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Rabīb al-Dawla

(234 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abū Manṣūr b. Abī S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusain, a vizier. When the vizier Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī [q. v.] made the pilgrimage to Mecca in 481 (1089) he appointed his son Rabīb al-Dawla and the naḳīb al-nuḳabāʾ Ṭirād b. Muḥammad al-Zainabī his deputies and in 507 (1113 — 1114) on the death of Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲ahīr [see the article ibn d̲j̲ahīr, 3] Rabīb al-Dawla was appointed vizier of the caliph al-Mustaẓhir [q. v.]. In Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 511 (April 1118) the fourteen year old Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad succee…

Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir

(294 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, governor of Ḵh̲urāsān. After the death of his father, Muḥammad received the governorship of Ḵh̲urāsān (Rad̲j̲ab 248 = Sept. 862). In 250 (864—5) the ʿAlid al-Ḥasan b. Zaid rebelled, which led to a long and serious struggle [see muḥammad b. ʿabd allāh]. When ʿAbd Allāh al-Sid̲j̲gī rebelled against Yaʿḳūb b. al-Lait̲h̲ al-Ṣaffār and appealed for help to Muḥammad, who appointed him governor of al-Tabasain and Ḳuhistān, Yaʿḳūb found a welcome pretext to invade Ḵh̲urāsān. Muḥammad sent an embassy to him; but as Yaʿḳūb had already found a f…

ʿAmr b. Saʿīd al-As̲h̲daḳ

(47 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
See also Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, Paris, v. 198 sq., 206, 233 sqq.; vi. 217 sqq.; ix. 58; Guidi, Tables alphabétiques; Wellhausen, Das arabische Reich, p. 108, 118; Buhl, Die Krisis der Umajjadenherrschaft im Jahre 684, in J. A., xxvii. 50—64. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ

(480 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAmr b. Mālik al-Tamīmī, an Arab general. When Sad̲j̲āḥ bint al-Ḥārit̲h̲ gave herself out to be a prophetess after the death of ¶ Muḥammad, al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ joined her and is said to have fought on her side. But in the period following he always retained his Muslim views, and as a subordinate of the famous Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd [q. v.] he played a very prominent part in the earliest wars of Islām. As early as the year II (632) he is reported to have fought faithfully on the side of Ḵh̲ālid in the battle of Buzāk̲h̲a [q. v.]…

al-Barāʾ

(227 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿĀzib, a Muslim general. With his contemporary ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿOmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb and several others he was turned back by Muḥammad on the departure for Badr because he was too young; he took part however in many other battles under the Prophet. When the latter sent Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd into Yaman to demand the adoption of Islām by an Arab tribe, al-Barāʾ also took part in the expedition. During the reign of ʿOmar he was sent by the governor of Kūfa, al-Mug̲h̲īra b. S̲h̲uʿba with Ḥanẓala b. Zai…

al-Muttaḳī

(391 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
li ’llāh, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm, an ʿAbbāsid caliph, son of al-Mukṭadir [q. v.] and a slave-girl named Ḵh̲alūb. In Rabīʿ I 329 (Dec. 940) he succeeded his brother al-Rāḍī [q.v.]; by this time the caliphate had sunk so low that five days passed after the death of al-Rāḍī before steps were taken to choose his successor. Al-Muttaḳī at once confirmed the Amīr al-Umarāʾ Bed̲j̲kem [q.v.] in office; after his death however, the Turks and Dailamīs in the army began to quarrel with one another. Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Barīdī [see al-barīdī] seized the capital but could only hold it a few weeks. He was…

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī.

(91 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen, K. V.
Further Bibliography: Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, ed. Tornberg, v., passim; Yaʿḳūbī, ed. Houtsma, ii., see index; Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, ed. Paris, v. 83, 471 sq.; vi. 71, 73, 75—77 86, 90 sq., 99, 104, 106 sqq., 176 sq., 183, 214 sqq., 222, 271; Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 126, 151, 192, 294, 371; Fragm. Hist. Arab., ¶ ed. de Goeje and de Jong, see index; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, see Guidi, Tables alphabetiques, Wellhausen, Das arabische Reich, p. 341; cf. also Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 731. (K. V. Zettersteen)

Mad̲j̲d al-Mulk

(223 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Asʿad b. Muḥammad al-Barāwistāni, finance minister of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Barkiyārūḳ. As early as 485 (1092—1093) we find Mad̲j̲d al-Mulk mentioned among the high officials, and in time he became more and more powerful, while Barkiyārūḳ’s weakness and incapacity became more and more obvious. But as a S̲h̲īʿī Mad̲j̲d al-Mulk became suspected of being the real instigator of the murders committed by the Ismāʿīlīs and after the amīr Bursuḳ [q. v.] had fallen a victim to Ismāʿīlī fanaticism,…

Ḳurais̲h̲

(527 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Badrān, ʿAlam al-Dīn Abu ’l-Maʿālī, an ʿUḳailid. After the death of Badrān in 425 (1033/1034) Ḳurais̲h̲ was recognised as lord of Naṣībīn. In the struggle between his two uncles, Ḳarwās̲h̲ [q. v.] and Abū Kāmil, he took the former’s part. After the death of Abū Kāmil in 443 (1052) al-Mawṣil and Naṣībīn were united under the rule of Ḳurais̲h̲. Soon afterwards 444 (1052/1053) he became involved in a war with his brother al-Muḳallad and another ʿUḳailid, Kāmil. The war did not last long and the situa…

al-Mustaʿṣim Bi’ Allāh

(337 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abū Aḥmad ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Mustanṣir, the last ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād, born in 609 (1212/3). After the death of his father in Ḏj̲umādā I or II 640 (Nov./Dec. 1242) he was raised to the caliph’s ¶ throne but he had neither the talent nor the strength to avert the catastrophe threatening from the Mongols; he allowed himself to be guided by bad councillors who were not agreed among themselves but working against one another. In 683 (1255/6) the Mongol Ḵh̲ān Hūlāgū [q. v.] demanded that the Muslim rulers should make war on the …

Ibn al-Baladī

(101 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Saʿīd, al-Mustand̲j̲id’s vizier. In 563 (1166-8) Ibn al-Baladī, who at that time was Nāẓir in Wāsiṭ, was appointed vizier. There was an old feud between him and the Ustād-dar ʿAḍud al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. After the murder of the caliph in Rabīʿ II 566 (December 1170) by ʿAḍud al-Dīn and the Emīr Ḳuṭb al-Dīn, they forced his successor al-Mustaḍīʾ to appoint ʿAḍud al-Dīn vizier, whereupon Ibn al-Baladī was executed. (K. V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā, al-Fak̲h̲rī (ed. Derenbourg), p. 426—9 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ed. Tornb…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir

(18 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography in Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 171. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

al-As̲h̲ʿarī

(546 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abū Mūsā ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḳais, governor. Abū Mūsā belonged to Yemen and early accepted Islām. According to the usual tradition, after his conversion in Mekka he joined the emigration to Abyssinia and only retured on the conquest of Ḵh̲aibar. Thereupon he was appointed governor of a district by Muḥammad. In the year 17 (638) ʿOmar conferred on him the governorship of Baṣra on the deposition of al-Mug̲h̲īra b. S̲h̲uʿba. It was no light task however to hold the restless Beduin in check, and when Abū Mūsā…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(221 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Marwān, son of Caliph Marwān I. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was appointed governor of Egypt by his father, and after ʿAbd al-Malik had ascended the throne, the latter confirmed the appointment. During his twenty years’ sojourn in Egypt, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz proved himself a good ruler who really had the welfare of his province at heart. When in the year 69 (689) ʿAbd al-Malik, after the assassination of the rebellious governor ʿAmr b. Saʿīd, was going to have the latter’s relatives executed also, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz int…

al-Muḳtadir

(710 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi ’llāh, Abu ’l-Faḍl Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Aḥmad, ʿAbbāsid caliph, son of al-Muʿtaḍid and a slave named S̲h̲ag̲h̲ab. After the death of his brother al-Muktafī in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 295 (Aug. 908), al-Muḳtadir who was only 13 at the time was proclaimed caliph. Many however preferred ʿAbd Allāh, son of the caliph al-Muʿtazz, and after the murder of the vizier al-ʿAbbās b. al-Ḥasan b. Aḥmad [q. v.], al-Muḳtadir was declared to be deposed and Ibn al-Muʿtazz elected caliph. The eunuch Muʾnis [q. v.] came forward to save…

al-As̲h̲ʿarī

(130 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abū Burda ʿĀmir b. ʿAbī Mūsā, judge and traditionist. When S̲h̲abīb b. Yazīd appeared at the head of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites in the year 76 (695-696) and surprised Kūfa, Abū Burda had also to pay homage to the insurgent. Later he was appointed judge in Kūfa. Through his personal ¶ qualities he gained great regard as occupant of this office; besides he was considered to be well versed in Muḥammadan tradition. According to the usual account he died in the year 103 (721-722); but 104, 106 and 107 are also given as the year of his death. (K. V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Ibn Saʿd, vi. 187 Ṭabarī (ed. de Go…

al-Ẓāhir

(255 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi-Amr Allāh Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. al-Nāṣir, an ʿAbbāsid Caliph. As early as Ṣafar 585 (March-April 1189) the caliph al-Nāṣir had designated his eldest son Muḥammad as his successor. Later however, he changed his mind in favour of his younger son ʿAlī but since the latter died in 612 (1215—1216) and al-Nāṣir had no other male heirs, he had to come back to Muḥammad and again have homage paid to him as heir-apparent. Regarding the treatment given the future commander of the faithful in his father’s house…

ʿAlī

(249 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās was the ancestor of the ʿAbbāsides. According to Muḥammedan tradition, ʿAlī was born in the year 40 (661), the very same night, in which the caliph ʿAlī was assassinated; but there are also other statements concerning the year of his birth. His ¶ mother was called Zurʿa bint Mis̲h̲raḥ. His grandfather ʿAbbās was the uncle of the Prophet, and on account of his high birth and his personal gifts ʿAlī attained to great distinction. He was looked upon as the handsomest and most pious Ḳurais̲h̲ite of his time, and receive…

Marwān II

(945 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muḥammad, the last of the Omaiyad caliphs in Damascus. He was the grandson of the caliph Marwān b. al-Ḥakam. As governor of Mesopotamia and Armenia his ¶ father Muḥammad for several years directed the campaigns against the Byzantines. His mother was a Kurdish slave-girl. Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik [q. v.] was one of those who followed Muḥammad b. Marwfin to war; it is not till 115 (733—734) that we find Marwān coming to the front as governor of Armenia and Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. In this position, which he held for 12 years, h…

Sulaimān

(416 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Wahb b. Saʿīd Abū Aiyūb, an ʿAbbāsid vizier. He belonged to a family which had originally been Christian but had later gone over to Islām. His father had been in the service of the Barmecide Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥyā [q. v.] and later in that of al-Faḍl b. Sahl [q.v.]. On the latter’s death he was given the governorship of Fārs and Kirmān. At the age of 14 Sulaimān became secretary to the Caliph al-Maʾmūn; he later entered the service of the generals Ītāk̲h̲ and As̲h̲nās, the former of whom held several i…
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