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Wackernagel, Jacob

(466 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard
Swiss Indo-European scholar. Born Basel 11. 12. 1853, died there 22. 5. 1938. Studied classics, Germanic studies and history at Basel, Göttingen, Leipzig and Oxford; 1875 doctorate at Basel. 1876 priv.-doz. there in Greek language and literature and Sanskrit; 1879 prof. ext., 1881 prof. ord. there. From 1902 prof. ord. in comparative linguistics at Göttingen, 1915–1936 at Basel in the same capacity; retired 1936. Career and works W., the son of the Germanist Wilhelm W., who had been appointed to Basel from Berlin, immediately followed up his studies and doctora…

Diels, Hermann

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard
German classical philologist and historian of philosophy. Born Hermann Alexander D. in Biebrich near Wiesbaden, 18. 5. 1848, died 4. 6. 1922 in Berlin. Studied classics at Berlin and Bonn from 1867, doctorate Bonn ¶ 1870. Taught classical languages from 1871 at Flensburg, Hamburg and Berlin. 1881 editor of the Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca (CAG) at the Prussian Academy of Sciences; 1882 prof. ext. at Univ. of Berlin, 1886 prof. ord. in classical philology there. 1891/92 dean, 1905/06 rector; 1920 emeritus. 1895–1920 secretary of Prussian Academy of Sciences. Biography and career D…

Reinhardt, Karl

(1,069 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard
German classical philologist. Born Karl Ludwig R., Detmold, 14. 2. 1886, died Frankfurt 9. 1. 1958. Studied classics from 1905 at Bonn and Berlin; doctorate Berlin 1910 followed by habil. in 1914. From 1916, prof. ext. at Marburg; from 1919 prof. ord. in Greek studies at Hamburg; from 1924 prof. ord. at Frankfurt. Appointed to Univ. of Leipzig 1942; returned to Univ. of Frankfurt 1946. Retired 1951. Scholarly career A grandson of the entrepreneur Carl Johann Freudenberg, R. belonged to an upper middle-class family. His father worked in school education in Frankfu…

Parry, Milman

(771 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard
American classical philologist and comparatist. Born Oakland, California, 20. 6. 1902, died Los Angeles 3. 12. 1935. 1919–1923 studied classics at Univ. of California at Berkeley, from 1924 at the Sorbonne in Paris, where he took his doctorate in 1928 ( Docteur ès lettres). Also assistant prof. at Drake Univ., Des Moines, Iowa. From 1929 instructor, from 1932 assistant prof. at Harvard; 1933–1935 field studies on improvised oral heroic poetry in what was then Yugoslavia. Career and works P.’s final paper at Berkeley already examined striking word positions in Greek epic […

Parry, Milman

(724 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard
Amerikan. Klass. Philologe und Komparatist. Geb. am 20. 6. 1902 in Oakland, gest. am 3. 12. 1935 in Los Angeles. 1919–1923 Studium der Alt.wiss. an der Univ. of California in Berkeley, ab 1924 an der Pariser Sorbonne; 1928 dort Prom. zum Docteur ès Lettres sowie Assistant Prof. an der Drake Univ. (in Des Moines, Iowa). Ab 1929 Instructor, ab 1932 Assistant Prof. in Harvard; 1933–1935 Feldstudien zu improvisierter mündlicher Heldendichtung im Gebiet des ehemaligen Jugoslawien. Werdegang und Werk Bereits in seiner Abschlussarbeit an der Univ. Berkeley befasste sich P. m…

Reinhardt, Karl

(974 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard
Dt. Klass. Philologe. Geb. als Karl Ludwig R. am 14. 2. 1886 in Detmold, gest. am 9. 1. 1958 in Frankfurt a. M. Ab 1905 Studium der Alt.wiss. in Bonn und Berlin, dort 1910 Prom. und 1914 Habil. Ab 1916 Extraordinarius in Marburg; ab 1919 o.Prof. für Gräzistik in Hamburg; ab 1924 o.Prof. in Frankfurt a. M.; 1942 Berufung an die Univ. Leipzig; 1946 Rückkehr an die Univ. Frankfurt. 1951 Emeritierung. Wissenschaftlicher Werdegang R. entstammte als Enkel des Unternehmers Carl Johann Freudenberg einer großbürgerlichen Familie. Sein Vater arbeitete im Schulbereich in …

Wackernagel, Jacob

(400 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard
Schweizer. Indogermanist. Geb. am 11. 12. 1853 in Basel, gest. am 22. 5. 1938 ebda. Studium der Alt.wiss., Germanistik und Gesch. in Basel, Göttingen, Leipzig und Oxford; 1875 Prom. in Basel. 1876 dort PD für griech. Sprache und Literatur sowie für Sanskrit; 1879 Extraordinarius, 1881 o.Prof. ebda. Ab 1902 o.Prof. für vergleichende Sprachwiss. in Göttingen, 1915–1936 in gleicher Funktion in Basel; 1936 emeritiert. Werdegang und Werk W., Sohn des von Berlin nach Basel berufenen Germanisten Wilhelm W., wurde unmittelbar nach Studium und Prom. zum Thema der s…

Diels, Hermann

(1,018 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard
Dt. Klass. Philologe und Philosophiehistoriker. Geb. als Hermann Alexander D. am 18. 5. 1848 in Biebrich bei Wiesbaden, gest. am 4. 6. 1922 in Berlin. Ab 1867 Studium der Alt.wiss. in Berlin und Bonn, dort 1870 Prom. Ab 1871 Lehrer für alte Sprachen in Flensburg, Hamburg und Berlin. 1881 Redaktor bei den Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca (CAG) an der Preuß. Akad. der Wiss.; 1882 Extraordinarius an der Univ. Berlin, 1886 dort o.Prof. für Klass. Phil.; 1891/92 Dekan, 1905/06 Rektor; 1920 Emeritierung. 1895–1920 Sekretar an der Preuß. Akad. der Wiss. Biographie und Werdegang D. entsta…

Carme

(116 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάρμη; Kármē). By Zeus the mother of the Cretan local goddess Britomartis, who according to Paus. 2,30,3 and Diod. Sic. 5,76 is to be equated with  Dictynna. C. is the daughter of Eubulus and granddaughter of Carmanor [1], one of the close companions of Apollo, who atones him of the killing of the python; her mother is  Demeter. According to another genealogy, C. descends from the Agenor-son Phoenix and the Arabius-daughter Cassiopeia (Antoninus Liberalis 40). In view of these con…

Maron

(167 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μάρων; Márōn). Priest of Apollo in the Thracian city of Ismarus; first mentioned in the Cicones episode in the Odyssey: For being spared during a plundering raid by Odysseus' warriors, M. gives Odysseus amongst other things a heavy wine as a present, with which Odysseus can later stun the Cyclops (Hom. Od. 9,39-61; 196-211). M.'s name appears to be derived from the name of the Thracian city of Maronea [1] whose environs were known for good wine (Hom. Od. 9,45; Archil. fr. 2); a nu…

Itonus

(102 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἴτωνος; Ítōnos). Father of  Boeotus (only in Diod. Sic. 4,67,7 his son); eponym of the town of  Iton, situated close to Coronea in Boeotia, with an important sanctuary of Athena Itonia [1]. The homonymous place and sanctuary in Thessaly (situated between Larisa and Pherae) is an important indication of the conquest and settlement of Boeotia, starting from the north, which allegedly began sixty years after the fall of Troy (Thuc. 1,12,3). I. is, however, mentioned as eponymous hero only in connection with Boeotian settlement. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography 1 Sch…

Macar(eus)

(348 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μάκαρ/ Mákar, Μακαρεύς/ Makareús; Latin Macareus). Mythical king of Lesbos who resettled this island after it was depopulated through the Deucalian flood ( Deucalion) and thus gave it the name of Macaria; Lesbos is already called ‘seat of Macar’ by Homer (Hom. Il. 24,544; H. Hom. 1,37). In the last-mentioned reference, the information ‘son of Aeolus’ is added; this patronymicon was probably a reflection of the Aeolian settlement of Lesbos. The most detailed depiction of M. is provided by Diod. Sic. 5,81f.: according to this, M. was a grandson of Ze…

Graecus

(71 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γραικός; Graikós). According to Hes. fr. 5, 3 M.-W., the son of Zeus and Pandora (or the brother of Latinus, though according to Theog. 1013 the latter's mother is Circe) and the eponymous hero of the Greeks before they acquired the name Hellenes from  Hellen. The name suggests an Illyrian origin [1]. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography 1 Chantraine, s.v. G., 234. P. Dräger, Untersuchungen zu den Frauenkatalogen Hesiods, 1997, 27-42.

Gaieochos

(125 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (γαιήοχος; Gaiēochos). Ep. epithet meaning ‘earth shaker’, used in Homer as a metric substitute or complimentary cognomen for Poseidon (especially in conjunction with γαιήοχος ἐννοσίγαιος; gaiēochos ennosígaios). Only late antique texts extend the reference of gaieochos beyond Poseidon to Zeus (Opp. Hal. 1,74) and Oceanus (Quint. Smyrn. 2,208). In antiquity, it was generally understood as a composite of γαῖα and ἔχειν (etymologically not tenable) or ὀχεῖσθαι (either in the form of the earth carrying Poseidon as a r…

Geryoneus

(453 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γηρυονεύς; Gēryoneús; also Geryónēs, Geryṓn, Γηρυόνης, Γηρυών; Etruscan Cerun). Mythical giant with three heads and three bodies, residing on the island  Erytheia in the far west of the inhabited world (later generally identified with Gadeira/Cadiz: Hdt. 4,8, et al., in Ptolemy's Geographia 4,1,16, identified with Mauretania, euhemeristically relocated to Ambracia by Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 26), where he tends an especially splendid breed of red cattle. His father is Chrysaor, originated from Medusa, and his mother, an  Oceanid (Callirhoe). In the Greek myth, G.…

Hellen

(137 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἕλλην; Héllēn). Eponymous progenitor of the Hellenes, therefore of the entirety of the inhabitants of Greece; the individual tribes took their names from H.'s sons and grandsons  Dorus,  Xuthus (father of  Ion and  Achaeus [1]) and  Aeolus [1].  Pyrrha and either  Deucalion (Hes. fr. 2; schol. Hes. Op. 158a; Thuc. 1,3,12; Diod. Sic. 4,60,2) or Zeus (schol. Pl. Symp. 208d; Apollod. 1,49) are named as H.'s parents. In the Homeric catalogue of ships the Hellenes inhabit only a small …

Glaukopis

(116 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (γλαυκῶπις; glaukôpis). Epic epithet. In Homer used as a metrical substitute or complementary for the name Athene, above all in the connection γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη ( glaukôpis Athḗnē). The noun μήνη ( mḗnē, ‘moon’) is also documented several times as a reference word for glaukopis (first in Empedocles, 31 B 42 Diels/Kranz). The epithet can be interpreted in two ways: either as ‘owl-eyed’ (from γλαῦξ, glaûx, ‘owl’) or ‘with a sparkling look’ (from γλαυκός, glaukós, ‘sparkling’). Both interpretations were already represented in antiquity. The suffix limb -ωπι…

Coronus

(106 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κορωνός; Korōnós). Ruler of the  Lapithae, son of  Caeneus; C.'s son Leonteus, together with Polypoetes, led the contingent of the Lapiths before Troy. Homer mentions C.'s name in the catalogue of ships in order to give prominence the little-known Leonteus; in early mythology C. was probably associated with the  legend of the Argonauts, where Apoll. Rhod. also mentions him (1,57f.). A story which possibly reflects historical events is reported at Apollod. 2,154: according to it, C…

Canthus

(120 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάνθος; Kánthos). Argonaut from Euboea, in Apollonius Rhodius the son of Canethus, the eponym of a Euboean mountain, and grandson of Abas [1c], the eponym of the whole island under its old name Abantis (1,77). In Valerius Flaccus, C. is the son of Abas. C. scarcely makes an appearance in the story of the Argonauts, only his death in battle - either on the return journey in Libya (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1485-1501: he is the only one of the Argonauts to fall in battle there; cf. Orph. Arg. 141-143), or in Colchis fighting the Iazyges (Val. Fl. 6,317-341) is described in some detail. Visser…

Iphidamas

(85 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰφιδάμας; Iphidámas). Figure from the Trojan epic cycle, son of  Antenor [1] and Theano. Raised by Cisseus, his maternal grandfather, in Percote in Thrace, he left his home against his wife's wishes in order to assist the Trojans. The slaying of I. and his brother  Coon by  Agamemnon, described in Hom. Il. 11,218-263, was also depicted on the  Cypselus chest (Paus. 5,19,4). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography I. Espermann, Theano, Antenor und Antenoriden, 1980, 71-80 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, no. 180.
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