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al-Ẓāhir

(255 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi-Amr Allāh Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. al-Nāṣir, an ʿAbbāsid Caliph. As early as Ṣafar 585 (March-April 1189) the caliph al-Nāṣir had designated his eldest son Muḥammad as his successor. Later however, he changed his mind in favour of his younger son ʿAlī but since the latter died in 612 (1215—1216) and al-Nāṣir had no other male heirs, he had to come back to Muḥammad and again have homage paid to him as heir-apparent. Regarding the treatment given the future commander of the faithful in his father’s house…

ʿAlī

(249 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās was the ancestor of the ʿAbbāsides. According to Muḥammedan tradition, ʿAlī was born in the year 40 (661), the very same night, in which the caliph ʿAlī was assassinated; but there are also other statements concerning the year of his birth. His ¶ mother was called Zurʿa bint Mis̲h̲raḥ. His grandfather ʿAbbās was the uncle of the Prophet, and on account of his high birth and his personal gifts ʿAlī attained to great distinction. He was looked upon as the handsomest and most pious Ḳurais̲h̲ite of his time, and receive…

Marwān II

(945 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muḥammad, the last of the Omaiyad caliphs in Damascus. He was the grandson of the caliph Marwān b. al-Ḥakam. As governor of Mesopotamia and Armenia his ¶ father Muḥammad for several years directed the campaigns against the Byzantines. His mother was a Kurdish slave-girl. Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik [q. v.] was one of those who followed Muḥammad b. Marwfin to war; it is not till 115 (733—734) that we find Marwān coming to the front as governor of Armenia and Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. In this position, which he held for 12 years, h…

Sulaimān

(416 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Wahb b. Saʿīd Abū Aiyūb, an ʿAbbāsid vizier. He belonged to a family which had originally been Christian but had later gone over to Islām. His father had been in the service of the Barmecide Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥyā [q. v.] and later in that of al-Faḍl b. Sahl [q.v.]. On the latter’s death he was given the governorship of Fārs and Kirmān. At the age of 14 Sulaimān became secretary to the Caliph al-Maʾmūn; he later entered the service of the generals Ītāk̲h̲ and As̲h̲nās, the former of whom held several i…

ʿUbaid Allāh

(733 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Ziyād, an Omaiyad governor. ʿUbaid Allāh was the most distinguished of the sons of the favourite of Muʿāwiya I, Ziyād b. Abīhi [q. v.], celebrated for his rigour and severity, and was appointed governor of Ḵh̲urāsān at the age of five and twenty. According to the usual statement, this took place in 54 (673—674). Soon afterwards he crossed the Oxus with an Arab army and advanced as far as Buk̲h̲ārā [q. v.]. But he did not remain long in Ḵh̲urāsān; in 55 (674—675) or according to others 56 (675-…

al-Kūfa

(2,178 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, a once celebrated city south of the ruins of Babylon, on the western arm of the Euphrates (cf. al-furāt), which later disappears in the, swamps west of Wāsiṭ. After the battle of al-Ḳādisīya [q. v.] the Arabs by command of ʿOmar built a strongly defended camp on this site in order to control more easily the people of the newly conquered province, while the old capital Ctesiphon was ruthlessly destroyed, and the capital of the Lak̲h̲mid dynasty, Hīra, only a few Arab miles south of Kūfa gradually lost its former importance. For military reasons this settlement which was called al-Kūfa and the…

Ibn Mak̲h̲lad

(394 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
the name of two viziers: 1. al-Ḥasan b. Mak̲h̲lad b. al-Ḏj̲arrāḥ of Dair Ḳunnā, administrator of the domains from 243 (857-8) onwards. After the death of ʿUbaid Allāh b. Yaḥyā in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 263 (July 877) [see ibn k̲h̲āḳān, 1.] al-Ḥasan was appointed vizier by al-Muʿtamid. At the same time he was secretary to the latter’s brother al-Muwaffaḳ but after about a month he fled to Bag̲h̲dād on the arrival of Mūsā b. Bog̲h̲ā in Sāmarrā, the capital of that time. Sulaimān b. Wahb then took over the vizierate and his son ʿUbaid Allāh the…

Ismāʿīl

(222 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Bulbul, Abu’l--Ṣaḳr, vizier of al-Muʿtamid. In 265 (878—9) Abu ’l-Ṣaḳr was appointed vizier; but the real ruler was al-Muwaffaḳ, the Caliph’s brother. At the beginning of Ṣafar 278 (May 891) a rumour gained currency that al-Muwaffaḳ, who was then very ill, had died in Bag̲h̲dād. His son Abu’l-ʿAbbās, the future caliph al-Muʿtaḍid, had also a strong following among the population of the capital and, when Abu’l-Ṣaḳr had the Caliph brought with his family from al-Madāʾin to Bag̲h̲dād and placed th…

Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(245 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar, called Ibn al-Zaiyāt, vizier to several ʿAbbāsids. Ibn al-Zaiyāt began his career as secretary in the chancellery in Bag̲h̲dād and when the caliph al-Muʿtaṣim noticed his ability and learning he appointed him his vizier (219—220 = 834—835). He also filled this office in the reign of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ; but as he treated the latter’s brother Ḏj̲aʿfar, the future caliph al-Mutawakkil, with a lack of respect he earned his hatred. After the death of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 232 (Aug…

Saʿd

(1,045 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ, an Arab general. His father’s full name was Mālik b. Wuhaib b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Zuhra b. Kilāb b. Murra. Saʿd, who had become a convert to Islām at the age of seventeen (cf. al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Manāḳib al-Anṣār, bāb 31; Ibn Mād̲j̲a, Sunan, introductory chapter, bāb 11), was one of the oldest companions of the Prophet, being a special favourite of his and one of those who had been promised Paradise (Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, i. 193; ii. 222); he took part not only in the battles of Badr and Uḥud but also in the campaigns that followed. When a…

al-Mag̲h̲ribī

(752 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of several viziers. 1. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain, Abu ’l-Ḥasan. Like his ¶ father, ʿAlī was one of the intimate friends of the Hamdānid Saif al-Dawla of Ḥalab. He had also great influence with his son Saʿd al-Dawla, but when a cloud came over their friendship, ʿAlī left Ḥalab and went to al-Raḳḳa to Bakd̲j̲ūr, who had been one of Saif al-Dawla’s Mamlūks and persuaded him to enter into negotiations with the Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz bi ’llāh [q. v.] with whom ʿAlī had had relations for a long time. When Bakd̲…

Abū Hās̲h̲im

(17 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad. See also Yaʿḳūbī, ed. Houtsma, ii. 356-358. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

Buraida

(211 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Ḥuṣaib, one of Muḥammad’s Companions, chief of the tribe of Aslam b. Afṣā. When the Prophet migrated from Mecca and was passing the settlement of the Aslam in al-G̲h̲amīm, Buraida became converted to Islām, with about eighty families, who were with him. He did not go to Medīna till after the battle of Uḥud but thereafter then he took part in all Muḥammad’s campaigns. In the year 9 (630) he was sent to collect taxes from the Aslam and G̲h̲ifār and is said to have accompanied ʿAlī’s expeditio…

Ṭug̲h̲tegīn

(871 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh Amīn al-Dawla Ẓahīr al-Dīn Abū Manṣūr, founder of the dynasty of the Būrids. Ṭug̲h̲tegīn began his military career as a mamlūk in the service of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Tutus̲h̲ [q.v.] who afterwards manumitted him, entrusted him with the education of his son Duḳāḳ and even gave him the latter’s mother Ṣafwat al-Mulk as a wife. After Tutush had fallen in battle with his nephew Barkiyārūḳ (488 = 1095) Duḳāḳ was recognised as lord of Damascus. He showed the greatest respect for his stepfather a…

ʿAbd Allāh

(298 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿOmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, son of the caliph ʿOmar II. In the year 126 (744) ʿAbd Allāh was appointed governor of the ʿIrāḳ by Yazīd III, but in a short time aroused the discontent of the Syrian chiefs in that place, who felt that they were unfavorably treated by the new governor compared with the inhabitants of the ʿIrāḳ. After the accession of Marwān II, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya [q. v.], a descendant of ʿAlī’s brother Ḏj̲aʿfar, rebelled in Kūfa in Muḥarram 127 (October 744), but was expelled by ʿAbd…

Aḥmed

(405 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Abī Duʾād, Muʿtazilite ḳāḍī, a native of Baṣra, born according to some statements in 160 (776-777). Owing to his scholarship and merits he acquired influence over Caliph al-Maʾmūn, and became soon one of the latter’s most intimate friends. Al-Maʾmūn also advised his brother and successor al-Muʿtaṣim to place Aḥmed, who was a fervent adherent of the Muʿtazilite teaching among his counsellors and never to leave him. After his accession in 218 (833) al-Muʿtaṣim consequently appointed Aḥmed chief ḳ…

al-ʿAbbās

(378 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Walīd, Umaiyad general, son of the caliph Walīd I. ʿAbbās owes his celebrity principally to the energetic part he took in the continual struggles of the Umaiyads with the Byzantines. With regard to the details, the Arab and Byzantine sources do not, certainly, always agree. In the early part of the reign of Walīd I, he and his uncle, Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik, seized Ṭuwāna, the most important fortress of Cappadocia. The Mussulmans had begun to be discouraged and ʿAbbās had to display the gr…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya

(51 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography: Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, Paris, vi. 41 sq., 67 sq., 109; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, see Guidi, Tables alphabétiques; Wellhausen, Die religiös-politischen Oppositionsparteien im alten Islām, in Abh. G. W. Gött., v. 2, p. 98 sq.; cf. also Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 853. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

Zubaida

(196 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Bint Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Abī Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr, Umm Ḏj̲aʿfar, wife of the caliph Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and mother of his successor Muḥammad al-Amīn [q. v.]. She was born in 145 (762 — 763) and her real name was Amat al-ʿAzīz “the slave of the Almighty”, but on account of her youthful and fresh complexion she was nicknamed by her grandfather, the caliph al-Manṣūr, zubaida (diminutive of zubda “cream”, “fresh butter”; also the name of the marigold, Calendula officinalis). Her marriage with Hārūn was celebrated in 165 (781—782) and she died in Bag̲h̲dād in Ḏj̲umādā I 216 (June—July …

Pehlewān

(293 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Muḥammad b. Īldegiz, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, Atābeg of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. His father Īldegiz [q. v.] had in course of time risen to be the real ruler in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire; the widow of Sulṭān Ṭug̲h̲ri̊l [q. v.] was Pehlewān’s mother and Arslān b. Ṭug̲h̲ri̊l [q. v.] his step-brother. In the fighting between Īldegiz and the lord of Marāg̲h̲a, Ibn Aḳ Sunḳur al-Aḥmadīlī, Pehlewān played a prominent part [cf. the article marāg̲h̲a]. From his father he inherited in 568 (1172—1173) Arrān, Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān, al-Ḏj̲ibāl, Hamad̲h̲ān, Iṣfahān and al-Raiy with their dependent ter…
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