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La(u)gona

(52 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Name of the River Lahn, first attested in the 6th cent. AD in Venantius Fortunatus c. 7,7,58 (also Logona in manuscript). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s.v. L., RE 12, 999 L. Weisgerber, Erläuterung zur Karte der römerzeitlich bezeugten rheinischen Namen, in: Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter 23, 1958, 15.

Taunus

(302 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] One of the highest mountain ranges in Germania (Mela 3,30; name possibly Celtic). In AD 15 Germanicus [2] had a fort built in monte Tauno on the ruins of a fortress designed by Claudius [II 24] Drusus (Tac. Ann. 1,56,1). This fortress has often been identified with a fort established by Drusus 'among the Chatti immediately on the Rhine' in 11 BC (Cass. Dio 54,33,4). Since the latter is now presumed rather to be in the area of the Neuwieder Basin, the identification of Drusus' two fortresses is as uncertain as the connection with Ἄρταυνον/ Ártaunon in Ptol. 2,11,29. The T…

Vangiones

(191 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A presumably Germanic, later Celticised people, whose original homeland on the right bank of the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine) is unknown. They marched across the Rhine with Ariovistus, who was defeated by Caesar in 58 BC (Caes. B Gall. 1,51,2). The V. were initially for the most part driven back over the Rhine. In the time of Augustus, but no later than before the middle of the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Ann. 12,27,2), they were settled on the left bank of the Rhine to the north of the Triboci and the Nemetes, and to the south of Mogontiacum; the capital of their civitas was Borbetomagus…

Nemetes

(311 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Νέμητες; Némētes). Germanic tribe, which - judging by the Celtic name - probably settled  in the area of contact between Celts and Germani before the Roman period, but is hardly likely to belong to the Suebi. The N. were first mentioned alongside Triboci and Vangiones and later were also repeatedly referred to in conjunction with them (Plin. HN. 4,106; Tac. Germ. 28,4; Ptol. 2,9,17), among the seven tribes which Ariovistus had led across the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 1,51,2). However, …

Saltus Teutoburgiensis

(401 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] The only reference to the ‘Teutoburg Forest’ in ancient sources is Tac. Ann. 1,60,3, mentioning it as the scene of Varus' battle in AD 9 (P. Quinctilius [II 7]; Arminius). On his foray into Germania east of the Rhine in AD 15, Germanicus [2] entered the region between Amisia and Lupia, “... haud procul Teutoburgiensi saltu, in quo reliquiae Vari legionumque insepultae dicebantur” (“not far from the forest of Teutoburg, in which the remains of Varus and the legions were said to lie unburied”). The battle site was then reconnoitred and the fallen buried. In the absence of c…

Colonia Ulpia Traiana

(399 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae Roman colony on the left side of the Lower Rhine, modern Xanten, on a low terrace between two Rhine branches in an area only suited to a limited extent for cultivation. While early signs of settlement from the 4th or 3rd cents. BC indicate no continuity with the Roman period, a favoured central location of the  Cugerni already arose there at the turn of the millennium because of the proximity of the legion camp of  Vetera. According to Tac. Hist. 4,22,1, the settlement was set up in the 60s of the 1st cent. AD ‘in the style of a   mu…

Nava

(222 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A left hand tributary of the Rhine. It flows into the Rhine near Bingium (Auson. Mos. 1: ‘the rushing N.’), present-day Nahe. In early Roman times the Celtic Treveri tribe lived in the area of the N., where there is evidence of some oppida. Under Augustus the Germanic Vangiones were settled along the middle and lower N. The area was then added to the upper Germanic army district. The region by the upper reaches of the N. was part of Belgica. In the middle of the 5th cent. AD the Franci settled mainly in the lower valley of…

Mattiaci

(416 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A tribe that settled in Wetterau and Taunus during the Imperial period. The Celtic name is associated with Mattium, the main city of the Chatti (cf. Ptol. 2,11,14: Ματτικόν; Mattikón). It is debated whether the M. were a sub-tribe of the Germanic Chatti which had already separated from them during the Augustan period, and settled in the above-mentioned area with Roman permission (for earlier research, cf. [1; 2. 52-57; 3]), or whether the M. are those mentioned as having defected because of the destruction of…

Laur(i)um

(131 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Station in the territory of the Batavi (Tab. Peut. 2,3) on one of two roads between Ulpia Noviomagus and Lugdunum Batavorum (modern Katwijk), modern Woerden. Roman finds from about 50 to the 3rd cent. AD, a fort only from the Flavian period onwards (AD 69-96). Initially garrison of the cohors XV voluntariorum, after the middle of the 2nd cent. AD of the cohors III Breucorum. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography H. Schönberger, Die röm. Truppenlager der frühen und mittleren Kaiserzeit zw. Nordsee und Inn, in: BRGK 66, 1985, 439 B 6 J. K. Haalebos, Ausgrabungen in Woer…

Rigodulum

(115 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Town located on the right shore of the Mosella, present-day Riol; its name is Celtic. In AD 70, during the Batavian Revolt, it was the location of the battle between the entrenched Treveri under Iulius [II 43] Civilis and the Romans who had been brought there from Mogontiacum (Mainz) by Petilius [II 1] Cerialis. During this battle, the most prominent of the Belgae were taken prisoner by the Romans (cf. Tac. Hist. 4,71,4 f.). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. Keune, s. v. R., RE 1 A, 803 f.  H. Heubner, P. Co…

Tabernae

(247 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Township in the territory of the Nemetes Township in the territory of the Nemetes on the Roman road on the west bank of the Rhenus [2] (It. Ant. 355; Amm. 16,2,12; Not. Dign. Occ. 41,16; Tab. Peut. 3,3), modern Rheinzabern. There is evidence  of brickworks of the legions of upper Germania from about AD 45 until c. AD 80; a fort, however, is not certain. After the withdrawal of the military brickworks, everyday and fine ceramics were made there for civilian needs. In about the middle of the 2nd cent. AD, a factory was developed for t…

Kastel

(469 words)

Segni

(78 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic people, mentioned only by Caesar (Caes. Gall. 6,32,1 f.) together with the Condrusi, between the Treveri and the Eburones, who assured him by means of an embassy in 53 BC, that they would not make common cause with the Germani on the left bank of the Rhine. Their presumed place of settlement was in the Luxemburgish and Belgian Ardennes. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) …

Kalkriese

(495 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item …

Teutoni

(592 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe, settled, according to Pytheas [4] (Plin. HN 37,35) on the western coast of Jutland, probably neighbouring the Cimbri (= C.), in conjunction with whom they are often named (cf. Vell. Pat. 2,8), most scholars (cf. e.g. [1. 232 note 71]) therefore supposing that the two tribes migrated southwards together to the Danube (Ister, Istrus [1]), to Noricum (victory over Papirius [I 8] Carbo at Noreia in 113 BC) and thence through the region of the Helvetii to Gaul (Gallia). It is also inf…

Rhenus

(907 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florenz) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[English version] [1] Fluß in Ober-Italien, h. Reno in der Emilia-Romagna Fluß in Ober-It., h. Reno in der Emilia-Romagna, rechter Zufluß des Padus (Po), der im Appenninus oberhalb von Pistoriae entspringt und an Marzabotto vorbei durch das Gebiet von Felsina (Bononia [1]) fließt. In etr. Zeit mündete er bei Voghiera im SO von Ferrara in den Padus, in röm. Zeit etwas westl. davon. Er mündet h. über einen künstlichen Kanal direkt in die Adria. Sein Flußtal diente z.Z. der Villanova-Kultur und i…

Marsi

(416 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venedig) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[English version] [1] Volksstamm im mittelitalienischen Appenninus Volksstamm im mittelitalienischen Appenninus im Gebiet des Lacus Fucinus (Strab. 5,2,1; Ptol. 3,1,57), galt als tapfer und kriegerisch (Strab. 5,4,2; Plin. nat. 3,106; Liv. 8,29,4; Verg. georg. 2,167; vgl. die etym. Ableitung von “Mars”). Als Nachkommen eines Sohnes der Kirke sollen sie gegen Schlangengift immun gewesen sein (Plin. nat. 7,15; 21,78; 25,11; 28,30; Gell. 16,11,1; vgl. auch Cic. div. 1,132; 2,70; Hor. epod. 17,29; Hor. carm. 2,20,18). Charakteristisch für das Land der M. war der Kräuter- und Gemüseanbau (vgl. dazu Plin. nat. 25,48; Colum. 2,9,8; 6,5,3; 12,10,1). Durch das Gebiet der M. führte die Via Valeria (Strab. 5,3,11). Als marsische Städte werden gen.: Anxa (h. Gallipoli), Antinum, Lucus Fucens (h. Luco), Marruvium (San Benedetto; Plin. nat. 3,106) und Archippe (Plin. nat. 3,108). Die M. traten früh in freundschaftliche Beziehungen zu Rom: 308/7 v.Chr. gewährten die Consuln den M. gegen die Samnites Unterstützung (Dio…

Rhenus

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] River in upper-Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna River in Upper Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna, right-hand feeding river of the Padus (Po), which rises in the Apennines above Pistoriae (Pistoia) and flows past Marzabotto through the region of Felsina (Bononia [1]). In Etruscan times it flowed into the Padus near Voghiera to the southeast of Ferrara, in Roman times somewhat more to the west. Nowadays it flows via an artificial canal directly into the Adriatic Sea. In…

Marsi

(456 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Tribe in the Central Italian Appenninus Tribe in the…
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