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Derkylidas

(255 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Δερκυλίδας). Spartiat; galt als gewandter und listenreicher Truppenführer. Er gewann 411 v.Chr. kampflos Abydos und Lampsakos (Thuk. 8,61f.), war 407/6 Harmost in Abydos (Xen. hell. 3,1,9) und löste 399 im Krieg Spartas gegen den persischen Satrapen Tissaphernes in Kleinasien den unbeliebten Thibron ab, der das Heer, darunter die ehemaligen Söldner des jüngeren Kyros (auch Xenophon), nicht disziplinieren konnte (Xen. hell. 3,1,8-10). In einem “Blitzfeldzug” entriß D. dem Satrape…

Tresantes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τρέσαντες, 'those having fled in fear'). Spartiates, who had failed in battle and lost their aretḗ (Virtue) (Tyrtaeus fr. 8,14 Gentili/Prato), with the result that they were held in contempt socially (Plut. Lycurgus 21,2). They were allowed to shave only half their beards, could not hold office, were excluded from gymnastics, games, contubernia and from merchant business (Xen. Lac. 9,4-6), could allegedly also be beaten and had to wear dirty clothing. It was considered shameful to give one a da…

Kleros

(412 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλῆρος; klêros; Dor. κλᾶρος; klâros, ‘lot’, ‘land allocation’, ‘plot of land’, ‘land allotment’; etymologically probably derived from κλάειν/ kláein, ‘to break, to share’). The drawing of lots for cultivatable plots when acquiring land cannot be verified in the early Greek period.[1]. Already in Homer (Il. 15,498; Od. 14,64 ), as well as in Hesiod (Op. 37; 341), kleros designates private property, not acquired by lot. The function of the klêros in the ancient Thessalonian order of regulations on levies explained by Aristotle (fr. 611 Rose) is not …

Alcidas

(297 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκίδας; Alkídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC The Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC, who was supposed to bring relief to the polis of Mytilene on Lesbos, but on route learned of Mytilene's capitulation. The relief of Mytilene, which had been occupied after having broken away from Athens (Thuc. 3,16,3; 26,1), was to take place simultaneously with the invasion of Attica by a Peloponnesian army in the early summer of 427. He landed in Erythrae of Asia Minor, but did not advance fast enough i…

Geranor

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γεράνωρ; Geránōr). Spartiate, former polemarchos, fell in 369/8 BC during the defe…

Lacedas

(68 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λακήδας; Lakḗdas; Hdt. 6,127,3: Λεωκήδης; Leōkḗdēs). Legendary king of Argus, by tradition the son of the historically debated Pheidon [3]. L. was regarded as the father of Meltas, the last king of the Argives (Paus. 2,19,2) [1. 385; 2. 107ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Carlier, La royauté en Grèce avant Alexandre, 1984 2 Th. Kelly, A History of Argos to 500 BC, 1976.

Presbeia, Presbeis

(467 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (πρεσβεία/ presbeía, πρέσβεις/ présbeis, 'embassy', 'emissary'). The terms presbeía and présbeis in this sense are known only from the 5th cent…

Mandrocleidas

(148 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Μανδροκλείδας; Mandrokleídas). [German version] [1] Spartiate, tried to keep Pyrrhos from further raids in Laconia, 272 BC Spartiate (Μανδρικλείδας/ Mandrikleídas in good MSS). Plutarch (Plut. Pyrrhus 26,24) passes down a memorable statement by M. who is said to have atte…

Aegidae

(222 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Αἰγεῖδαι; Aigeîdai). Designated by Herodotus (4,149) as ‘great phyle in Sparta’, but also (4,147) brought in connection with Cadmean Thebes. In Aristotle (fr. 532 Rose) the A. appear as φρατρία Θηβαίων ( phratría Thēbaíōn) and in Pindar (I. 7,15) as ‘Thebans’ (cf. Androtion FGrH 324 F 60; schol. Pind. Pyth. 5,101). According to the Schol. of Pindar I. 7,18 they are supposed to have originally been Phlegraei. Whether here ‘Phlegyans’ are meant [1. 28] is uncertain. Supposedly the A. migrated with the Heraclidae t…

Panteus

(62 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Παντεύς; Panteús). Spartan, who in 223 BC successfully commanded two Spartan units under Cleomenes [6] III in the attack on Megalopolis (Plut. Cleomenes 23,5-6). After the battle of Sellasia, he fled to Egypt with Cleomenes , where he committed suicide after the latter's failed attempt to free himself from internment (ibid. 37,13-16; 38,5; Pol. 5,37,8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylis

(44 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γῦλις; Gŷlis). Spartiate, in 394 BC polemarch, assumed command of the army of Agesilaus [2] II after the battle of Coronea and advanced to Locris. He fell in battle after the retreat (Xen. Ages. 2,15; Hell. 4,3,21-23).…

Menedaeus

(74 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μενεδάϊος/ Menedáios). Spartan, in 426 BC a member of Eurylochus's [2] war council in Acarnania. After Eurylochus's defeat and death at Olpae, he became commander of the Peloponnesian troops there. In a secret agreement the…

Cleandridas

(92 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεανδρίδας; Kleandrías). Spartan; …

Gerontes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (γέροντες; gérontes). ‘Elders’, in the Homeric epic not only the aged advisers of a city-kin…

Megistonous

(102 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεγιστόνους/ Megistónous). Spartan who supported the reforms of his stepson Cleomenes [6] III (Plut. Cleomenes 7,1; 11,1). As the Spartan commander at Orchomenus (Arcadia) he was defeated and captured by Aratus [2] of Sicyon after Cleomenes' coup (227 BC) at a time which has not been exactly determined (Plut. Aratus 38,1), and was sent by hi…

Antalcidas

(491 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀντιαλκίδας; Antalkídas in IG V 1,93 ll. 15 and 212). At some time in the spring of 392 BC or the preceding winter A., through the mediation of the satrap  Tiribazus and abandoning the Greeks of Asia Minor, was to make peace with the Persian king [3; 7], the victory of  Conon at Cnidus having left Sparta in a precarious situation. As Sparta no longer controlled the poleis of Asia Minor, the attempt was a failure, although A. did receive a secret subsidy from Tiribazus for the expansion of the Spartan fleet (Xen. Hell. 4,8,12 ff.; Plut. Ages. 23,2). In the summer of 388 as   nauarch…

Cratesiclea

(59 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρατησίκλεια). Wife of Leonidas II, mother of  Cleomenes [6] III, who was strongly in favour of his reform plans. Following her son's flight to Ptolemy III, she went to Egypt as a hostage and was executed there in 219 BC after the failure of Cleomenes' coup (Plut. Cleomenes 6,2; 7,1; 22,3-10; 38,2-12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Polytropus

(77 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πολύτροπος/ Polýtropos). Commander of a detachment of mercenaries recruited in Corinth, which fought for Sparta in 370/369 BC against the newly founded koinón of the Arcadians (see also Arcadians, Arcadia, with map; [1. 80 ff.]) and occupied the polis of Orchomenus [3] because it did not wish to join the Arcadians' League. P. fell in action against Mantinean troops (Xen. Hell. 6,5,11-14; cf. Diod. Sic. 15,62,1-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Beck, Polis und Koinon, 1997.

Sperthias

(126 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Hdt. 7,134,2: Σπερθίης/ Sperthíēs; Plut. Mor. 235f: Σπέρτις/ Spértis; 815e: Σπέρχις/ Spérchis). A high-ranking Spartan (Spartiatae) who is supposed to have offered himself and the Spartan Boulis in Susa as atonement for the ambassadors of Darius [1] I who had allegedly been killed in Sparta in 491 BC, but refused to prostrate himself before Xerxes who nevertheless set him free (Hdt. 7,134,2-136). Whether Persian ambassadors had appeared in Sparta in 491 BC, however, remains questionable [1.…
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