosporanu…

Bergule

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεργούλη; Bergoúlē). Lüle-Burgas on the Erghene, Thracian settlement and important statio of the province of Thracia (Ptol. 3,11,7), called Arcadiopolis from the beginning of the 5th cent. AD. In AD 441, it was threatened by the Huns, and in AD 473, captured by the Goths under  Theoderic. In the Middle Ages, it was a strong fortress. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Zlatarski, Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove 1,1, 21994, pass.

Hygiaeon

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὑγιαίων; Hygiaíōn). Ruler of the Kingdom of the Bosporus ( Regnum Bosporanum), c. 220-200 BC. Successor of  Leucon II, but not as king, rather as árchōn, also portrayed without a royal diadem. Maybe not a Spartocid. On brick stamps and coins ἄρχοντος Ὑγιαίοντος. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporan. Reich, 1971, 93, 95.

Pangaeum

(281 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πάγγαιον/ Pángaion, Παγγαῖον ὄρος/ Pangaîon óros). A mountain chain (up to 1956 m in height) forested in Antiquity, extending parallel to the northern Aegaean coast between the lower Strymon and Kavalla (25 km long, 16 km wide) isolated from other mountain ridges; still called P. today. With its rich gold and silver deposits it was constantly in the centre of disputes (Str. 7a,1,34). Ore production was probably begun in the 7th cent. BC by the Pieres, the Odomanti and the Satrae (Hdt. 7,112), but also by Thasos and the cities of its peraía . At a very early stage Athen…

Alani

(484 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀλανοί; Alanoí). Iranian alliance of tribes north of the  Caspian Sea, from the Caucasus to the Tanais. A. appear in sources since the end of the Roman republic in place of the Sarmatian tribes. During a campaign against  Mithridates VI, Pompey came upon A. (Luc. 8,133). Since the end of the 1st cent. AD there were invasions into Media and Armenia; under Hadrian (AD 117 to 138), they threatened Cappadocia. For their culture, see Lucian, Tox. 51; Amm. Marc. 30,2,3; Iord. Get. 24. A…

Seuthopolis

(184 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Diadochi and Epigoni (Σευθόπολις/ Seuthópolis). Residence city of king Seuthes [4] III of Thrace, 3,5 km to the south of modern Koprinka (municipality of Kazanlak in Bulgaria) at the confluence of the Goljama Varovica and the Tonzos (modern Tundža). A city wall of 890 m enclosed a pentagon (orthogonal city layout) of 5 hectares. In the agora there was a temple to Dionysus, with a great altar in its centre. In the northern part of S. there was a fortress defended by a wall of its own (4620 m2) with the residence …

Moschi

(112 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μόσχοι; Mόschoi). Caucasian tribe between Colchis and Armenia. The Moschikḗ was situated in the hinterland of Phasis (Μοσχική/ Moschikḗ, Str. 11,2,17), the Moschian mountains were to the south of Colchis (Str. 11,2,15; Moschorum tractus, Plin. HN 6,29). Hdt. 7,78 describes the M.'s primitive weapons (wooden helmets, small shields and lances). Under Dareius [1] I. and Xerxes the M. were part of the 19th Persian satrapy (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 288). A shrine to Leucothea and the so-called oracle of Phrixus, which was plu…

Iluraton

(122 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰλούρατον; Iloúraton). Graeco-Scythian settlement north of the Curubas lake in the interior of modern Kerč, c. 17 km from Panticapaeum. Traces of settlement since the Neolithic; founded in the middle of the 1st cent. AD. The results of the excavations are representative for other inland settlements in the Bosporan kingdom of the Roman period: I. was naturally and artificially well fortified. The inhabitants were military peasants who engaged in agriculture and livestock breeding, Hellenized des…

Maduateni

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Ethnicon for the place name Madytus, often erroneously regarded as a small Thracian tribe, mentioned only in Liv. 38,40,7 in connection with the attack by Thracian tribes on Cn. Manlius Vulso in 188 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Bryges

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βρύγες, Βρῦγαι, Βρύγοι, Βρίγες; Brýges, Brŷgai, Brŷgoi, Bríges). Thracian tribe in western Macedonia. In 492/91 BC, the B. ravaged the Persian army under Mardonius (Hdt. 6,45); later, they provided troops for Xerxes' infantry (Hdt. 7,185). They are often erroneously equated with the Phrygians. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Altthrakien, 1976, 271ff.
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