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Norba

(197 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae | Latini, Latium Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci, modern Norma. Possibly founded in 492 BC (Liv. 2,34,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,13,5), but more likely in the 4th cent.; laid waste by the Privernates in 327 (Liv. 7,42,8). Loyal to Rome through the Punic Wars, destroyed by Sullan forces in 82/1 BC (App. B Civ. 1,94). Archaeology: Ring walls, adapted to the topography ( opus polygonale) from the 4th cent. BC, 2,662 m long, three gates; two acropoleis, rectangu…

Interamna

(533 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] [1] Town in Umbria This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Tribus | Umbri, Umbria ( Interamna Nahars, CIL XI 4213; ethnic designation Interamnates Nartes, CIL VI 140). Town in Umbria, modern Terni. The place name refers to its location on the confluence of the Nera (Umbrian Nahar [1], Latin Nar) and the Serra (which had a different course in antiquity). Settlement phases of the 10th-7th cents. are attested in Pentima and in San Pietro in Campo. A 7th cent. settlement in the town's Clai district appears to confirm the …

Fossa

(651 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] F. Augusta Navigable  canal between the Padus and the harbour of Ravenna (Plin. HN 3,119); under Augustus diverted via the Padusa, a marshy branch of the Po. Statio on the via Popilia, later Augusta; traces in the Valle Mezzano in the drained Laguna di Comacchio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, Un insediamento a carratere industriale. Relazione preliminare degli scavi sull'argine d'Agosta 1971-1973, in: Boll. annuale. Centro di ... Musei Ferraresi 3, 1973, 174-179. [German version] [2] F. Claudia Navigable  canal, built by Claudius be…

Blera, Bieda

(225 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan city near Tarquinii, in the hills of tufa rock between Ricanale (in the north) and Biedano (in the south); now Blera (Bieda in the Middle Ages; in the province of Viterbo). Roman municipium of the tribus Arnensis, Augustales (CIL XI p. 507). Stopping-place on the via Clodia with the bridges della Rocca and del Diavolo. Necropolis of tumuli and burial mounds from the 7th cent. BC. Heyday in the 6th and 5th cents. BC. Ancient Bieda is situated on a narrow, high plateau with s…

Intercisa

(301 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Military camp in Pannonia inferior Military camp, toll station and civilian settlement near the limes of Pannonia inferior on the Aquincum - - Altinum - Mursa road (It. Ant. 245,3; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,25f.; 38), modern Dunaújváros, district of Fejér in Hungary. This fortification, which was originally made of wood and earth, was probably built by the ala I Augusta Ituraeorum sagittariorum in the late Flavian period. A military base of the ala I Flavia Augusta Britannica (AD 105-106), the ala I Tungrorum Frontoniana (until 118/9) and the ala I Thracum veteranoru…

Vitellia

(172 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Daughter of the emperor Vitellius [II 2], 1st cent. AD Daughter of the emperor Vitellius [II 2] who married her to Valerius [II 2] Asiaticus, governor of the province of Belgica in the year AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 1,59,2). After the death of her father, she was spared  by Vespasian and married to a person of high social status. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Raepsaet-Charlier 640, no. 817. [German version] [2] Township in Latium Township in Latium, assumed to be at modern Civitella, first literary mention in connection with the events around Coriola…

Aquilonia

(228 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Italian town on Monte Vairano near Campobasso Italian town on Monte Vairano near Campobasso [1]. The description of the military operations of 293 BC at Liv. 10,38-44, decisive for the outcome of the 3rd  Samnitic War, corresponds with the results of more recent excavations (city wall from the 4th cent. BC, three city gates); traces of streets indicate a planned urbanization. Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography 1 Vetter no. 200 C: Akudunniad. G. De Benedittis, in: S. Capini, E. Arslan (ed.), Samnium, 1991, 127-130. [German version] [2] A town of the  Hirpi…

Trebula

(357 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
(Τρήβουλα; Trḗboula). [German version] [1] Sabine town This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Town of the Sabini tribe (Str. 5,3,1; Plin. HN 3,107; ILS 442: Mutuesca; Obseq. 41-43: Mutusca), c. 65 km northeast of Rome on a side street of the via Salaria , c. 1 km to the east of Monteleone Sabino (Rieti). In 290 BC, they were probably subjugated by the Romans like the other Sabini (cf. Flor. Epit. 1,10; Oros. 3,22,11); still a vicus (ILS 21a) in 149 BC. After the abolition of the prefectures it became a municipium , tribus Sergia, with octoviri (cf. ILS 6554)…

Montani

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Inhabitants of the pagi on the hills of the Roman Septimontium According to Varro Ling. 6,24,5-7, the inhabitants of the pagi on the hills of the Roman Septimontium, distinguished from the inhabitants of the other pagi. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Inhabitants of the Ligurian Maritime Alps Inhabitants of the Ligurian Maritime Alps (Liv. 28,46,11; 14; 40,41,5; Plin. HN 3,135), who often served in the Roman army (cf. Tac. Hist. 2,14). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 364.

Taberna

(94 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Type of building Latin term for buildings, both urban and rural, used for storage, craft production, selling goods, offering drinks, meals and lodging, and also as living space. Storage economy; Workshop; Inn Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) [German version] [2] T. Frigida Road station in Etruria on the Via Aemilia Scauri between Pisae and Luna at the crossing over the Frigidus (modern Frigido), modern San Leonardo in Frigido. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Banti, Luni, 1937, 71  G. De Santis Alvisi, Questioni lunensi, in: Centro Studi Lunensi. …

Rhenus

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] River in upper-Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna River in Upper Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna, right-hand feeding river of the Padus (Po), which rises in the Apennines above Pistoriae (Pistoia) and flows past Marzabotto through the region of Felsina (Bononia [1]). In Etruscan times it flowed into the Padus near Voghiera to the southeast of Ferrara, in Roman times somewhat more to the west. Nowadays it flows via an artificial canal directly into the Adriatic Sea. In…

Taurasia

(143 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] [1] City of the Hirpini City of the Hirpini in the mountains of Samnium, destroyed by the Romans in 298 BC. It was to the territory of T. that in 180 BC Ligurian Apuani were deported (Liv. 40,38,3; 41,4; Plin. HN 3, 105; Baebius [I 12]). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography D. Marcotte, Lucaniae, in: Latomus 44, 1985, 721-742  J. Patterson, Sanniti, 1988, 168-170  G. De Benedittis, Fagifulae, 1997, 17-22, 65-74. [German version] [2] Capital of the Taurini This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Probably the capital of the Taurini (App. Hann. 5…

Pistoriae

(188 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Petraccia Lucernoni, Maria Federica (Milan)
[German version] (Πιστωρία; Pistōría). Ligurian city on the Umbro (modern Ombrone), a right-bank tributary of the Arnus, where a pass opens northwards over the Appennines; modern Pistoia. First mentioned at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC (in Plaut. Capt. 160f.). Catilina was defeated near P. in 62 BC in a battle against Petreius (Sall. Catil. 1,37). From 89 BC on, municipium of the tribus Velina; from Augustus' time on, in regio VII (Plin. HN 3,52; Ptol. 3,1,48); in Late Antiquity in the Tuscia annonaria (Amm. Marc. 27,3,1), mansio on the via Cassia (Tab. Peut. 4,2; It. Ant. 284f.).…

Acerrae

(199 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Brizzi, Giovanni (Bologna) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] City on the Clanius in Campania This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Villa | Etrusci, Etruria City of the  Sidicini or  Samnites on the Clanius in  Campania (Str. 5,4,8; 11; Plin. HN 3,63). 332 BC civitas sine suffragio (Liv. 8, 17, 12; Vell. Pat. 1, 14, 4), praefectura (fortress destroyed (Liv. 23, 17, 7; 19, 4), rebuilt 211 BC (Liv. 27, 3). Colonia under Augustus (liber coloniarum 229). Few archaeological remains under today's city of Acerra. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 754 [German version] [2] Capital of the  Insubres Cap…

Mater Magna

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Takacs, Sarolta A. (Cambridge, MA) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Anatolian goddess in Rome More fully Mater Deum Magna Idaea (see [1] on the name), the goddess Mḗtēr/ Cybele, who was brought from Pergamum to Rome in 204/5 BC as demanded by the Sibyllini libri and with the help of Attalos [4] I. Even in antiquity the precise place of origin was disputed: Pessinus (Liv. 29, 10,5; 11,7), Pergamum (Varro ling. 6, 15), or the mountain chain Ida [2] in the Troad (Ov. fast. 4,263f.). The cult of Mḗtēr/Kybele is attested at all three places. Research favours an origin on Ida [2.16-20] or from Pessinus [3.318] - in each case t…

Leucosia

(238 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Λευκωσία; Leukōsía). [German version] [3] Island on the Lucanian coast (Mela 2,7,121; Plin. HN 3,83: Leucothea) on the Punta della Licosa, modern Isola Piana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Brugnoli, s.v. L., EV 3, 1987, 196f. BTCGI 9, 1991, 5; 14, 1996, 505f. [German version] [1] One of the three post-Homeric Sirens One of the three post-Homeric Sirens, who no longer - as with Homer - appear in a group but as individuals: L. reaches south-west Italy through colonization. Consequently her suicide (she plunges into the sea) is local…

Caecina

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin ( Ceicna, Schulze, 75, 285, 567; ThlL, Onom. 15f.), whose bearers belonged to the city aristocracy of Volaterrae (cf. Cic. Fam. 6,6,9), where the family is attested in several branches and partly through richly adorned graves. (CIE 18-24; 36-42 et al.). The lineage appeared in Rome from the 1st cent. BC, but never lost its links with its homeland (cognomen Tuscus in C. [II 9]); villa of the Roman city prefect of AD 414, Caecina Decius Atinatius Albinus, (PLRE 1, 50)…

Italia [I-II]

(5,411 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Mastrocinque, Attilio (Verona) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. The name and its development The name I. acquired its modern meaning during the Augustan period; it originally described the kingdom of the Oenotrian ruler Italus, comprising the Bruttian peninsula from Sila to Scylletium (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 5; according to Hecat. FGrH 1 F 41,51-53, Medma, Locris, Caulonia, and Krotalla were in I.). Hellanicus links I. with the term vitulus (‘calf’) and the legend of the calf of  Geryoneus which had run away from Hercules (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,35); Timaeus associates the name wit…

Forum

(8,477 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Archaeology and urban studies [German version] A. Definition and Function Latin term for market, market place; rarely also the forecourt of a tomb (in the meaning of Greek drómos, e.g. Cic. Leg. 2,61) or part of a wine press (Varro, Rust. 1,54; Columella 11,2,71). As the mercantile and administrative centre of a Roman city ( Town/City), the forum, which took the form of a large open space framed by buildings, was essentially the equivalent of the Greek  agora. A location at the intersection of the   decumanus and   cardo in the city centre is the rule in …

Aquae

(2,365 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
I. Italy [German version] A. Albulae Sulphurous sources of the Lago della Soforata on the right bank of the  Anio, 16 km from Rome; cult site. The springs are cold and have healing properties;  Nero had them canalized into the Domus Aurea. Large Roman   villa near Bagni della Regina. CIL XIV 3908-18. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Angae In Bruttium between Consentia and Vibo Valentia, today Terme Caronte of Lamezia Terme. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Apollinares Thermal springs between Careiae and  Tarquinii (It. Ant. 300); unidentified (…
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