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Abū Ṭālib

(307 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, son of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hās̲h̲im and Fāṭima bint ʿAmr (of Mak̲h̲zūm), and full brother of Muḥammad’s father. His own name was ʿAbd Manāf. He is said to have inherited the offices of siḳāya and rifāda (providing water and food for pilgrims) from his father, but at the Ḥilf al-Fuḍūl and war of the Fid̲j̲ār his brother al-Zubayr seems to have been the leading man of Hās̲h̲im. He fell into debt, and to meet this surrendered the siḳāya and rifāda to al-ʿAbbās. Nevertheless he seems to have remained chief of the clan of Hās̲h̲im, and their quarter of the town was called the s̲h̲iʿb

Dahr

(381 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, time, especially infinitely extended time (cf. Lane; al-Bayḍāwī on K. 76.1). The pre-Islamic Arabs, as is shown by many passages in their poetry, regarded time (also zamān , and al-ayyām , the days) as the source of what happened to a man, both good and bad; they thus give it something of the connotation ¶ of Fate, though without worshipping it (W. L. Schrameier, Über den Fatalismus der vorislamischen Araber , Bonn 1881; Th. Nöldeke, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics , i, 661 b; for possible parallels cf. A. Christensen, Iran , 149 f., 157—Zurvān as both time …

al-ʿAḳaba

(228 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a mountain-road, or a place difficult of ascent on a hill or acclivity. There are many places of this name: the best-known is that between Minā and Mecca. Here, according to traditional accounts, Muḥammad had secret meetings with men from Medina at the pilgrimages of the years 621 and 622 A. D. In 621, at “the first ʿAḳaba”, twelve were present, and they gave to Muḥammad an undertaking known as ‘the pledge of the women’ ( bayʿat al-nisāʾ ); at “the second ʿAḳaba” seventy-three men and two women promised to defend Muḥammad, if necessary, by arms, in what is known as ‘the pledge of war’ ( bayʿat al-ḥ…

Ḥums

(367 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, people observing rigorous religious taboos, especially Ḳurays̲h̲ and certain neighbouring tribes. The word is the plural of aḥmas , “hard, strong (in fighting or in religion)”, but one of the Ḥums is called aḥmasī (fern, aḥmasiyya ). Ibn His̲h̲ām (126) thinks that taḥammus , the observance of the taboos in question, was an innovation of Ḳurays̲h̲ about the time of Muḥammad’s birth, and some changes may have been made to emphasize the superiority of Ḳurays̲h̲ to other tribes; but the nature of the taboos makes it li…

D̲j̲ahmiyya

(693 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an early sect, frequently mentioned but somewhat mysterious. Identity. No names are known of any members of the sect, apart from the alleged founder D̲j̲ahm [ q.v.]. The basic fact is that “after the translation of the Greek books in the second century a doctrine ( maḳāla ) known as that of the D̲j̲ahmiyya was spread by Bis̲h̲r b. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Marīsī [ q.v.] and his generation (IbnTaymiyya, ʿAḳīda Ḥamawiyya , ap. M. Schreiner in ZDMG, liii, 72 f.; lii, 544). A pupil of Abū Yūsuf (d. 182/798), Bis̲h̲r (d. 218/833 or a little later) was questioned about his strange v…

Fazāra

(456 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a North Arabian tribe, reckoned part of D̲h̲ubyān, which was itself included in G̲h̲aṭafān [ q.v.]. Its main pasture-grounds were in Wādi ’l-Rumma in Nad̲j̲d, and the names of many localities associated with it have been preserved (cf. Yāḳūt, index, s.v. Fazāra). In the Ḏj̲āhiliyya the famous war of Dāḥis between Abs and D̲h̲ubyān arose out of a wager between Ḳays b. Zuhayr, chief of Abs, and Ḥud̲h̲ayfa b. Badr of Fazāra about their respective horses Dāḥis and G̲h̲abrā. The latter won because of underhand acts by some men of Fazāra, and this led to the killing of a brother of Ḥud̲h̲ayfa. ¶ In t…

Banū Ḥanẓala b. Mālik

(403 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a branch of the tribe of Tamīm [ q.v.], of the group of Maʿādd, descended from Zayd Manāt b. Tamīm. The chief subdivisions were Dārim (from which came the poet al-Farazdaḳ), Yarbūʿ (to which D̲j̲arīr belonged) and the Barād̲j̲im (five families descended from Mālik b. Ḥanẓala). They inhabited the Yamāma between the hills D̲j̲urād and Marrūt, near ḥimā Ḍariyya [ q.v.]. Among their villages were al-Ṣammān (with wells, cisterns and irrigation) and al-Raḳmatān; but they were mainly nomadic. In history they appear at the first “day of Kulāb” (probably before 550 A.D.) as suppo…

Bad̲j̲īla

(452 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an Arab tribe, reckoned along with Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam as a subdivision of Anmār; the nisba is Bad̲j̲alī. Bad̲j̲īla is sometimes said to be a woman, but her place in the genealogy is vague (cf. F. Wüstenfeld, Register zu den genealogischen Tabellen , 101-3; also Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka , Leipzig 1858, ii, 134). Some genealogists held that Bad̲j̲īla was a Yemenite tribe; others made Anmār the son of Nīzār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Usd al-G̲h̲āba , i, 279, art. ‘Ḏj̲arīr b. ʿAbd Allāh’; Ibn Durayd, ed. Wüstenfeld, 101 f.). The tribe was sometim…

al-Aws

(902 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, one of the two main Arab tribes in Medina. The other was al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, and the two, which in pre-Islamic times were known as Banū Ḳayla from their reputed mother, constituted after the Hid̲j̲ra the ‘helpers’ of Muḥammad or Anṣār [ q.v.]. The genealogy as given by Ibn Saʿd (iii/2,1) is: al-Aws b. T̲h̲aʿlaba b. ʿAmr (Muzayḳiyāʾ) b. ʿĀmir (Māʾ al-Samāʾ) b. Ḥārit̲h̲a b. Imriʾ al-Ḳays b. T̲h̲aʿlaba b. Māzin b. al-Azd b. al-G̲h̲awt̲h̲ b. Nabt b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān b. Sabaʾ b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ub b. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān. The following table giv…

al-Arḳam

(308 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an early companion of Muḥammad’s, commonly known as al-Arḳam b. Abi ’l-Arḳam, and having the kunya Abū ʿAbd Allāh. His father’s name was ʿAbd Manāf, and he belonged to the influential clan of Mak̲h̲zūm at Mecca. His mother’s name is variously given, but she is usually said to be of the tribe of Ḵh̲uzāʿa. As al-Arḳam’s death is placed in 53/673 or 55/675 at the age of over eighty, he must have been born about 594; and he must have become a Muslim when very young, sin…

Kināna

(520 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. K̲h̲uzayma , an Arab tribe, genealogically related to Asad (b. K̲h̲uzayma) [ q.v.]. The territories of Kināna were around Mecca from the Tihāma on the south-west, where they were next to Hud̲h̲ayl, to the north-east where they bordered on Asad. There were six main subdivisions of the tribe, though more are sometimes mentioned: al-Naḍr (or Ḳays), the ancestor of Ḳurays̲h̲ [ q.v.], which is reckoned a separate tribe; Mālik; Milkān (or Malkān); ʿĀmir; ʿAmr; ʿAbd Manāt. The latter was further subdivided. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt was a strong group, ¶ and included as parts Mudlid̲j̲, al-Duʾi…

As̲h̲ʿariyya

(862 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a theological school, the followers of Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-As̲h̲ʿarī [ q.v.], sometimes also called As̲h̲āʿira. (The history of the school has been little studied, and some of the statements in this article must be regarded as provisional). External history. During the last two decades of his life al-As̲h̲ʿarī attracted a number of disciples, and thus a school was founded. The doctrinal position of the new school was open to attack from several quarters. Apart from members of the Muʿtazila, certain groups of orthodox theologians attacked them. To the Ḥanbalīs [ q.v.] their use of ration…

Ḳurays̲h̲

(1,525 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the tribe inhabiting Mecca in the time of Muḥammad and to which he belonged; the name, which may be a nickname, is mostly (e.g. Ibn His̲h̲ām, 61) said to come from taḳarrus̲h̲ , “a coming together, association”; but it is also possible (cf. Ṭabarī, i, 1104) that it is the diminutive of ḳirs̲h̲ , “shark”, and it could then be a totemic name like Kalb, etc. (A man called Ḳurays̲h̲, other than Fihr, is mentioned in Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲ , 12.7-9.) The tribe is taken to consist of the descendants of Fihr, and he himself is sometimes spoken of as Ḳurays̲h̲; bu…

al-Aswad

(482 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. kaʿb al-ʿansī , of the tribe of Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲, leader of the first ridda in al-Yaman. His proper name is said to have been ʿAyhala or ʿAbhala, and he was also known as Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḵh̲imār, "the veiled one" (or Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥimār, "the man with the donkey"). After the murder of Ḵh̲usraw II Parwīz (Ar. Abarwīz) in 628, but possibly not before the capture of Mecca in 630, the Persians in al-Yaman, under Bād̲h̲ām (or Bād̲h̲ān), made an alliance with Muḥammad, since they realised that they could ob…

Saʿd b. ʿUbāda

(458 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, chief of the clan of Sāʿida at Medina. The clan appears to have been small since it is not mentioned in the fighting leading to the battle of Buʿāth [ q.v.], but it may have been more influential than its size warranted, perhaps because it was wealthy. Only two members of the clan were at the second meeting with Muḥammad at al-ʿAḳaba [ q.v.], but both were included among the nuḳabāʾ or representatives. One of these was Saʿd b. ʿUbāda, who had become a Muslim at an early date. Saʿd…

ʿAḳīda

(4,200 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
(a.), creed; but sometimes also doctrine, dogma or article of faith; and hence ʿaḳāʾid (pl.), articles of faith, is also used for "creed". 1. The Development and Use of the Form. The documents to which the terms ʿaḳīda or ʿaḳāʾid are applied vary in length, and the longer ones cannot be sharply divided from the comprehensive theological treatises (e.g. al-ʿAḳīda al-Niẓāmiyya by al-Ḏj̲uwaynī). The terms, however, may usefully be taken to signify compositions where the chief interest is in the formulation of doctrine or dogma, and not…

K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a

(688 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, first wife of Muḥammad, daughter of K̲h̲uwaylid of the clan of Asad of the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲ in Mecca. Before her marriage to Muḥammad she had been married twice, to Abū Hāla al-Tamīmī, a client of the Meccan clan of ʿAbd al-Dār, and to ʿUtayyiḳ (or ʿAtīḳ) b. ʿĀʾid̲h̲ (incorrectly ʿĀbid) b. ʿAbd Allāh of the Meccan clan of Mak̲h̲zūm. The order of these marriages is disputed, as is also the ism of Abū Hāla and his genealogy. To Abū Hāla she is mostly said to have borne two sons with the (usually feminine) names of Hind and Hāla, and to ʿUtayy…

Kaʿb b. al-As̲h̲raf

(386 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, opponent of Muḥammad at Medina, reckoned to belong to his mother’s clan al-Naḍīr, though his father was an Arab of the Nabhān section of Ṭayyiʾ. He presumably followed the Jewish custom of taking his religion from his mother, but it is doubtful if he was a scholar, as the words in a poem sayyid al-aḥbār (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 659, 12) would imply, if the poem were genuine. Aroused by the deaths of many leading Meccans at Badr, he went to Mecca and used his considerable poetic gifts (he is called faḥl faṣiḥ in K. al-Ag̲h̲ānī ) to incite Ḳurays̲h̲ to fight the Muslims. On hi…

Badr

(974 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, or Badr Ḥunayn, a small town south-west of Medina, a night’s journey from the coast, and at the junction of a road from Medina with the caravan route from Mecca to Syria. It lies in a plain, 5 m. (8 km.) long and 2½ m. (4 km.) broad, surrounded by steep hills and sand-dunes, and was a market centre. Here occurred on 17 (or 19 or 21) Ramaḍān, 2 A. H. (= 13 or 15 or 17 March, 624) the first great battle of Muḥammad’s career. Though there is a wealth of detail in the early sources, it is difficult to give a clear account of the battle and the events which…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ubayy

(555 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. Salūl (Salul being Ubayy’s mother), chief of Ba ʾl-Ḥublā (also known as Sālim), a section of the clan of ʿAwf of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, and one of the leading men of Medīna. Prior to the hid̲j̲ra he had led some of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ in the first day of the Fid̲j̲ār at Medīna, but did not take part in the second day of the Fid̲j̲ār nor the battle of Buʿāt̲h̲ since he had quarreled with another leader, ʿAmr b. al-Nuʿmān of Bayāḍa, over the latter’s unjust killing of Jewish hostages, perhaps because he r…
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