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ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd

(155 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, son of the caliph al-Walīd I. In 91/709-10, he took part in the campaign against the Byzantines, under the orders of his uncle, Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik, and during the following years, he also participated in the battles against the same enemies. In 96/714-5, al-Walīd, whose designated successor was Sulaymān b. ʿAbd al-Malik, tried to exclude Sulaymān from the succession in favour of his son ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, but his attempt failed. After the death of Sulayman at Dābiḳ, 99/717, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz wan…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya

(519 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, ʿAlid rebel. After the death of Abū Hās̲h̲im, a grandson of ʿAlī, claims were laid to the Imamate from several quarters. Some asserted that Abū Hās̲h̲im had formally transferred his right to the dignity of Imām to the ʿAbbāsid Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Others said that he had spoken in favor of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAmr al-Kindī and wanted to proclaim him Imām. As he, however, did not come up to the expectations of his followers, they turned from him and declared ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya, a great-grandson of ʿ…

al-Walīd b. al-Mug̲h̲īra

(502 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh , member of the powerful and numerous clan of Mak̲h̲zūm [ q.v.] in pre-Islamic Mecca, opponent of the Prophet Muḥammad and uncle of another opponent, Abū D̲j̲ahl [ q.v.] ʿAmr b. His̲h̲ām b. al-Mug̲h̲īra, d. just after the Hid̲j̲ra. Little is known of his life, but he clearly represented the aristocratic interests of his clan and was himself prosperous, seen in the fact that he is said to have owned a garden in Ṭāʾif which he planted for pleasure only and never gathered the fruit in it (Sprenger, i, 359). According to the c…

al-Nuʿmān b. Bas̲h̲īr

(897 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
al-Anṣārī , Companion of the Prophet and governor of al-Kūfa and Ḥimṣ. According to some Muslim authorities, al-Nuʿmān was the first Anṣārī to be born after the Hid̲j̲ra. His father Bas̲h̲īr b. Saʿd [ q.v.] was one of the most distinguished of the Companions, and his mother, ʿAmra bint Rawāḥa, was the sister of the much-respected ʿAbd Allāh b. Rawāha [ q.v.]. After the assassination of ʿUt̲h̲mān, al-Nuʿmān, who was devoted to him, refused to pay homage to ʿAlī. According to some stories which seem rather apocryphal, he brought the bloodstained shirt of th…

ʿAmr b. Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ b. Umayya al-Umawī, known as al-As̲h̲dak

(365 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Umayyad governor and general. Governor of Mecca when Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya came to the throne (60/680), he was the same year appointed governor of Medina. On Yazīd’s orders, he sent an army to Mecca to subdue the anti-Caliph ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, and entrusted the command to a brother of the latter, ʿAmr; but ʿAmr was taken prisoner and, with his brother’s consent, flogged to death by his personal enemies. At the end of the following year, al-As̲h̲daḳ was dismissed. Later he went with the Calip…

al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad

(180 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh , brother of the caliphs Abu l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲āʿfar al-Manṣūr. ʿAbbās helped to retake Malaṭya in 139/756, and three years later was appointed by al-Manṣūr as governor of al-Ḏj̲azīra and the neighbouring frontier district. He was dismissed in 155/772, but his name continues to figure frequently in the history of the following years, however little important his political part may have been. He especially and often distinguished himself in the wars against the Byzant…

D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla

(730 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Ṭāhir b. Bahā ʾal-Dawla , a Būyid, born in 383/993-4. When Sulṭān al-Dawla, after the death of his father Bahāʾ al-Dawla in 403/1012, was named amīr al-umarāʾ , he entrusted his brother D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla with the office of governor of Baṣra. The latter stayed there for several years without becoming involved in the private quarrels of the Būyids. In 415/1024-5 Sulṭān al-Dawla died and his brother Mus̲h̲arrif al-Dawla died in the following year. D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla was then proclaimed amīr al-umarāʾ, but, as he did not appear at Bag̲h̲dād to take possession of his new dig…


(161 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿāzib b. al-ḥārit̲h̲ al-awsī al-anṣārī , a Companion of the Prophet. He was too young to take part in the Battle of Badr, but he accompanied Muḥammad on numerous other expeditions and later took part in the wars of conquest; he brought Rayy and Ḳazwīn under Muslim dominion. He later espoused the cause of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and fought under his banner at the Battle of the Camel [see al-d̲j̲amal], at Ṣiffīn [ q.v.], and at al-Nahrawān [ q.v.]; the famous ḥadīt̲h̲ of G̲h̲adīr Ḵh̲umm [ q.v.] was related on his authority. After his retirement to Kūfa, he lost his sight towards the end…

Hibat Allāh b. Muḥammad

(94 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Muṭṭalib mad̲j̲d al-Dīn abu ’l-Maʿālī , vizier of the caliph al-Mustaẓhir. Hibat Allāh was appointed vizier in Muḥarram 501/August-September 1107, but he was dismissed in Ramaḍān under pressure from the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Muḥammad b. Maliks̲h̲āh. It is true that the caliph soon restored him to office, forbidding him to employ any d̲h̲immīs [ q.v.], but in 502/1108-9 or 503/1109-10 Hibat Allāh was once again dismissed and he and his family were forced to seek the protection of the sultan. (K.V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 305, 309, 318, 330, 335.

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ṣāliḥ

(286 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Alï , cousin of the caliphs Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. In the reign of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd ʿAbd al-Malik led several campaigns against the Byzantines, in 174/790-1, in 181/797-8, and according to some authorities also in 175/791-2, although other sources assert that in this year the forces were commanded not by ʿAbd al-Malik but by his son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. He was also for some time governor of Medina and held the same office in Egypt. At length, however, he could not escap…

Muḥammad b. Marwān

(404 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Ḥakam , Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, son of the first Marwānid caliph by a slave mother, hence half-brother to the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.], Umayyad commander and governor. In 65/684-5, he was sent by his father to al-D̲j̲azīra, probably with the aim of securing Armenia once more, and in the battle of Dayr al-D̲j̲āt̲h̲alīḳ in 72/691 in which ʿAbd al-Malik defeated Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr, he commanded the advanced guard of the Syrian army. In the following year, ʿAbd al-Malik gave him the governorship of al-D̲j̲azīra and Armen…

al-Mustaʿṣim Bi ’llāh

(388 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Aḥmad ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Mustanṣir , the last ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād (640-56/1247-58), born in 609/1212-13. After the death of his father in D̲j̲umādā I or II 640/November-December 1242, he was raised to the caliphal throne, but he had neither the talent nor the strength to avert the catastrophe threatening from the Mongols; he allowed himself to be guided by bad counsellors who were not agreed among themselves but working against one another. In 683/1255-6, the Mongol K̲h̲ān Hūlagū [ q.v.] demanded that the Muslim rulers should make war on the Ismāʿīlīs of Alamūt. …

Abān b. ʿUt̲h̲mān

(203 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAffān , governor, son of the third caliph. His mother was called Umm ʿAmr bint Ḏj̲undab b. ʿAmr al-Dawsiyya. Abān accompanied ʿĀʾis̲h̲a at the battle of the Camel in Ḏj̲umāda I 36/Nov. 656; on the battle terminating otherwise than was expected, he was one of the first to run away. On the whole, he does not seem to have been of any political importance. The caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān appointed him as governor of Madīna. He occupied this position for seven years; he was then dismissed and his place was taken by His̲h̲ām b. Ismāʿīl. Abān owes his celebrity not so ¶ much to his activity as an…

ʿAbbād b. Ziyād

(139 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Abī Sufyān , Abū Ḥarb , Umayyad general. Muʿāwiya appointed him governor of Sid̲j̲istān, where he stayed seven years; in the course of his expeditions to the East, he conquered Ḳandahār. In 61/680-1 he was dismissed by Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya who appointed in his place his brother Salm b. Ziyād to be governor of Sid̲j̲istān and Ḵh̲urāsān. In 64/684, he joined in the battle of Mard̲j̲ Rāhiṭ [ q.v.], at the head of a contingent formed by his own gens . Afterwards he wished to retire to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal, but he was obliged to combat a lieutenant of al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Abī ʿUbayd [ q.v.]. The date of his de…

Abū ʿAwn

(231 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
ʿAbd al-Malik b. Yazīd al-Ḵh̲urasānī , general in the service of the ʿAbbāsids. After the outbreak of the rebellion in Ḵh̲urāsān, 25 Ramaḍān 129/9 June 747, Abū ʿAwn several times took part in the war against the Umayyads. At first he accompanied the ʿAbbāsid general Ḳaḥṭaba b. S̲h̲abīb; then he was sent by the latter to S̲h̲ahrazūr, where on 20 Ḏh̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 131/10 August 749, in conjunction with Mālik b. Ṭarīf, he defeated ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Sufyān. While Abū ʿAwn remained in t…

S̲h̲ams al-Dawla

(488 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Ṭāhir b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Ḥasan, Būyid prince and ruler in Hamad̲h̲ān [ q.v.] 387-412/997-1021. After the death of Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla [ q.v.], the amīr s proclaimed as his successor in Rayy his four-year-old son Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla [ q.v.] under the guardianship of his mother Sayyida and gave the governorship of Hamad̲h̲ān and Kirmāns̲h̲āhān to S̲h̲ams al-Dawla, who was also a minor. When Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla grew up, he sought to overthrow his mother and with this object made an arrangement with the vizier al-K̲h̲aṭīr Abū ʿAlī b. ʿAlī …

ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan

(419 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Ḥasan , chief of the ʿAlids. ʿAbd Allāh was treated with great favour by the caliphs of the Umayyad dynasty, and when he visited the first ʿAbbāsid caliph Abu ʿl-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ at Anbār, the latter received him with great distinction. Thence he returned to Medīna, where he soon fell under the suspicion of the successor of al-Saffāḥ, al-Manṣūr. Yet ʿAbd Allāh owed his misfortune not so much to himself as to his two sons Mụḥammad and Ibrāhīm. Al-Manṣūr began to suspect them in 136/754, when …

Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l S̲h̲āh

(361 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan II, Mug̲h̲īt̲h̲ al-Dīn, minor prince in eastern Anatolia from the family of the Sald̲j̲uḳs of Rūm [see sald̲j̲ūḳids. III. 5]. When the old king Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan II [ q.v.] divided his kingdom among his many sons, Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l S̲h̲āh received the town of Elbistan. In 597/1200-1 his brother Rukn al-Dīn Sulaymān conquered Erzerūm, which he handed over to Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l S̲h̲āh, while he himself took Elbistan. A few years later, Balaban, lord of K̲h̲ilāṭ (Ak̲h̲lāṭ), was attacked by the Ayyūbid al-Mālik al-Awḥad Ayy…

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(280 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, son of the caliph ʿUmar II. In the year 126/744 ʿAbd Allāh was appointed governor of ʿIrāḳ by Yazīd III, but in a short time aroused the discontent of the Syrian chiefs in that place, who felt that they were unfavorably treated by the new governor compared with the inhabitants of ʿIrāḳ. After the accession of Marwān II, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya [ q.v.], a descendant of ʿAlī’s brother Ḏj̲aʿfar, rebelled in Kūfa in Muḥarram 127/Oct. 744, but was expelled by ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar, whereupon he transferred his propaganda to other parts. When Marwān transferred to …


(308 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
bi-Amr ’llāh , Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan , ʿAbbāsid caliph (566-75/1170-80), born on 23 S̲h̲aʿbān 536/23 March 1142, son of al-Mustand̲j̲id [ q.v.] and an Armenian slave named G̲h̲aḍḍa. After his father’s death on 9 Rabīʿ II 566/20 December 1170, al-Mustaḍīʾ succeeded him, and at the beginning of the following year was formally recognised as caliph in Egypt also, which passed into the hands of the Ayyūbids at this time [see fāṭimids ]. The assassins of al-Mustand̲j̲id soon quarrelled among themselves. ʿAḍud al-Dīn [ q.v.], whom al-Mustaḍīʾ had been forced to make vizier, was dismi…
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