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Cassi

(50 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] One of five tribes in Britannia, who surrendered to Caesar in 54 BC (Caes. B Gall. 5,21). Their settlement area, which cannot be localized exactly, was in the south-east of the island. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-names of Roman Britain, 1979, 302.

Glannaventa

(74 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (probably modern Ravenglass/Cumbria). The camp was laid out at the beginning of Hadrian's rule at an anchorage at the river (not excavated); especially striking is a bathhouse outside the walls; the building's walls with windows 3.5 metres high are still extant. G. was likely abandoned in the late 4th cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography E. Birley, The Roman Fort at Ravenglass (Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society 58), 1958, 14-30.

Picti

(162 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Tribe beyond the northern frontier of the Roman province of Britannia, first mentioned in connection with the events of AD 297 (Laterculus Veronensis 13; Pan. Lat. 8,11,4). Constantius [1] I campaigned against them in AD 306, but from the mid-4th cent. they subjected the province to repeated attack (Amm. Marc. 20,1; 26,4,5; 27,8,20). Their territory lay in eastern Scotland, north of the Firth of Forth (cf. the etymology of various place names). Little is known of their settlements…

Rutupiae

(242 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Harbour town in far southeastern Britannia, modern Richborough (Kent), on the now silted-up channel between the island of Tonatis (modern Isle of Thanet) and the mainland of Kent [1]. The settlement, captured by the invading army of the emperor Claudius [III 1] in AD 43, was used as a central military supply base until the late 1st cent. AD. Between AD 80 and 90, a triumphal arch was erected here, probably to celebrate the northern conquests of the Flavian governors [1. 40-73]. Th…

Ordovices

(114 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] British tribe who inhabited the region between Snowdonia and the Severn valley (Ptol. 2,3,18); a site of principal settlement is unknown. They opposed the Roman invasion under Nero (AD 50), but were defeated by Julius Frontinus and Julius [II 3] Agricola between AD 74 and AD 79 (Tac. Ann. 12,33). According to Tac. Agr. 18,2, they were annihilated by Agricola. Nevertheless their name survives: e.g. in Dinorwig and Rhyd Orddwy (Wales). Britannia (with map: the indigenous tribes) Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography M.G. Jarrett, J.C. Mann, The Tribes of Wales, in: W…

Calleva Atrebatum

(135 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Britannia | Britannia (modern Silchester). An Iron Age oppidum, main centre of the Atrebates [2], it developed from 100 BC into a significant political centre. Through its links with  Commius, the settlement boomed in the mid 1st cent. BC. It is likely that, after AD 43, Calleva Atrebatum (CA) was incorporated into Cogidubnus' empire. The early Roman town was established within the Iron Age fortifications [1]. From its very beginnings, CA's developmen…

Mamucium

(101 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman fort near Manchester, on the road from Deva to Eboracum, first occupied in the Flavian period (AD 69-96), probably under Cn. Iulius [II 3] Agricola. Renovated in the early 2nd cent. [1]. An inscription on a Severan building suggests a further extension in the 3rd cent. [2. 581]. In the 4th cent., M. gained considerable strategic importance, before being abandoned after AD 370. A large vicus surrounded the fort. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 G. D. B. Jones, S. Grealey, Roman Manchester, 1974 2 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wight, The Roman Inscriptions of Brita…

Vindolanda

(108 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman fort about 40 km to the west of Newcastle upon Tyne, modern Chesterholm, founded in the Flavian period (AD 69-96) [1]. The fort was renovated under Hadrian; Hadrian's Wall runs 3 km to the north of it (Limes II, with map). The fort was also renovated a century later. A large vicus developed to the west of it in the 2nd and 3rd cents. [2. 1700; 3]. The most significant find from V. is the Vindolanda Writing Tablets. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 P. Bidwell, The Roman Fort of V. at Chesterholm, 1985 2 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions …

Cattiterides

(271 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Καττιτερίδες; Kattiterídes, ‘tin islands’). The C. were probably the regions and islands of the Atlantic coast of both Gaul and Britain; C. also generally referred to the south-west of Britain and the offshore islands. Most ancient authors had but little specific knowledge of this region. Thus Pliny reports that the Greek Midacritus was the first to import tin from the island of Cassiteris ( Midacritus, Plin. HN 7,197), without providing exact topographical details. Hdt. 3,115 doubted the very existence of these tin islands, probably because …

Corstopitum

(109 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Settlement in the valley of the North Tyne, modern Corbridge. During the conquest by Agricola (AD 77-84) a large base was erected here, subsequently replaced by a camp further to the east (destroyed by fire c. 125). After Hadrian's Wall was erected 7 km to the north, C. was extended to become a supply base. In the early 3rd cent. C. played a decisive role in connection with the campaigns of Septimius Severus. An important city adjoining the base arose here in the 3rd and 4th cents. [1].  Limes;  Britannia Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 M. Bishop, J. N. Dore, Corbridg…

Sutton Hoo

(77 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] In one of the burial mounds at SH near Woodbridge in Suffolk a wooden ship was found with a rich treasure (Gaulish, Scandinavian and Eastern English goods, Byzantine silver bowls, including one with the stamp of Anastasius [1] I, also Frankish coins of the period around AD 625). It is presumably the tomb of Rædwald (6th/7th cent. AD), a king of East Anglia. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography R. Bruce-Mitford, The S. H. Ship-Burial, 3 vols., 1975-1983.

Hibernia

(678 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
(Ireland). [German version] A. Ancient knowledge Ancient geographers report little of the north-west coasts of Europe and the islands off this coast. The first knowledge regarding the island of Ireland, Ierne or H. was probably only obtained during the exploratory journey of Pytheas ( c. 320 BC [1; 2]). Pytheas probably did not visit H. himself and his reports were only second-hand, but Strabo, Diodorus and Mela probably had access to his information (Str. 4,5,4; Diod. Sic. 5,32; Mela 3,6). Some elements of this tradition are pure fantasy…

Silures

(131 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic tribe in Southeast Wales from the coast to the Wye, especially in the coastal plain of present-day Glamorgan. The S. resisted the Romans from AD 44, at first under Caratacus (Tac. Ann. 12,32 f.; 12,38-40; 14,29), but were finally subdued in AD 74-76 by Frontinus (Tac. Agr. 17). In the 2nd cent., possibly under Hadrian, the S. were organised as civitas Silurum with the capital of Venta Silurum (present-day Caerwent). Modest villae were built in the coastal plain. In the end, the S. came to be the most Romanised tribe in Wales. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography V. E. …

Glevum

(216 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Britannia The region around Gloucester, located at the lowest lying crossing-point over the Severn, was first occupied by the Roman army in c. AD 50. A legion base was erected in Kingsholm, probably by the legio XX Valeria Victrix [1]; this was abandoned in c. AD 60 and replaced towards the end of the rulership of Nero by a fortress on the ground of modern Gloucester, which itself was abandoned in c. AD 74/5. On the grounds of the fortress, the colonia Glevum was founded using the fortress' building materials, appa…

Trinovantes

(79 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic people, settled in the region of modern Essex in the late Iron Age. In the middle of the 1st cent. BC they were under pressure from the neighbouring Catuvellauni (Caes. Gall. 5,20) and for some time were dependent on them. Under their king Cunobellinus ( c. 10-40 AD) they were again independent and dominant in southern Britain. Their largest oppidum was Camulodunum. Britannia (with map) Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography R. Dunnett, The T., 1975  S. S. Frere, Britannia, 31987.

Catuvellauni

(83 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Powerful tribe in Britannia north of the lower Thames, who most likely had links with the Gallic Catualauni. Their most influential rulers were Tasciovanus and his son  Cunobellinus [1]. Following the conquest of Britannia by Claudius (Cass. Dio 60,20,2), the C. were organized as a civitas with  Verulamium as its centre (Tac. Ann. 14,33). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 S. S. Frere, Britannia, 31987, 44f. S. S. Frere, Verulamium Excavations 1, 1972 R. E. M. and T. V. Wheeler, Verulamium, 1936 K. Branigan, The C., 1985.

Sabrina

(60 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] River rising in Mid-Wales and flowing into the Bristol Channel (Tac. Ann. 12,31; Ptol. 2,3,3), modern Severn. Its valley played an important role in the period of the Roman conquest, with legionary bases at Glevum and Viroconium (modern Wroxeter). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 450 f.

Cilurnum

(117 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman camp on the western bank of the North Tyne, where Hadrian's wall crosses the river, modern Chesters; built in around AD 125 as a replacement for tower 27a [1. 89-91]. Garrison of the ala II Asturum in the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VII 585); prior to that, the camp may have accommodated cavalry (including Sarmatae). The camp gates are extant, as are principia, praetorium, two soldiers' quarters, extra-mural thermae, and the foundations of a bridge. South of the camp was an extended vicus [2].  Limes Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 D. J. Breeze, The Northern Frontier…

Mamucium

(89 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] Röm. Kastell bei Manchester an der Straße von Deva nach Eboracum, erstmals in flavischer Zeit (69-96 n.Chr.), wohl unter Cn. Iulius [II 3] Agricola, besetzt. Im frühen 2. Jh. renoviert [1]. Eine Inschr. an einem severischen Bau läßt einen weiteren Ausbau im 3. Jh. vermuten [2. 581]. M. gewann im 4. Jh. bes. strategische Bed., bevor es nach 370 n.Chr. aufgegeben wurde. Ein großer vicus lag außerhalb des Kastells. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 G.D.B. Jones, S. Grealey, Roman Manchester, 1974 2 R.G. Collingwood, R.P. Wight, The Roman Inscriptions of B…

Cantiaci

(92 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] Volksstamm im Gebiet von Kent und East Sussex. Sein Name leitet sich von der Region Cantium ab. Caes. Gall. 5,22,1 berichtet von vier einheimischen Königen, woraus man auf verschiedene Teilstämme schließen kann. Stammeszentrum war Durovernum, bed. auch Durobrivae (h. Rochester). Zahlreiche villae wurden hier in der frühen Kaiserzeit errichtet, bes. in Ost- und Süd-Kent. Im 3.Jh. waren Rutupiae, Dubrae, Regulbium (h. Reculver) und Portus Lemanae (h. Lympne) Stützpunkte der Classis Britannica. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. Detsicas, The C., 1984  S. J…
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