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S̲h̲efīḳ Meḥmed Efendi

(579 words)

Author(s): Zilfi, Madeline C.
, called Muṣarri̊fzāde, Ottoman imperial chronicler, poet and prose stylist, d. 1127/1715, best known for his S̲h̲efīḳ-nāme , a history of the events of the year 1115/1703. Little is known of his family and early years. He was born in Istanbul, and later adopted the pen-name S̲h̲efīḳ. His father is thought to have been employed in the accounts office of the imperial kitchens ( maṭbak̲h̲-i ʿāmire ). Meḥmed himself entered the bureaucratic service as a clerk ( kātib ) in the dīwān-i hümāyūn , where he later rose to become hea…

Feyzullah Efendi

(884 words)

Author(s): Zilfi, Madeline C.
Feyzullah (Fayḍ Allāh) Efendi, Erzurumlu Sayyid (1048–1115/1639–1703), was an Ottoman şeyhülislam ( shaykh al-Islām) and muallim-i sultani ( muʿallim-i sulṭānī, imperial preceptor). He was also a nakibüleşraf ( naqīb al-ashrāf, chief of the descendants of the Prophet), and one of the few such hierarchs to meet a violent end. He was born in Erzurum, in Rebiülahir (Rabīʿ II) 1049/1639, into a family that claimed descent from the Prophet Muḥammad. His father, the Erzurum müfti ( muftī) Mehmed b. Mehmed (Meḥmed b. Meḥmed), and other local dignitaries trained him in the rel…
Date: 2018-07-12

Education, early-Ottoman

(1,621 words)

Author(s): Zilfi, Madeline C.
In the early Ottoman Empire, up until the modernising reforms of the nineteenth century, and with the exception of children’s Qurʾān schools (mektep, maktab, kuttāb), formal education for Muslims was essentially male and effectively divided between two distinct vocational expectations. The empire’s system of religious colleges, medreses ( madrasas), prepared youths for religious careers. Their more secular counterparts, the schools of the imperial palaces (Enderun-i Hümayun Mektebi, Enderūn-i Humāyūn Mektebi) in Edirne and Istanbul, groomed young men for position…
Date: 2018-07-12

Fenarizade

(852 words)

Author(s): Zilfi, Madeline C.
Fenarizade (Fenārīzāde) was an eminent Ottoman family that took its name from the most distinguished of the line, Molla Şemseddin Mehmed b. Hamza b. Mehmed el-Fenari (Mollā Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ḥamza b. Muḥammad al-Fanārī), known as Molla Fenari (751–834/1350–1431). An Ottoman scholar and theologian, Molla Fenari is regarded as the first in the long series of chief muftis, later entitled şeyhülislams ( shaykh al-Islāms), or grand muftis, of the Ottoman state. Although his biography has come down to us only partially and speculatively, it is clear that he…
Date: 2018-07-12

Gender Socialization: Ottoman Empire

(1,317 words)

Author(s): Zilfi, Madeline C.
Muslim women's place in Ottoman society was constructed on a complex foundation of ideals and actualities. As in other Islamic communities, the internal configuration of the family and the socioeconomic location of the household were shaping conditions. In combination with these, the patriarchally inclined customs and expectations of the larger society, particularly as projected in Islamic law, served to define women's roles. However, the ambiguities and contradictions of law and custom, and wom…

S̲h̲efīḳ Meḥmed Efendi

(589 words)

Author(s): Zilfi, Madeline C.
, dénommé Muṣarrifzāde, chroniqueur, poète et prosateur impérial ottoman, m. 1127/1715, surtout connu pour son S̲h̲efīḳ-nāme, histoire des événements de l’année 1115/1703. On sait peu de chose sur sa famille et sa jeunesse. Il naquit à Istanbul, adoptant plus tard le pseudonyme ¶ de S̲h̲efīḳ. Il semble que son père ait été employé à la comptabilité des cuisines impériales ( maṭbak̲h̲-i ʿāmire). Meḥmed entra lui-même comme clerc ( kātib) dans les bureaux du dīwān-i hümāyūn, où il fit carrière jusqu’à devenir chef d’un secrétariat. Dans les années 1690, il servit comme …

Slavery: Ottoman Empire

(1,541 words)

Author(s): Zilfi, Madeline C.
Slavery was deeply rooted and ubiquitous in the vast, centuries-old Ottoman Empire. Although generally only the wealthier elements of society could afford to own slaves ( esir, abd, rıkk), slavery in numerous forms was practiced in every Ottoman province from the Balkans, Asia Minor, and the Caucasus to the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. Ottoman armies and slave drovers of various nations supplied the Ottoman markets with white and non-white men, women, and children, whom they seized outside the empire's borders i…

Marriage Practices: Ottoman Empire

(975 words)

Author(s): Zilfi, Madeline C.
Sanctioned by Islam and custom, marriage was a near-universal institution for women of childbearing age in the Ottoman Empire. Although the act of marrying took the form of a civil contract rather than a religious rite, it usually took place in the presence of a religious dignitary, humble functionaries in the case of the poor, and ʿulamāʾ emi nences for prominent families. As in other Islamic states, the contract was effectively sealed with the prospective groom's payment of a portion of the bridal gift (Arabic, mahr) to the bride. The remainder, the so-called delayed bridal gi…