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Abāḍites

(786 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
In Northern Africa this name [see ibāḍites] is used to designate a branch of the Ḵh̲awārid̲j̲ which separated from ʿAlī when he accepted arbitration with Muʿāwiya. In the first half of the second century of the Hegira, Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ism in an Abāḍite and Ṣofrite form was introduced in the Mag̲h̲rib, it developed rapidly amongst the Berbers and became the national doctrine, which served as a pretext for the struggle between the African and the orthodox Arabs. The Abāḍites of Tripoli and of Ifrīḳīya under the guidance ot their principal Imāms, Abu ’I-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb and Abū Ḥātim […

Abū Zakarīyāʾ

(369 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
Yaḥyā b. Abī Bekr, a native of Wargla, author of the historical work on the Rostemides and the Mag̲h̲rib Abāḍites, entitled Kitāb al-sīra wa-ak̲h̲bār al-aʾimma. This work has been discovered in the Mzāb and translated into French by Masqueray, under the title of Chronique d’Abou Zakaria (Algiers, 1878). The Abāḍite chroniclers Dard̲j̲īnī and S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī, who based their historical and biographical works principally on Abū Zakarīyāʾs Chronicle, give very little information concerning this author, and indicate neither the date of his birth no…

ʿAbd al-Wahhāb

(481 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rostem, second Imām of the Abāḍite dynasty of the Rostemides of Tāhert. He succeeded his father in 168 (784-785) and died in 208(823-824). At the time of his accession the town of Tāhert, founded by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, had already greatly developed. The great merchants of Ifrīḳīya, of the Mag̲h̲rib and even of Egypt and the East, who were sure of finding justice and safety in this town, had brought their wealth there. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb himself, before he attained to power, had devoted himself to commerce and had acquired a considerable private fortune. This influx of people w…

Abū Ḥatim

(395 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
Yaʿḳūb b. Ḥabīb al-Melzūzī (this is according to Abāḍite authors; but according to other historians of Africa, his father was Labīd or Labīb b. Madyan b. Itūweft, of the great Howāra tribe), Abāḍite chief. Arab historians represent him simply as a leader of insurgent Berbers. He, however, had played a more distinct and important part, since after having ruled over Tripoli he was invested by the Abāḍites with the title of Imām of Defence in 156 (773). He gathered around him a considerable army, which was joined by contingents of Ṣofrites, Abāḍites of Tāhert, and other Ber…

Abū Zakarīyāʾ

(334 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
Yaḥyā b. al-Ḵh̲air b. Abi ’l-Ḵh̲air al-Ḏj̲enāwunī (a native of Id̲j̲nāwun, in the Ḏj̲ebel Nefūsa), an Abāḍite doctor, quoted by S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī ( Kitāb al-siyar, pp. 135 ¶ et seq.) as one of the lights of his epoch. He studied under the erudite s̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Rabīʿa Sulaimān b. Abī Hārūn in the mosque of Ibnain. He profited so much by the lessons of his teacher that, S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī says, when he came back to his country, he spent six months in answering to questions addressed to him on every branch of science without ever being puzzled at a single point. He left diverse works on the furūʿ, one of whi…

Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭāb

(506 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
ʿAbd al-ʿAla b. al-Samā al-Maʿāfirī al-Ḥimyarī al-Yemānī, first Imām elected by the Abāḍites of Ḏj̲ebel Nefūsa. He was one of the group of the five missionaries whom the Abāḍites call „the bearers of science". In 140 (757-758) the Abāḍites of Ḏj̲ebel Nefūsa and Tripoli, having rallied in great numbers to the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite doctrines, decided to appoint a leader. They met under the pretext of settling a matter of interest in a place called Ṣiad, to the west of Tripoli, and proclaimed Abu ’l-Ḵh̲haṭṭāb as Imām. They entered Tripoli by surprise and forced the ʿAbbāside governor to leave the …

ʿAbd Allāh

(268 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
b. Ibāḍ (Abāḍ) al-Murrī al-Tamīmī. The chronicles of the African Abāḍites, which are so valuable with respect to the history of Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ism, are very sparing in details about this personage. And yet he has given his name to the branch of the Wahbites, who opposed the arbitration between ʿAlī and Muʿāwiya, and who have developed principally in the Mag̲h̲rib, where they still exist [see abāḍites]. He is mentioned as having been a member of the ṭabaḳa of the doctors of the 2d half of the 1st century of the Hegira. He maintained many controversies with the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites, who gave them…

al-Dard̲j̲īnī

(501 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Saʿīd b. Sulaimān b. ʿAlī b. Ik̲h̲laf, an Abāḍī scholar of the viith century a. h. to whom we owe the Kitāb Ṭabaḳāt al-Mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲, an historical and biographical collection which has not yet been ¶ published though there is a manuscript in Mzāb. Abu ’l-Abbās’s work falls into two distinct parts. The first is merely a reproduction of the Chronicle of Abū Zakarīyā, (translated by M. Masqueray, Algiers 1878) to which have been added some personal observations and reflections. The second contains the detailed biographies of the princi…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(453 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
b. Rostem, founder of the new Tāhert and head of an Abāḍite dynasty, which held its own ground in Central Mag̲h̲rib from 160 or 162 to 296 (776 or 778 to 908). ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was of Persian descent: according to the chroniclers of the Abadite sect he was the son of Rostem b. Bahrāin (comp. Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, i. 815) b. S̲h̲ābūr b. Bābek Ḏh̲i’l-Aktāf. This genealogy, which is evidently inexact and mutilated, is given by the historians to establish the fact that ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was of royal stock and was descended from the dynasty of the Sāsānides. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was born in ʿIrāḳ, his father, …

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(344 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
b. al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Ibrāhīm, ¶ an Abāḍite doctor of the Banū Isgen (Mzāb), born about 1130 (1717), died in the month of Rad̲j̲ab 1223 (August-September 1808). He left in the Mzāb a well merited reputation for his science and piety. He devoted his life to the composition of many works on theology and jurisprudence. His chief work is the Kitāb al-nil wa-s̲h̲ifāʾ al-ʿalīl, autographed at Cairo in 1305(1887-1888). This treatise, conceived on the plan of the Muk̲h̲taṣar of Ḵh̲alīl, but written in a less concise style, is a complete statement of Abāḍite legislation taken from t…

Abū Ḥafṣ

(254 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
ʿOmar b. ḎJ̲amīʿ, of the Ḏj̲ebel Nefūsa, an Abāḍite scholar mentioned in the Kitāb al-siar of S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī, pp. 561, 562, in a short notice, without any indication as to date. He translated into Arabic the old ʿAḳīda of the Abadites of the Mag̲h̲rib, written originally in the Berber tongue. It is still the catechism used by the AbaViites of the Mzāb and of Ḏj̲erba. The ʿAḳīda of Abū Ḥafṣ has given rise to numerous commentaries, amongst which must be mentioned in the first place that of S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲l, the author of the Kitāb al-siar, which is extant in manuscript with the Abāḍite commu…