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Tresantes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τρέσαντες, 'those having fled in fear'). Spartiates, who had failed in battle and lost their aretḗ (Virtue) (Tyrtaeus fr. 8,14 Gentili/Prato), with the result that they were held in contempt socially (Plut. Lycurgus 21,2). They were allowed to shave only half their beards, could not hold office, were excluded from gymnastics, games, contubernia and from merchant business (Xen. Lac. 9,4-6), could allegedly also be beaten and had to wear dirty clothing. It was considered shameful to give one a da…

Kleros

(412 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλῆρος; klêros; Dor. κλᾶρος; klâros, ‘lot’, ‘land allocation’, ‘plot of land’, ‘land allotment’; etymologically probably derived from κλάειν/ kláein, ‘to break, to share’). The drawing of lots for cultivatable plots when acquiring land cannot be verified in the early Greek period.[1]. Already in Homer (Il. 15,498; Od. 14,64 ), as well as in Hesiod (Op. 37; 341), kleros designates private property, not acquired by lot. The function of the klêros in the ancient Thessalonian order of regulations on levies explained by Aristotle (fr. 611 Rose) is not …

Cynisca

(53 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνίσκα; Kyníska). Rich Spartan woman, born around 442 BC, daughter of Archidamus [1] II, sister of Agesilaus [2] II. C. was the first woman to participate in chariot races at Olympia where she was twice victorious (Xen. Ages. 9,6; Plut. Agesilaus 20; Paus. 3,8,1f.; 6,1,6; SGDI 4418). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Alcidas

(297 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκίδας; Alkídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC The Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC, who was supposed to bring relief to the polis of Mytilene on Lesbos, but on route learned of Mytilene's capitulation. The relief of Mytilene, which had been occupied after having broken away from Athens (Thuc. 3,16,3; 26,1), was to take place simultaneously with the invasion of Attica by a Peloponnesian army in the early summer of 427. He landed in Erythrae of Asia Minor, but did not advance fast enough i…

Geranor

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γεράνωρ; Geránōr). Spartiate, former polemarchos, fell in 369/8 BC during the defence of Asine against the Arcadians (Xen. Hell. 7,1,25). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lacedas

(68 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λακήδας; Lakḗdas; Hdt. 6,127,3: Λεωκήδης; Leōkḗdēs). Legendary king of Argus, by tradition the son of the historically debated Pheidon [3]. L. was regarded as the father of Meltas, the last king of the Argives (Paus. 2,19,2) [1. 385; 2. 107ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Carlier, La royauté en Grèce avant Alexandre, 1984 2 Th. Kelly, A History of Argos to 500 BC, 1976.

Presbeia, Presbeis

(467 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (πρεσβεία/ presbeía, πρέσβεις/ présbeis, 'embassy', 'emissary'). The terms presbeía and présbeis in this sense are known only from the 5th cent. BC on, but there is evidence of 'diplomatic traffic' in Greece considerably earlier than this in Homer, in the form of the sending of 'messengers' (Hom. Il. 4,384; 5,804; 10,286). The term présbeis is explained by the fact that originally it was generally 'elders' ( présbys: 'old') who were sent out as emissaries, though by the 5th cent. this was no longer the custom (Aristoph. Ach. 599 ff.). Présbeis acted on behalf of their…

Mandrocleidas

(148 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Μανδροκλείδας; Mandrokleídas). [German version] [1] Spartiate, tried to keep Pyrrhos from further raids in Laconia, 272 BC Spartiate (Μανδρικλείδας/ Mandrikleídas in good MSS). Plutarch (Plut. Pyrrhus 26,24) passes down a memorable statement by M. who is said to have attempted in 272 BC to convince Pyrrhus of the Spartan will to resist him so as to prevent further plundering raids in Laconia by his troops [1. 128f.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Spartiate, supporter of Agis's reforms in 243/2 BC Spartiate (probably not identical to M. [1]), talented fo…

Aegidae

(222 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Αἰγεῖδαι; Aigeîdai). Designated by Herodotus (4,149) as ‘great phyle in Sparta’, but also (4,147) brought in connection with Cadmean Thebes. In Aristotle (fr. 532 Rose) the A. appear as φρατρία Θηβαίων ( phratría Thēbaíōn) and in Pindar (I. 7,15) as ‘Thebans’ (cf. Androtion FGrH 324 F 60; schol. Pind. Pyth. 5,101). According to the Schol. of Pindar I. 7,18 they are supposed to have originally been Phlegraei. Whether here ‘Phlegyans’ are meant [1. 28] is uncertain. Supposedly the A. migrated with the Heraclidae t…

Panteus

(62 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Παντεύς; Panteús). Spartan, who in 223 BC successfully commanded two Spartan units under Cleomenes [6] III in the attack on Megalopolis (Plut. Cleomenes 23,5-6). After the battle of Sellasia, he fled to Egypt with Cleomenes , where he committed suicide after the latter's failed attempt to free himself from internment (ibid. 37,13-16; 38,5; Pol. 5,37,8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylis

(44 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γῦλις; Gŷlis). Spartiate, in 394 BC polemarch, assumed command of the army of Agesilaus [2] II after the battle of Coronea and advanced to Locris. He fell in battle after the retreat (Xen. Ages. 2,15; Hell. 4,3,21-23). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Menedaeus

(74 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μενεδάϊος/ Menedáios). Spartan, in 426 BC a member of Eurylochus's [2] war council in Acarnania. After Eurylochus's defeat and death at Olpae, he became commander of the Peloponnesian troops there. In a secret agreement the Athenian commander Demosthenes [1] granted him free passage in return for surrender of the Ambraciots (Thuc. 3,100,2; 109,1-3; [1. 30]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. Roisman, The General Demosthenes and His Use of Military Surprise, 1993.

Prytaneis

(837 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(πρυτάνεις/ prytáneis, sg. πρύτανις/ prýtanis, 'principal, first'). [German version] I. Individual chief magistrates Designation for holders of the highest power or official authority. The original meaning 'ruler' is given expression in the epic name Prýtanis (Hom. Il. 5,678), in Zeus' appellation in Aeschylus (Prom. 169), as well as in the verb form applied to the Roman emperor and empress ( prytaneúein; Phil. in Flaccum 126; Procop. Arc. 17,27). In the course of the institutionalization of the organs of the polis and during the 'Great' Greek Colonizati…

Chilonis

(158 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Χιλωνίς; Chilōnís). [German version] [1] Legendary wife of king Theopompus Legendary figure, said to be the wife of king  Theopompus, whom she is supposed to have freed from imprisonment by Messenians (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,34; Quint. Inst. 2,17,20; Plut. Lycurgus 7,2; Mor. 779e). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wife of Cleonymus, 3rd cent. BC Wife of  Cleonymus, son of Cleomenes II; she committed adultery with Acrotatus, later to be king; after the death of Cleonymus, who had left Sparta because of her, and joined Pyrrhus, she apparently married Acrotatus (Syll.3 …

Pasippidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πασιππίδας; Pasippídas). Spartiate and naval commander in the eastern Aegaean in 410/409 BC probably in the role of naúarchos; he was charged with conspiring in Thasos to stage an uprising against a group favouring Sparta and the harmost Eteonicus. He fled, but as early as 409 was sent as a legate to Persia (Xen. Hell. 1,1,32; 1,3,13). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Sophanes

(135 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σωφάνης/ Sōphánēs). Athenian from Decelea, son of Eutychides (Hdt. 6,92,3; 9,73,1). In 490 BC after the battle of Marathon he refused to honour Miltiades [2] with a wreath (Plut. Cimon 8,1), since the victory was understood to be a success of the dêmos as a whole [1. 193]. S. distinguished himself by particular bravery in the Athenians' war with Aegina in 488/7 (Hdt. 6,92; 9,75; Paus. 1,29,5) and in the battle of Plataeae in 479 (Hdt. 9,73-75; Plut. Cato maior 29,2). He fell in 465/4 as a stratēgós and one of the commanders of the colonists who advanced from Ennea…

Hippitas

(47 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἱππίτας; Hippítas). Confidant of the Spartan king Cleomenes III, whom he accompanied to Alexandria after the battle of Sellasia, where he had himself killed willingly after the latter's failed uprising against Ptolemy IV in 219 BC (Pol. 5,37,8; Plut. Cleomenes 37,6-13). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Clearidas

(81 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεαρίδας; Klearídas). Spartan, son of Cleonymus. Appointed by  Brasidas in 423 BC as commander at Amphipolis, C. proved himself after Brasidas' death in 422. After the peace of  Nicias he did not surrender the polis entrusted to him to the Athenians so its inhabitants would not be exposed to retaliation (Thuc. 5,21; 34). Unimpressed by the instructions of the leading committees in Sparta he instigated considerable new tensions between Sparta and Athens.  Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Apoikia

(992 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀποικία; apoikía). Settlement of a group of colonists or their descendants outside the territory of a particular mother city ( Metropolis); the latter having sent out a proportion of its citizens as ‘emigrants’ (ἄποικοι, ápoikoi) to found a ‘colony’, or even encouraged the citizens of other poleis to take part in a new foundation. The leader of the undertaking was usually an oikist nominated by the mother city. Especially during the great period of ‘Greek colonization’ of c. 750-550/500 BC, many new communities arose, often being autonomous poleis which could be r…

Brasidas

(584 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Βρασίδας; Brasídas). Son of the respected Spartiate Tellis, who was one of those who took the oath sealing the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC (Thuc. 2,25; 5,19; 24).B. distinguished himself right at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War when he freed the Messenian coastal city of Methone which was surrounded by Athenians. That was probably the reason for his appointment in 431/30 as eponymous ephor (Diod. Sic. 12,43,2) and military ‘adviser’ at a relatively young age. In 429 he was adviser to admiral  Cnemus in the so-called second sea battle of Naupactus and…
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