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(209 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] City in Gallia Narbonensis, chief town of the Avantici [1. 75, 287, 290] in the territory of the Vocontii tribal federation, modern Gap (in the département of Hautes-Alpes). A significant station ( mansio; beaker from Vicarello 66 Miller: Vappincum) on a linking road between the valley of the Rhodanus (Rhône) and Italy. The earliest traces of settlement (dolmen) are from the Chalcolithic period [2. 1, 20]. Two pre-Roman oppida lie on the hill of Saint-Mens to the east [2. 17] and that of Puy-Maure to the west [2. 14] of the modern town which cov…


(417 words)

Author(s): Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón) | Winkle, Christian
[German version] [1] Modern Valencia This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Commerce | Pilgrimage | Pyrenean peninsula (modern Valencia). Roman city in the territory of the Edetani in the lower valley of the Turia [2] near the sea (Mela 2,92; Ptol. 6,6,61). There is no archaeological evidence there of a pre-Roman Iberian city, in Avien. 481 f. called Tyris. V. was founded in 138 BC by the consul D. Iunius [I 14] for veterans (probably the Roman ones, not the Iberians) of the war with Viriatus (App.…


(706 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] (Οὐοκόντιοι/ Ouokóntioi). Celtic people in Gallia Narbonensis (Str. 4,6,4; Notitia Galliarum 11,10) whose territory was bounded in the north by the Isara [1] (modern Isère) and the territory of the Allobroges (Caes. B Gall. 1,10,5), in the west by the territory of the Segovellauni and the Cavares and the valley of the Rhodanus (modern Rhône), in the south by the Vaucluse uplands, mons Vintur (modern Mont Ventoux), the lower reaches of the Druentia (modern Durance) and the territory of the Salluvii, in the east by the upper reaches of the Dru…


(687 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] Celtic people in Gallia Narbonensis. Originally from Germania, the V. migrated in two groups, some to Greece and Asia Minor (Tectosages), some to Gallia (A). Their first appearance in the southeast of Gallia can possibly be placed in the middle of the 3rd cent. BC [1. 85-90]. In the context of Hannibal's [4] Alpine campaign (Punic Wars), Liv. 21,26,6 f. (cf. Pol. 3,37,9; App. Hann. 4) mentions the V. in the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) region, only later is there evidence of them as fa…


(145 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] Fort or settlement in Gallia Lugdunensis on the via Agrippina (It. Ant. 359,5), modern Tournus ( département of Saône-et-Loire). There were two settlements: T. vetus, the original Celtic town and later Roman vicus on the modern Muret de la Mousse, an island in the River Arar (Saône); T. novum, modern Tournus, a new foundation on the right bank of the Arar between Cabilonnum (modern Chalon-sur-Saône) and Matisco (modern Mâcon; It. Ant. 359,5). T. novum was given a castellum in the late Imperial period, of which remains survive. The original road station wit…


(364 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] City in Gallia Narbonensis, present-day Saint-Blaise, east of the mouth of the Rhodanus (Rhône), c. 35 km north west of Massalia (Marseille) at the edge of a plateau. The plateau is surrounded by four salt water lakes (Étangs du Pourra, de Citis, d'Engrenier, de Lavalduc). The place name was unkown to the Greek geographers, it is only documented for the Early Middle Age settlement. It is possibly the local name of the Massaliotic oppidum of Mastramele (Steph. Byz. s. v. Μαστραμέλη/ Mastramélē; Avien. 700: Mastrabala). U. may originally have been the name of the oppidum, …


(166 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] Settlement or statio (CIL XIII 5621-5636) on the Via Agrippina, which runs along a tributary of the Arar (modern Saône) of the same name (modern Tille), some 27 km to the north of Divio (modern Dijon) and 45 km to the south of Andemantunnum (modern Langres); modern Thil-Chatel ( département of Côte-d'Or). At the junction of the military road from Vesontio (modern Besançon) with the Via Agrippina, T. was an economic and religious centre. Traces of a fortified camp survive; little is known of the civilian settlement (burial insc…


(2,440 words)

Author(s): F.V. | Winkle, Christian
[German version] [1] People of northeastern Italy (Ἐνετοί/ Enetoí). People of northeastern Italy. F.V. [German version] I. Current state of research The area settled by the V. (after the Augustan territorial reform in regio X: Plin. HN 3,130) corresponds roughly to the modern regions of Veneto, Friuli - Venezia Giulia and Trentino - Alto Adige. It was not until the end of the 19th cent. that written evidence of the V. was corroborated by archeological finds pointing to the existence of a special type of grave culture in Este (in…


(113 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] City in the territory of the Volcae Arecomici (in the province of Gallia Narbonensis), modern Uzès (in the département of Gard). The oppidum in the territory of Nemausus (modern Nîmes; Str. 4,1,12; Plin. HN 3,37; Notitia Galliarum 15,9: Castrum Uceciense) was an important road hub [1. 406 f.]. U. was a bishop's see in AD 442 [2. 94 f., 107 f.]. There is evidence of dedications to Mars, Jupiter and a Gaulish deity Segomanna, mentioned only there (CIL XII 2925-2961; 5886; [3. 393; 4. 88 f.]). Winkle, Christian Bibliography 1 Grenier 6 2 CCL 148, 1963 3 Espérandieu,…


(159 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] River in Gallia Narbonensis (rich in fish according to Sid. Apoll. Epist. 2,9,9), modern Gard or Gardon. Fed by the source streams Gardon d'Anduze and Gardon d'Alès on Cebenna mons (Cévennes), it flows into the Rhodanus (modern Rhone) to the north of Tarusco [1]. The river is crossed at Remoulin by a three-tier aqueduct (modern Pont du Gard), part of a conduit built c. AD  50 (50.1 km in length; descent 12·27 m) which led the spring water of the Eure by way of Ucetia to Nemausus (Nimes) [1]. The Pont du Gard has a length of 142·35 m on the lowe…


(406 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Villa Port on the Bay of Naples, not precisely located (at Fontana Grande?). The Ager Stabianus was bounded in the north by the Sarnus, in the east by the Monti Lattari, in the west by the sea and in the south by Monte Faito. Little is known of the Oscan (Osci) settlement, which can be shown to have existed from the 7th cent. BC. In its development, however, it was significantly shaped by a Greek and Etruscan presence, as ceramics from a necropolis…