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Yarbūʿ

(830 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an important group of the tribe of Tamīm [ q.v.] with the genealogy Yarbūʿ b. Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zayd Manāt b. Tamīm (see Caskel-Strenziok, in Bibl.). The same name is borne by other ethnic groups not only Tamīmī (e.g. Yarbūʿ b. Mālik b. Ḥanẓala, cf. Mufaḍḍaliyyāt , ed. Lyall, 122, 1. 18 and parallel passages) and also Yarbūʿ b. Tamīm in Caskel-Strenziok), but also of other tribes, of the south (Kalb, Saʿd Hud̲h̲ayn, D̲j̲uhayna) and of the north (G̲h̲aṭafān, T̲h̲aḳīf, G̲h̲anī, Sulaym, Ḥanīfa, ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa; we also find among the Ḳurays̲h̲ a Yarbūʿ b. ʿAnkat̲h̲a b. ʿĀmir b. Mak̲h̲zūm). Yar…

Salmān al-Fārisī

(1,039 words)

Author(s): Vida*, G. Levi Della
or Salmān Pāk , a semilegendary figure of early Islam, Companion of the Prophet and the person regarded in later tradition as the proto-convert to Islam from the Persian nation. According to one tradition, the most complete version of which goes back to Muḥammad b. Isḥāḳ, he was the son of a dihḳān of the Persian village of D̲j̲ayy (or D̲j̲ayyān; cf. Yāḳūṭ, ii, 170) near Iṣfahān. According to other stories, he belonged to the vicinity of Rāmhurmuz and his Persian name was Māhbēh (Māyēh) or Rūzbēh (cf. Justi, Iran . Namenbuch , 217, 277). Attracted by Christianity …

al-Ṣufrīya

(1,322 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, one of the principal branches of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs [q. v.]. Historiographie tradition, established as early as the middle of the 2nd century by Abū Mik̲h̲naf (al-Ṭabarī, ¶ Annales, ii. 517 sqq.) places its rise in 65, when the Tamīmī ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ṣaffār, a Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī of al-Baṣra, broke away from his colleague Nāfiʿ b. al-Azraḳ on the question of the istiʿrāḍ (the murder of adversaries and their families), propounded by the latter, and subsequently from ʿAbdallāh b. Ibāḍ, who maintained that non-Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī Muslims should not be regarded as polytheis…

Tamīm

(2,604 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. Murr, an Arab tribe; their genealogy (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, K. L.) Tamīm b. Murr b. Udd b. Ṭābik̲h̲a b. al-Yās b. Muḍar, puts them among the Muḍarī tribes where they take first place; indeed their name is often used as a synonym of the whole Muḍarī branch in contrast to the Ḳais and the Rabīʿa. Of the two latter, the Rabīʿa are most closely delated to them, which is not apparent in the systematic genealogies (where on the contrary the Ḳais are descended from the Muḍar while the Rabīʿa are not), but from expressions like the dual al-Ḏj̲uffān (Lisān al-ʿArab, x. 373) meaning the Tamīm…

Taim B. Murra

(311 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, a clan of the Meccan tribe of Ḳurais̲h̲ Its name, which is born by several other Arab tribes, means “servant” and must therefore be an abbreviation of an ancient theophoric name such as we find in Taimallāh-Taimallāt [q. v.] and in the inscriptions, Taim Manāt, Taim Ruḍā, ΘαιμηλοΣ etc. (cf. Wellhausen, Reste 2, p. 7; Lidzbarski, Handbuch d. nordsem. Epigrahik, p. 385). The Taim b. Murra belonged to the Ḳurais̲h̲ al-Baṭāʾiḥ i. e. to the clans which were dominant in Mecca: but in spite of that ¶ they do not seem to have possessed any political influence, while their real relatives…

Umaiya

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams, ancestor of the Umaiyads, the principal clan of the Ḳurais̲h̲ of Mecca. His genealogy (Umaiya b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Ḳuṣaiy) and his descendants are given in Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, U, V. Like all other eponyms of Arab tribes and clans, his actual existence and the details of his life have to be accepted with caution, but too great scepticism with regard to tradition would be as ill-advised as absolute faith in its statements. As those Umaiyads who were living at the beginning of the Muslim epoch…

Yarbūʿ

(821 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an important group of the tribe of Tamīm [q. v.] Genealogy: Yarbūʿ b. Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm (Wüstenfeld, Gen. Tab., K 13). The Same name is borne by other ethnic groups not only Tamīmī (e. g. Yarbūʿ b. Mālik b. Ḥanẓala [K 14 and cf. Mufaḍḍalīyāt, ed. Lyall, p. 122, 18 and parallel passages] and also Yarbūʿ b. Tamīm in Ibn al-Kalbī, Ḏj̲amharat al-Ansāb), but also of other tribes, of the south (Kalb, Saʿd Hud̲h̲ain, Ḏj̲uhaina) and of the north (G̲h̲aṭafān, T̲h̲aḳīf, G̲h̲anī, Sulaim, Ḥanīfa, ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa; we also find among the Ḳurais̲h̲ a Y…

Taimallāh

(757 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. T̲h̲aʿlaba, an Arab tribe belonging to the branch of the Rabīʿa b. Nizār (tribes of the ʿAdnān) and forming part of the great ethnical group of the Bakr b. Wāʾil. Genealogy; Taimallāh b. T̲h̲aʿlaba b. ʿUkāba b. Ṣaʿb b. ʿAlī b. Bakr b. Wāʾil. We also find it mentioned under the form Taimallāt, which may be the correct name, for a Muslim (or Christian) alteration of the name al-Lāt to that of Allāh is not at all unlikely while the opposite is hardly conceivable. This tribe as usual with so many other tribes of Arabia formed an alliance ( ḥilf) with the sister tribe of the Banū Ḳais b. T̲h̲aʿl…

K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites

(3,789 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
(A., Ḵh̲awārid̲j̲, sing. Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī), the members of the earliest of the religious sects of Islām, whose importance lies particularly, from the point of view of the development of dogma, in the formulation of questions relative to the theory of the Caliphate and to justification by faith or by works, while from the point of view of political history the principal part they played was disturbing by means of continual insurrections, which often ended in the temporary conquest of entire provinces, th…

Ḳus̲h̲air

(496 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an Arab tribe forming part of the great group of the Banū ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa [q. v.] whose fortunes we find them almost continuously sharing in the period before as well as after Islām. They had particularly close associations with the tribes of ʿUḳail and Ḏj̲aʿda [q. v.] whose genealogical table makes them brothers. Their genealogy is Ḳus̲h̲air b. Kaʿb b. Rabīaʿ b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa. Tradition makes the mother of Ḳus̲h̲air Raiṭa bint Ḳunfud̲h̲ b. Mālik of the tribe of the Banū Sulaim [q. v.]. Du…

Nizār b. Maʿadd

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, common ancestor of the greater part of the Arab tribes of the north, according to the accepted genealogical system. Genealogy: Nizār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, A. 3). His mother, Muʿāna bint Ḏj̲ahla, was descended from the pre-Arab race of the Ḏj̲urhum. Genealogical legend which has preserved mythological features and folklore relating to several eponyms of Arab tribes is almost silent on the subject of Nizār (an etymological fable about his name: Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, iii. 563, 15—17 from the Rawḍ al-Unf of al-Suhailī [i. 8, 8—10] is without doubt of very late…

Liḥyān

(1,523 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an Arab tribe, a branch of the Hud̲h̲ail [q. v.]. Genealogy: Liḥyān b. Hud̲h̲ail b. Mudrika b. al-Yās b. Muḍar. Settled like the other branches of the Hud̲h̲ail in the country N. E. of Mecca, the Liḥyān do not seem to have had in the period just before and after Islam a history independent of their brethren; it is only rarely that they are mentioned apart from them, e. g. in Ḥamasā, p. 34, à propos of their battles with the warrior-poet Taʾabbaṭa S̲h̲arran; Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, ii. 272; iv. 104 (cf. Ḥamasā of al-Buḥturī, p. 80—81; Ibn al-Ḏj̲arrāḥ, ed. H. H. Bräu, N°. 86 = S. B. Ak. Wien, 2…

ʿUd̲h̲ra

(1,587 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an Arab tribe of the southern group, belonging to the great subdivision of the Ḳuḍāʿa. Genealogy: ʿUd̲h̲ra b. Saʿd Hud̲h̲aim b. Zaid b. Lait̲h̲ b. Aslam b. al-Ḥāf b. Ḳuḍāʿa (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, i. 18). We know nothing of their history in the remote past, for their identification with the ’Αθριται (var. ’Αθροιται) of Ptolemy, proposed by Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens, p. 205, § 333 is anything but certain; in the historical period we find them established in the north of the Ḥid̲j̲āz, in the vicinity of other Ḳuḍāʿa tribes (Nahd, Ḏj̲uha…

al-Muk̲h̲tār

(2,180 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. Abī ʿUbaid al-T̲h̲aḳafī, a S̲h̲īʿa agitator who seized possession of Kūfa in 66 (685—686). The clan of T̲h̲aḳīf to which he belonged was the same as that of the poet Umaiya b. Abi ’l-Ṣalt [q. v.] and another poet, Abū ¶ Mihd̲j̲an, was his second cousin (al-Muk̲h̲tār’s grandfather Masʿūd being the son of ʿAmr b. ʿUmair b. ʿAwf; cf. Wüstenfeld, Gen. Tab., G. 19). He is said to have been born in 622 (Ṭabarī, i. 1264) a statement which has perhaps no real foundation (cf. Ṭabarī, ii. 2: in 40, he was a “young man”, g̲h̲ulām s̲h̲ābb) and based on the fact that his adversary ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zu…

Sīra

(4,439 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
(a.), the traditional biography of Muḥammad. The word seems to be used for the first time as the name of a separate branch of study in the title of Ibn His̲h̲ām’s work (ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 3, 4: hād̲h̲ā kitāb sīrati rasūli ’llāhi ) but there is other testimony to its use to mean biography of Muḥammad; it is already found in this sense in al-Wāḳidī (Ibn Saʿd, Ṭabaḳāt, 11/i. 18, man rawā ’l-sīra) and in his pupil Ibn Saʿd ( ibid., 111/ii. 152; hāʾulāʾi aʿlanu bi ’l-sīrati wa ’l-mag̲h̲āzī min g̲h̲airihim). Besides, the word sīra at this time had already the sense of biography in general; it is known that a S…

Ḳuṣaiy

(1,651 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an ancestor of Muḥammad in the fifth generation and restorer of the pre-Islāmic worship of the Kaʿba in Mecca. His genealogy is unanimously given in all sources as Ḳuṣaiy b. Kilāb b. Murra b. Kaʿb b. Luʾaiy b. Fihi-Ḳurais̲h̲ (cf. Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, O.-T.), and his life and exploits are recorded by our sources in three recensions which only differ from each other in trifling details; these go back to Muḥammad al-Kalbī (d. 146), Ibn Iṣhāḳ (d. 150) and ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ḏj̲uraid̲j̲ al-Makkī (d. 150). Ḳuṣaiy is r…

al-Ṣamṣāma

(917 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, the sword of the Arab warrior-poet ʿAmr b. Maʿdīkarib al-Zubaidī (cf. above, i. 336a) celebrated for the temper and cutting power of its blade. Like a number of the best Arab swords, its origin was traced back to Southern Arabia and a fabulous antiquity was ascribed to it. ʿAmr himself in a verse often quoted (Ibn Duraid, p. 311; ʿIḳd [ed. 1293], i. 46, ii. 70; Ibn Badrūn, p. 84; Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, vi. 229) says that it had once belonged to Ibn Ḏh̲ī Ḳaifān “of the people of ʿĀd” (this member of an actual Ḥimyar clan [cf. Hartmann, Die arabische Frage, p. 331, 613] is identified with one of the …

Numair

(960 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, an Arab tribe (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, F 15) inhabiting the western heights of al-Yamāma and those between this region and al-Ḥimā Ḍārīya: a bare and difficult country the nature of which explains the rude and savage character of the Numair. Their name like that of Namr and Anmār borne by other ethnic groups (there are also in the list of Arab tribes a number of other clans with the name Numair: among the Asad, the Tamīm, the Ḏj̲uʿfī, the Ḥamdān etc.) is no doubt connected with nimr, the Arabian panther; we know the deductions made by Robertson Smith from t…

Murād

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, the name of an Arab tribe, belonging to the great southern group of the Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ [q. v.]; genealogical tradition (Ibn al-Kalbī, Ḏj̲amharat al-Ansāb, Escurial MS., fol. 114b-117b, which is followed by Ibn Duraid, Kitāb al-Is̲h̲tiḳāḳ, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 238, 4; cf. also Lisān al-ʿArab, iv. 409) regards Murād as a nickname, for this tribe was said to have been the first to rebel ( tamarrada) in the Yaman: an etymology which is not convincing. Murād’s own name is said to have been Yuḥābir b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ and he was therefore a brother of the ʿAns and the Saʿd al-ʿAs̲h̲īra (Wüstenfeld, Geneal…

Muḥārib

(850 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, the name of several Arab tribes (Wüstenfeld, Register zu den geneal. Tabellen, p. 320 gives five of this name) of which the most important is that of the Muḥārib b. Ḵh̲aṣafa b. Ḳais ʿAilān (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, D, 8). They do not however seem to have been of very great importance either in the Ḏj̲āhilīya or in Islām; Ibn al-Kalbī only gives them two pages of his Ḏj̲amharat al-Ansāb (Brit. Mus. MS., Add. 23,297, fol. 163b—165b) but these add considerably to the very meagre information in the Tabellen especially as regards the lines of ʿAlī b. Ḏj̲asr b. Muḥārib and of Bad̲h̲āwa ( sic) b. …
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