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Cleora

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεόρα; Kleóra). Spartan, wife of Agesilaus [2] II, mother of Archidamus [2] III (Xen. Hell. 3,4,29; 5,4,25; Plut. Agesilaus 19). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Cleonymus

(376 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(Κλεώνυμος; Kleṓnymos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, put two important proposals forward in 426/5 BC Athenian politician; in the year 426/5 BC he put forward two important proposals: one concerned  Methone in Thrace, the other the collection of tributes from the  Delian League (IG I3 61,32-56; 68). C. was probably a member of the council in that year. In 415 he was one of the most enthusiastic supporters of an investigation into the religious scandals ( Herms, mutilation of the; And. 1.27). Aristophanes derided him as a glutt…

Isadas

(59 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσάδας; Isádas). Spartan, son of Phoebidas, proved himself in 362 BC at the defence of Sparta in battle against the forces of  Epaminondas (Plut. Agesilaus 34; Ael. VH. 6,3). In the writings of Polyaenos (2,9), who clearly confused the incursions of the Thebans of 370/69 and 362, erroneously given the name Isidas. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Callibius

(55 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλλίβιος; Kallíbios). Spartan, was sent as harmost to Athens in 404/3 BC at the request of the Thirty and after the intervention of Lysander. He was courted by the rulers there and attempted to support their regime (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13f.; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 37,2; 38,2; Diod. Sic. 14,4,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Ischolaus

(41 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσχόλαος; Ischólaos). Spartan, fought in the Corinthian War against Chabrias in Thrace (Polyaen. Strat. 2,22), fell in battle in Scritis against the Arcadians during the winter of 370/69 BC (Xen. Hell. 6,5,24-26; Diod.Sic. 15,64,3f.). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Cleandridas

(92 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεανδρίδας; Kleandrías). Spartan; allegedly fought in 470 BC against Tegea (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,10,3) and in 446 as advisor of king  Pleistoanax he was bribed by Pericles on a campaign to Attica. Sentenced to death, C. fled (Diod. Sic. 13,106,10; Plut. Pericles 22f.) and became a citizen of Thurii, where he functioned as general after 443 (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,10). The embellishment of the bribery affair probably only occurred after his son  Gylippus was convicted of embezzlement [1. 145]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 K. L. Noethlichs, Bestechu…

Spartiatae

(338 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σπαρτιᾶται; Spartiâtai). Full citizens of Sparta, who attained this status at 20 years of age, and who from the 5th cent. BC saw themselves as homoioi [II] (peers), distinct from the perioikoi , and from the hypomeiones, who enjoyed only limited rights as citizens. The conditions for assuming this status included pure Spartan blood, completion of the agoge and participation in the syssitiai (Banquet [II. B]), to which they had to contribute. Their economic basis were the klaroi ( kleros ), which were worked by helots. The notion that all o…

Praktor

(313 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(πράκτωρ/ práktōr, πρακτήρ/ praktḗr: Poll. 8,114, 'executor', 'manager', from práttein, 'do'). [German version] I. Classical Period Greek official of a state executory authority, who, on instruction, recovered state claims, particularly fines. In Athens ten práktores chosen by lot annually were in service. Informed by the authorized court magistrate of penalties imposed, they entered them in the list kept on the Acropolis when state debtors did not pay immediately (IG II2 45; And. 1,77-79; Dem. Or. 25,4; 25,28; 43,71) [1. 270 f.]. An authority of the same name wi…

Callicratidas

(431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Καλλικρατίδας; Kallikratídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch, 407/6 BC Spartan nauarch (naval commander) in 407/6 BC, was only able to relieve  Lysander of his command in the spring of 406 and was confronted through the latter's intrigues with extremely serious problems while preparing his operations. However, he was as unimpressed by these as by the affront he suffered from Cyrus the Younger. C. secured the finances for his warfare and took the initiative. After relocating his naval base from Ep…

Libys

(110 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] [1] One of the Tyrrhenian pirates One of the Tyrrhenian pirates who, together with them abducts Dionysius who is disguised as a drunken boy. As a punishment all pirates are transformed into dolphins by the wine god, except the helmsman Acoetes ( Acoetes [1]) who wants to keep them from the outrage (Ov. Met. 3,605-691; Hyg. Fab. 134). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Brother of Lysander, Spartan nauarch 403 BC Brother of Lysander, as Spartan nauarch he blockaded Piraeus in 403 BC in order to combat the revolt of Thrasybulus and his suppo…

Philocharidas

(139 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Φιλοχαρίδας/ Philocharídas). Spartiate, son of Euryxilaidas, co-signatory of the truce between Sparta and Athens in 423 BC (Thuc. 4,119,2) and the Peace of Nicias in 421 (Thuc. 5,19,2). With Ischagoras and Menas [1] he was supposed to instruct Clearidas to hand over Amphipolis by treaty to Athens but the latter opposed this (Thuc. 5,21). In the same year, P. took oaths to the symmachía of Sparta with Athens (Thuc. 5,24,1) and in 420 was a member of a Spartan delegation that was snubbed in Athens through intrigues on the pa…

Naucleidas

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ναυκλείδας/ Naukleídas). Spartiate, son of Polybiades; as an ephor, he accompanied king Pausanias to Athens in 403 BC, and supported his policy of reconciling the hostile sides in the civil war, in defiance of the intent of Lysander [1], who in revenge later accused him of debauchery (Xen. Hell. 2,4,35-36; Agatharchidas FGrH 86 F 11 = Athen. 12,550 d-e). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Zeuxidamus

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ζευξίδαμος/ Zeuxídamos). [German version] [1] King of Sparta, c. 700 BC Was considered a Spartan king of the house of the Eurypontids and a son of Archidamus, is supposed to have been the successor to his grandfather Theopompus [1] towards the end of the 8th cent. BC, but is not mentioned in Hdt. 8,131, appearing only in Pausanias' list of Spartan kings (3,7,6; 4,15,3) into which he was probably inserted only in the 4th cent. BC [1. 97; 2. 344 f.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Son of Leotychidas [2] II Eurypontid, son of the Spartan king Leotychidas [2] II (…

Gylippus

(285 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γύλιππος; Gýlippos). Spartiate, son of Cleandridas. His education (  agōgḗ ) was perhaps (at times?) made possible by an affluent Spartan, as Aelianus (Var. 12,43) calls him mothax (‘Bastard’) [1. 434]. When Syracuse asked Sparta for help against the Athenians, he was sent to Sicily (Thuc. 6,93; 104), reached Himera in the summer of 414 BC with a small force, reinforced his army there considerably, broke through to Syracuse, organized the resistance and prevented the encircling of the city (Thuc. 7,1-7). A…

Monimus

(373 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μόνιμος/ Mónimos). [German version] [1] From Syracuse, pupil of Diogenes M. from Syracuse, slave of a Corinthian banker, heard Xeniades, a rich citizen of Corinth, extol the virtue of Diogenes [14] of Sinope, who lived with him. In order to be able to leave his master and follow Diogenes, M. made out that he was insane; he was dismissed and so became Diogenes' pupil. He also stayed with Crates [4] for a long time and imitated his way of life (Diog. Laert. 6,82). M. must have been famous, as he appears in…

Sophanes

(135 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σωφάνης/ Sōphánēs). Athenian from Decelea, son of Eutychides (Hdt. 6,92,3; 9,73,1). In 490 BC after the battle of Marathon he refused to honour Miltiades [2] with a wreath (Plut. Cimon 8,1), since the victory was understood to be a success of the dêmos as a whole [1. 193]. S. distinguished himself by particular bravery in the Athenians' war with Aegina in 488/7 (Hdt. 6,92; 9,75; Paus. 1,29,5) and in the battle of Plataeae in 479 (Hdt. 9,73-75; Plut. Cato maior 29,2). He fell in 465/4 as a stratēgós and one of the commanders of the colonists who advanced from Ennea…

Gylis

(44 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γῦλις; Gŷlis). Spartiate, in 394 BC polemarch, assumed command of the army of Agesilaus [2] II after the battle of Coronea and advanced to Locris. He fell in battle after the retreat (Xen. Ages. 2,15; Hell. 4,3,21-23). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Agiads

(245 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγιάδαι; Agiádai). Royal dynasty in Sparta, which, according to Herodotus (6,51), held a higher rank than the second Spartan royal dynasty, the ( Eurypontids). However, the authority of individual kings was based on their deeds and the quality of their leadership. As the founding father of the A. stands the mythic figure of the Heraclid  Eurysthenes, whose son Agis [1] I became the eponymous hero of the house. In the early construct devised to explain the Spartan double kingdom ap…

Stasippus

(114 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Στάσιππος/ Stásippos). Leader of the pro-Spartan 'oligarchs' in Tegea (Xen. Hell. 6,4,18) who in the summer of 370 BC opposed annexation, instigated by anti-Spartan forces in Tegea, to a pan-Arcadian state, planned by 'democrats' in Mantinea. Initially successful in the disturbances unleashed by this [1. 505-507; 2. 105; 3. 74 f.], S. did not, however, have his defeated opponents prosecuted and, after the Mantineans intervened, he and his supporters were overcome, captured despite…

Nicolochus

(61 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Νικόλοχος; Nikólochos). Spartan; while epistoleús (‘deputy’) of the naúarchos (‘naval commander’) Antalcidas (388/7 BC), he was surrounded by Iphicrates at Abydus [1], where Antalcidas relieved him (Xen. Hell. 5,1,6-7; 5,1,25-27; Polyaen. 2,24). As naúarchos in 375 BC, he was defeated by the Athenian Timotheus at Alyzea (Xen. Hell. 5,4,65-66; Diod. 15,36,5; Polyaen. 3,10,4; 3,10,12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
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