Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Yver, G." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Yver, G." )' returned 174 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

G̲h̲umāra

(762 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Gumera of Leo Africanus), Berber tribe of the western Mag̲h̲rib. Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn groups them among the Maṣmūda tribes and attributes to them as ancestor G̲h̲umār son of Maṣmūd or, according to another tradition, son of Mesṭāf, son of Melīl, son of Maṣmūd. The G̲h̲umāra were divided | into a large number of clans— B. Ḥumayd, Mattīwa, ¶ Ig̲h̲ṣawa (=G̲h̲ẓāwa), Mad̲j̲kasa, etc.—whose names are still borne by certain tribes of the Rīf. It is rather difficult to determine precisely the territory occupied by the G̲h̲umāra. According to I…

Kufra

(815 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a group of oases in the Eastern Sahara in the Libyan Desert half-way between Cyrenaica and Wadai. For a long time it was known only from Rohlfs’ account, who managed to reach it in 1879. Subsequently, Kufra has been visited by two other Europeans, Maréchal des Logis Lapierre (1918) and Mrs. Rosita Forbes (1920-1). Their descriptions have completed and corrected that of Rohlfs. The name Kufra applies to a number of oases ¶ which stretch from the south-east to the north-west in a line about 300 km. long, between 24° and 26° N, 18° 40′ and 21° 401 E. The most southerly oasis lies about 1,350 …

Awdag̲h̲ost

(422 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(or Awdag̲h̲os̲h̲t) African town, now no longer extant. According to al-Bakrī, it was situated between the country of the Blacks and Sid̲j̲ilmāssa, at about 51 days’ march from this oasis and 15 from G̲h̲āna. Barth thinks that it must have been situated between long. 10°-11° W. and lat. 18°-19° N., not far from Ḳṣār and Barka, that is to say to the South-West of the post of Tid̲j̲ikja in French Mauritania. Little is known about this town, which seems to have been at the outset a trading colony established by the Zenāga (Ṣanhād̲j̲a) on the Northern border of the Kin…

Djidjelli

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Gegel in Leo Atricanus; Zizeri, Zigeri-Gigerry, Gigeri in western writers), a coastal town in Algeria, 70 km. west of Bougie and 50 km. east of Collo. Geographical position 36° 49′ 54″ N. 5° 44′ 38″ E. Population 21,200 inhabitants (1955). The ancient town of Djidjelli stood high up, where the citadel still stands, on a rocky peninsula which juts out between two bays, one to the west, small and very sheltered, the other lying to the east in a deep basin divided from the open sea by a line of reefs. The present town was built after th…

Sabk̲h̲a

(379 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(a.), pl. sibāk̲h̲ , the term used by the mediaeval Arabic geographers for salt marshes or lagoons and for the salt flats left by the evaporation of the water from such areas. Thus they employ it for describing the salt flats characteristic of parts of the Great Desert of central and eastern Persia (the present Das̲h̲t-i Kawīr and Das̲h̲t-i Lūṭ) and of the adjacent province of Sīstān (Ibn Ḥawḳal, ed. Kramers, 407, 415, tr. Kramers-Wiet, 397, 404; al-Muḳaddasī, 488; cf. A. Miquel, La géographie humaine du monde musulman jusqu’au milieu du 11 e siècle . iii . Le milieu naturelle, Paris-The Hagu…

al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr

(955 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Alcazarquívir, a town in Northern Morocco, about 50 miles south of Tangier on the right bank of the Wādī Lukkus; at one time, this ran through it, but the course of the stream was diverted to prevent inundations. Lying in a vast plain commanded on the east by heights, it is divided into two parts, al-S̲h̲arīʿa in the north and Bāb al-Wād on the south, between which lies the market-place. The only buildings of any importance are the great mosque which is pre-Almohad, the mosque of Sīdī al-Azmīrī and the Djāmiʿ al-Sayda, finished in 1100/1689. Within and around the town are many ḳubbas

Ḳuṣtanṭīna

(3,213 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Ḳusanṭīna , Constantine , a town in Algeria and the chief town of the wilāya (department) of the same name. It lies 330 miles east of Algiers and 50 miles south-east of Skīdda (former Philippeville), which is the port for Constantine, with which it is connected by railway, in lat. 36° 22′ N. and long. 18° 56′. The population in 1965 was 235,000. The situation of Constantine makes the town a natural fortress. It is built on a rocky plateau in the form of a trapezoid, bounded on the south-east, north-east and north-west, by deep ravines and connected with th…

al-Baṣra

(443 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Morocco, not extant to-day, which owed its name to Baṣra in ʿIrāḳ. Situated between two hills of reddish earth (whence its epithet al-Ḥamrāʾ), on a plateau commanding to the east the road to Wazzān, to the west the valley of the Wēd Mda, and to the north-east that of the Wēd Leḳḳus, ¶ about 12½ m. (20 km.) south of al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr, it occupied, according to Tissot, the site of the Roman town of Tremulae. Founded about the same period as Arzila (Aṣila [ q.v.]), and probably therefore by Idrīs II, at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, it was doubtless intended to be t…

Awrās

(1,262 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Aurès; Αύράοɩον ὄρος in Procopius, De bello vand., i, 8, ii, 12-13. 19-20) mountain massif of Algeria, forming part of the Eastern Saharan Atlas. So far it has not been possible to discover the meaning of the word Awrās. The Awrās is a compact massif 8,000 sq. km. in area, which extends from the depression leading from Batna to Biskra as far, Khenchela and the valley of the Wādi ’l-ʿArab, between the high plains of southern Constantino. (Sbāk̲h̲) and the Saharan depression of the Zibān. Its summits (Ḏj̲ibāl Chélia, 2,327 m., and Kef…

al-Ḳaṣr al-Ṣag̲h̲īr

(675 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Morocco, ow in ruins. It lay on the south bank of the Straits of Gibraltar, 14 miles W. of Ceuta, 23 miles ¶ E. of Tangier, at the head of a bay sheltered by a spur of the Ḏj̲ebel G̲h̲omāri at the mouth of a navigable river. In ancient times this site was perhaps occupied by a Phoenician factory and then by a Roman town (Lissa or Exilissa of Ptolemy). A fortress was erected there quite early in the period of Muslim occupation, in 90/708-9, according to al-Ziyānī, in Archives Marocaines , vi, 494, on the territory of the Maṣmūda, whence the name of Ḳaṣr Maṣmūda (cf. Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, Hist , des Berb…

Kanem

(1,714 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(a. Kānim), today the name of a prefecture (capital Mao) in the republic of Chad. It is bounded in the north by Borkou, in the east by Batha, in the south by Chari-Baguirmi, in the southwest by the department of Lac and in the west by the republic of Nigeria (population 170,000). Its borders do not correspond exactly to those of the region which was one of the most ancient kingdoms of Africa and stretched, according to the most widely. accepted view, as far as the caravan route from Kawar [ q.v] to Lake Chad in the west, to Baḥr al ¶ G̲h̲azal [ q.v.] in the south, to the depression of the Egueї in…

al-Madiyya

(706 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, al-Madya , Lemdiya , in French Médéa , a town of Algeria situated about 100 km./60 miles to the south of Algiers (in lat. 36° 15′ 50′′ N., long. 2° 45′ E.), at an altitude of 920 m./3,018 ft. and on the northern border of the mountainous massif which divides the high plateau from the Mittīd̲j̲a. Down to the French occupation, it could only be reached by a bridle-path over the Muzāya pass (979 m./3,270 ft.). The bui…

al-Hodh

(274 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ḥōḍ), a semi-desert region in Western Africa. It is a plain, lying to the east of Timbuktu between the Sahel on the south and the Tagant on the north, stretching over a distance of about 200 miles. A zone of steppes called Mrāya (mirror) separates the Hodh from that part of the western Sahara known by the name of al-Ḏj̲ūf. Three well-defined divisions may be distinguished in the Hodh. In the south is a region of sand and thorny brushwood, fairly rich in wells and sustaining quite a numerous pop…

Tenes

(760 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Algeria on the coast, 125 miles from Algiers, 100 miles E. of Mostaganem and 35 N. of Orleans, a town in the valley of the Chelif; its position is 36° 30’ 50” N. Lat. 1° 18’ E. Long (Greenwich). The town is built on a rocky plateau commanding the sea; the harbour lies below in a bay sheltered from the east winds by the bulk of Cape Tenes, but unprotected against the north and west which makes the anchorage unsafe in spite of the considerable work done to secure the protection of ship…

Kanem

(2,974 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a country in the Central Sūdān, east and north-east of Lake Tchad. Until recent years Kanem was only known from the accounts of Barth, who visited a part of it in 1851, and Nachtigal, who crossed it in 1871 on his way to Borku. But from 1900 onwards, the work of French scientific missions, as well as the explorations of officers and officials entrusted with the administration of the “territoire militaire du Tchad”, have made it possible to rectify and complete the data furnished by these two travellers. The name Kanem, taken in the widest acceptation, is applied, according to Nach…

Bardo

(413 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, residence of the Beys of Tunis, lying 1¼ miles to the southwest of it. The site of Bardo, famous for its coolness in summer, appears to have been early visited by rich citizens who had gardens and country houses here. Here was the park of Abū Fahr laid out by the Ḥafṣid Emīr al-Mustanṣir (1249—1277) with its groves of rare trees, its lake watered by the aqueduct of Zag̲h̲wān, which was large enough to be sailed on by the ladies of the Ḥarem in boats, its summerhouses inlaid with mosaic and decorated with woodcarvings (see Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, Histoire des Berbers, transl, de Slane, ii. 339). In the xvith c…

Bilma

(673 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, an oasis of the Sahara on the caravan route from the Lake of Chad to Tripoli at a height of 1016 feet, belongs to the group of oases, called Kawār by the Arabs, and Henneri Tug̲h̲e by the Tebbu (= Rocky Valley according to Nachtigal). Kawār occupies the centre of a sandstone basin of the cretaceous period beneath which impermeable schists collect, not far from the surface, the water which filters down from the mountains of Tibesti. It is a valley running from north to south, about 60 miles lon…

Sahara

(2,429 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(al-Ṣaḥrāʾ), an African desert. Ṣaḥrāʾ is the feminine of the adjective aṣḥar, “of a fawn colour”. The word is applied by some writers to a combination of stony soil, steppes and sands (cf. al-Idrīsī, ed. de Goeje, p. 37 note), while the word mud̲j̲diba, is more particularly applied to areas covered with moving sands and absolutely devoid of water (cf. Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, Taḳwīm al-Buldān, ed. Reinaud and de Slane, p. 137; transl. Reinaud, it. 190). Leo African us uses it as a synonym for desert in general (Schefer I, i. 5). The Sahara lies between Barbary, Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Marma…

G̲h̲adāmes

(1,345 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town and oasis in the Sahara, 300 miles S.W. of Tripoli and 280 miles S.S.W. of Gabes, in 30° 7′ 48″ N. Lat. and 8° 28′ E. Long. (Greenw.), with 5000—6000 inhabitants. The town occupies the southwestern part of the oasis. It forms a ḳṣar of about 1300 houses surrounded by a dilapidated wall and intersected by narrow streets which are vaulted over almost their whole length. The only architectural monuments are the mosques (14 in number) of unpretending exteriors. According to al-Has̲h̲āʾis̲h̲ī the tombs of two companions of t…

Ḥafṣids

(1,962 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a Berber dynasty of northern Africa, which ruled Ifrīḳīya for over three centuries (626—981 = 1228—1574). It took its name from S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Ḥafṣ ʿOmar, chief of the Hintāta, one of the first disciples of Ibn Tūmart and one of ʿAbd al-Muʾmin’s most faithful lieutenants. [Cf. the article almohads, i. 317b]. His descendants enjoyed such esteem that, according to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, they alternated with the descendants of ʿAbd al-Muʾmin as governors of Spain, the Mag̲h̲rib and Ifrīḳīya. It thus came about that Abū Muḥammad ¶ b. Abī Ḥafṣ was appointed governor of Ifrīḳīya by the Calip…
▲   Back to top   ▲