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Phosphoros

(146 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Φωσφόρος/ Phōsphóros, 'bringer of light'; also Ἑωσφόρος/ Heōsphóros, 'bringer of dawn'; Latin Lucifer [1], cf. Cic. Nat. D. 2,53). Term for the planet Venus as a light-bringing human-friendly morning star, which is identical - as was recognised at an early stage - to the evening star Hesperos (Parmenides, 28 A 1 DK; Pl. Epin. 987b). In mythology, however, the idea of two stars always remained: here P., like Hesperos, is a son of the dawn Eos and the Titan Astraeus (He…

Ceteus

(27 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Κητεύς; Kēteús). Mythical king in Arcadia, son of  Lycaon; according to Pherecydes in Apollod. 3,7,2 also the father of  Callisto. Walde, Christine (Basle)

Dream interpretation

(1,823 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[English version] The multi-voiced discourse conducted within Graeco-Roman Antiquity regarding dreams and dream interpretation in religion, literature, everyday life, philosophy, divination/mantic art and medicine shows clear signs of cultural determination [19]. Despite striking breaks with tradition - above all through Christianity - a relatively high degree of continuity in dream discourses can be observed since Antiquity [18]. Among other things, this is probably owing to the fact that the anc…

Carmen de figuris

(133 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] Factual poem in 185 Latin hexameters, dealing in alphabetical order with rhetorical  figures; it was designed as an aide-mémoire in the teaching of rhetorics. It was evidently based on  Rutilius Lupus and  Alexander [25], son of Numenius. As a rule, three lines are offered per figure (the Greek designation, one line for the Latin definition, two lines of examples from Greek and Latin classics). The writer is anonymous (the addressee Messius is perhaps identical with Arusianus Messius); the late Lat…

Tropes

(488 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (τρόποι/ trópoi; singular τρόπος/ trópos, rhetorical term, literally 'turn', from τρέπεσθαι/ trépesthai, 'to turn'; the original technical term was metaphorá, which later acquired its more preicse meaning: Aristot. Poet. 21,7,1457b; Latin verbum translatum: Quint. Inst. 8,3,24, translatio or tropus [1. 205-208]). In rhetoric, tropes have their place in the category of elocutio / ornatus in verbis singulis: in contrast to figures, which have  their effect on the surface of the text, e.g. in the word order, tropes are phrases used in a …

Terpsichore

(96 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Τερψιχόρη, 'she who delights in choral dances'). One of the Muses (Hes. Theog. 78), whose name indicates responsibility for  chorus and dance (Pind. I. 2,7; Korinna, fr. 935 Page; Pl. Phdr. 259b-d; Anth. Pal. 9,504) and is connected with paideía   (Diod. 4,7). She wears a wreath of laurel and ivy and her attributes are the lyre and the flute. Some accounts make her the mother of Linus (Suda s. v. Λίνος), Hymenaeus [1] (Alci. Epist. 1,13), Rhesus (Aristoph. Hypothesis zu Eur. Rhes.) and the Sirens (Apoll. Rhod. 4,895). Muses Walde, Christine (Basle)

Iphitus

(135 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Ἴφιτος; Íphitos). Son of  Eurytus [1] of Oechalia and Antiope (or Antioche) who was killed by Hercules because his father and brothers (except for I.: Apollod. 1,128) did not give Hercules  Iole as his wife, as had been promised to him as a prize for his winning at archery. The legend is told in Hom. Od. 21,14ff. (where the bow of Odysseus is a gift from I.), in the lost epic Oichalías hálōsis, and also in Soph. Trach. 225ff., Diod. Sic. 4,31,2ff. and Apollod. 2,127ff. According to another version, I. arrived at the stronghold of Tiryns searching for…

Lapithae

(183 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Λαπίθαι/ Lapíthai, Latin Lapithae). Mythical Thessalian tribe (Hom. Il. 2,738ff.; Str. 9,439ff.), particularly known for their battle with the Centaurs. According to a late version, they were descendants of an eponymous ancestor Lapithes or Lapithas, who was himself descended either from Apollo and a daughter of the river god Peneius (Stilbe) or from Ixion and the slave Dia (Diod. Sic. 4,63,2; 5,58,5; Paus. 5,10,8; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,40). Descent from Ixion would make the L. en…

Caunus

(821 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Καῦνος; Kaûnos). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Carian town C. [2] Eponym of the Carian town C. [2], who gains contours chiefly in connection with his twin sister  Byblis. The myths depict various constellations of their incestuous relationship (Parthenius 11). Walde, Christine (Basle) Bibliography S. Jackson, Apollonius of Rhodes: the Cleite and Byblis Suicides, in: SIFC 14, 1997, 48-54. [German version] [2] Coastal town in the border areas between Caria and Lycia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia | Pergamum | Pe…

Strawberry tree

(269 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] In the macchia shrubland of Mediterranean countries the genus Arbutus L. of the Ericaceae family is represented by two of its total of 20 evergreen species, namely a) the ST Arbutus unedo L. (κόμαρος; kómaros) with its strawberry-like sour-tasting drupes ( arbuta Verg.  G. 3,301 and 4,181), which ripen in a year, and b) the andrachle, Arbutus andrachle L. (ἀνδράχνη; andráchn ē), spread from Greece to the east as far as the coast of the Black Sea, with small orange-yellow inedible fruits. The fruits of the arbutus, which grows as far west as the Atlantic coast of Ir…

Oak

(818 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Herzhoff, Bernhard (Trier)
[German version] With around 30 different species, oaks are by far the most common deciduous trees in the natural vegetation of the countries around the Mediterranean. As such, the Greeks gave them the collective Indogermanic name for a tree δρῦς ( drŷs) which was already documented in linear B, as well as special names to distinguish between them. Thus the name for the sacred oak oracle of Zeus in Dodona varies between δρῦς and φηγός ( phēgós), whilst in Latin it is consistently called quercus. This refers to the ‘Trojan oak’, Q uercus troiana [1. 385-391]. The most detailed and reliab…

Capys

(234 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
(Κάπυς; Kápys; Lat. Capys). [German version] [1] Vater des Anchises Trojan, descendant of Dardanus ( Dardanidae), father of  Anchises (Hom. Il. 20.239). According to some myths, his grandson Aeneas [1] founded the Arcadian Kap(h)yae (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1.49.1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Καφύαι), his great-grandson Rhomus founded Capua (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1.73.3) and named it after him. Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Founder of Capua In Virgil and others (Verg. Aen. 10.145 with Servius ad loc.), a Trojan of the same name from the generation of Ae…

Rhetoric

(12,493 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] I. Terminology Generic term: Greek τέχνη ῥητορική/ téchnē rhētorikḗ; from Plato onwards, the technical term is ῥητορική/ rhētorikḗ [43]; Latin: ars oratoria, ars dicendi (rhetoric as an acquired skill), or eloquentia (as an ability). Performers: Greek ῥήτωρ/ rhḗtōr (Homeric ῥήτηρ/ rhḗtēr); Latin orator (initially referring to any orator; later used in the specific context of rhetoric), rhetor (technical term for a teacher of rhetoric). Activity: Greek είρειν/ eírein (‘say’ in formal language) or more generally λέγειν/ légein (‘speak’); the Latin equivalen…

Albucius

(365 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] [1] Poisoner Roman family name. Name of a preparer of poison in Hor. Sat. 2,1,48, probably not identical with the one named in 2,2,67. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] T., follower of Epicurus (end of 2nd cent. BC) T., follower of Epicurus, became involved in a fight with the praetor Q.  Mucius Scaevola because of his Hellenophilia in 120 BC. A. charged him unsuccessfully in 119 and was mocked for this reason by  Lucilius in the 2nd book of his Satires. Praetor and propraetor in 105-104 (107-106?) in …

Death

(3,898 words)

Author(s): S.LU. | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Englhofer
[German version] I. Ancient East and Egypt A range of archaeological and textual sources from varied walks of life bear eloquent testimony to the intensity of the attempts of coming to term with death in ancient eastern cultures ( Burial and mourning rituals and the related cult of the  dead), as displayed in forms of  funerary architecture, burial objects and the extensive  funerary literature. As is evident from textual sources, this struggle occupied a large part of everyday human existence [5]. On …

Dreams; Interpretation of dreams

(2,165 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Dreams and their interpretation were a popular topic in the written tradition of the Ancient Orient and Egypt since the 22nd cent. BC. Both spontaneously experienced dreams as well as dream incubation are attested. Preserved dreams relate divine messages (in the form of theophanies). Though usually contained in literary texts [3; 5. 746; 6], they also occur in letters [1]. Dreams also contained ethical maxims and wisdom for life reflecting personal experience and st…

Cephalus

(728 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Κέφαλος, Képhalos). [German version] [1] Athenian hero Athenian hero, eponym of the Attic deme  Cephale (north-west of Thoricus) and founding father of the Cephalid lineage (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 34; Hsch. s.v. Κεφαλίδαι). C. is regarded a) as the son of the Athenian king  Pandarus (Pandium) or of  Hermes and Herse, the daughter of Cecrops; or b) as the son of the Phocian king Deion(eus) and Diomede, the daughter of Xuthus, whereby he becomes the brother of Aenetus, Phylacus, Actor and Asteropeia. C. is an exceptional hunter with breathtaking beauty. When hunting on the slope…

Idaea

(163 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Zingg, Reto (Basle)
(Ἰδαία; Idaía). [German version] [1] Epithet of Cybele One of many epithets of the mother of gods ( Cybele), named after her cult on the Phrygian  Ida [2] (e.g. Eur. Or. 1453; Str. 10,469). Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Nymph of the Ida mountains Nymph of Ida [2] in Phrygia, wife of the river god Scamander, mother of  Teucer, the first king in the Troad, after whom the people of the Teucri are named (Apollod. 3,139; Diod. Sic. 4,75). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [3] Daughter of Dardanus Daughter of Dardanus, great-granddaughter of [2], second wife of  Phineu…

Severianus

(267 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, Philippe (Paris) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Gabala/Syria, c. 400 The bishop of Gabala (present-day Ǧabla) in Syria who appeared from AD 401 as a preacher in  Constantinopolis. His name is primarily tied to the acrimonious conflict with Iohannes [4] Chrysostomus after the latter was nominated as ecumenical patriarch. Both were regarded as gifted preachers, and their rivalry, characterised by reciprocal slights and their open competition for the favour of Empress Aelia [4] Eudoxia, finally led to the deposition and ex…

Capito

(156 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen; see also Ateius, Fonteius. [German version] [1] Orator of the Augustan period Orator of the Augustan period, praised by  Seneca the Elder because of his ability -- in contrast with  Cassius [III 2] Severus -- to distinguish clearly between the demands of declamations as opposed to those of legal speeches, with regards to their tone and presentation. According to Seneca's assessment, C.'s best orations were in no way inferior to those of the tetrad of the great declamators  Latro,  Fuscus,  Alb…
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