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Tarīm

(1,724 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, 1. an old town and still one of the most important in northern Ḥaḍramōt, on the left side of the main wādī which traverses the whole of Ḥaḍramōt and is called Wādī Masīle east of S̲h̲ibām or Wādī Ḥaḍramōt or simply al-Wādī; others distinguish Wādī Masīle and Wādī Ḥaḍramōt, but are not agreed on the position of the confluence of the two (cf. Stieler’s map 60 in his Handatlas 9 [Gotha 1905] and the Map of Hadramut [surveyed by Imam Sharif Khan Bahadur] in Th. Bent, Southern Arabia, London 1900, p. 70). The statements of the Arab geographers regarding Ḥaḍramōt, especially the interi…

Ẓafār

(6,076 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, 1. now a group of ruins near an insignificant village in southern Yaman, about 10 miles S. W. of Yarīm, celebrated in ancient times as the capital of the Ḥimyar kingdom (also called Ẓafāri; see Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iii. 576; i. 196; South Arabian inscriptions give the radicals ẓ-p[f]-r; it is reproduced in Ethiopie as Ṣafār). ¶ The royal city is mentioned by Pliny, Natur. Hist., vi. 104 as regia Sapphar and in the Periplus Mar. Erythr., § 23 as μητρόπολιΣ ΣαΦάρ in which χαριβαήλ (Karibaʾil), “king of the Homerites (Ḥimyar) and Sabaeans” ruled, of that dynasty which, succ…

Tarīm

(716 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
2. According to Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihān-numā, p. 490 (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, Über die Geographie Arabiens, Jahrbücher der Literatur, Vienna 1841, xciv., p. 93 and following him Ritter. xii. 727), a fortress on the road which runs from the coast-town of Ḏj̲izān on the Red Sea eastwards via “Newidije and the castle of Feleki” (according to v. Hammer’s transcription, which seems not quite certain) to Ṣaʿda; that is in the Upper Yemen. From the mention in the verse of Kut̲h̲aiyir referred to by al-Hamdānī, Ṣifat, p. 182 and quoted by al-Bakrī, p. 184 (cf. 107) and 196, the s…

Ḳatabān

(5,092 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, the name of a country or kingdom and people in S. W. Arabia of whose existence we have evidence from about 500 b. c. to 200 a. d. in the ancient South Arabian inscriptions and in Greek and Roman literature. The oldest records, which at the same time give us the first accurate information regarding Ḳatabānian economic conditions, constitution and laws, have only become known in quite recent years from the hitherto published Ḳatabānian inscriptions in the wealth of material left by E. Glaser. Along with those not exactly n…

ʿUnaiza

(3,604 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, one of the most important towns in southern Nad̲j̲d, and of the district of Ḳāṣīm. The vocalisation used here is confirmed by the Arab geographers (e. g. expressly by al-Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, p. 670; Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iii. 737 and pass.) and lexicographers (e. g. Lisān al-ʿArab, vii. 251) and also by the modern pronunciation [C. M. Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta, Cambridge 1888 (London 1924), ii. 551 gives for it as his authority the educated negro S̲h̲aik̲h̲ b. ʿĀʾid̲h̲ at ʿUnaiza]. The transcription varies with different writers [Aneyzeh, Aneizeh, ʿA…

Wabār

(2,208 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, a district and tribe of the earliest period, in the southern half of Arabia. Al-Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, p. 835 and Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iv. 896 give the vocalisation Wabāri and compare the form with Ḥad̲h̲āmi and Ḳaṭāmi. The Wabār are mentioned by the historians along with the ʿĀd, T̲h̲amūd and other extinct tribes as one of the original peoples of Arabia, all of whom are included (as al-ʿArab al-bāʾida) by some genealogists among the “true, original Arabs” ( al-ʿArab al-ʿarbāʾ or al-ʿĀriba). Al-Suyūṭī, for example, with whose estimate of the ʿArbāʾ Ibn Duraid in the Ḏj̲amhara and others agree …

Sabaʾ

(17,675 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, the name of the people and kingdom in South-western Arabia in the first millennium B.C., frequently mentioned in the Old Testament, in Greek, Roman and Arabic literature and especially in the South Arabian inscriptions; the old Arabic sources, which are mainly inscriptions, and isolated references in Greek sources, give us further information regarding the history of Sabaʾ in the first centuries A. D. down to the period of Muḥammad. In Assyrian, on the evidence of the cuneiform inscriptions down to the eighth century, Sabʾu was the name of a country, as was S̲h̲abi (a) t (also S̲h̲abt (i)…

Soḳoṭrā

(6,283 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
(Socotra), an island in the Indian Ocean on the east side of the Gulf of ʿAden, about 150 miles from Rās ʿAsīr (Cape Guardafui) forms with the smaller islands of the group, notably ʿAbd al-Kūrī, the “brethren”, Semha and Dersi, and Sambūya (Sambūnīya; Saboyna of the older maps since Wellsted) and the Farūn rocks, the geographical and geological continuation of the coast of North Somālīland. It is 75 miles ¶ long (from Rās S̲h̲oab in the west to Rās Redresse in the east), and has a maximum breadth of 20 miles and an area of 1,520 square miles. The elongated shape …

Mahra

(7,574 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, a land on the southeast coast of Arabia on the Indian Ocean between Ḥaḍramōt, the coast of which is inhabited by the Ḳaʿaiṭī (Geʿēṭī), and Ẓafār; the Arabs however and modern geographers include Ẓafār itself, formerly the town only and now the country, the old frankincense region [see hẓafār], in Mahra, so that Mahra may be said to be the country between Ḥaḍramōt and ʿOmān (cf. al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, B. G. A., i. 12, 27; Ibn Ḥawḳal, ibid., ii. 17; al-Muḳaddasī, ibid., iii. 53; Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iv. 700; al-Idrīsī, ed. Jaubert, Paris 1836, i. 48; Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn [in Kay, Yaman, London 1892, p. 132]). …

Tabāla

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, a place in the west of northern Yaman, in the interior of ʿAsīr, about seven days’ journey S. E. of Mecca, Its fertility was¶ proverbial among the Arabs. The basin of Tabāla and Taraba is often called ak̲h̲ḍar (“green”; cf. al-Hamdānī, Ḏj̲azira, ed. D. H. Müller, Leiden 1884, p. 165; Yāḳūt Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, i. 164). The itinerary of the pilgrim caravans from Mecca through the frontier lands of the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Y aman to Ṣanʿāʾ given in Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia, London 1829, i. 445 was marked on the map as early as Berghaus, Arabien und das Nilland (Gotha 1835, cf. esp. p. 69; …

Wabār

(1,439 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J. | P. M. Costa
, dans la légende arabe désigne une région et une tribu situées dans le Sud de la péninsule Arabique. Al-Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, éd. Wüstenfeld 835, et Yāḳūt, Buldān, éd. Wüstenfeld, IV, 896, donnent le nom sous une forme faʿāl, indéclinable. 1. Dans la légende et l’histoire arabes. Les Wabār étaient mentionnés par les historiens au côté des ʿĀd, T̲h̲amūd, Ṭasm [ q.vv.], Ḏj̲adīs et autres peuples disparus ( al-ʿArab al-bāʾida), comptés par quelques généalogistes au nombre des “Arabes authentiques, originaux” ( al-ʿArab al-ʿarbāʾ ou al-ʿāriba); al-Hamdanī et al-Ṭabarī, I, 221, ainsi …

Wabār

(1,557 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch*, J. | P.M. Costa
, in Arabian lore a district and tribe localised in the southern part of the Arabian peninsula. Al-Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am , ed. Wüstenfeld, 835, and Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Wüstenfeld, iv, 896, give the name ¶ as an indeclinable faʿāli form, Wabār i, with the irregular nisba Abārī. 1. In Arabian lore and history. The Wabār are mentioned by the historians alongside the ʿĀd, T̲h̲amūd [ q.vv.] and other extinct tribes like the D̲j̲adīs and Ṭasm [ q.v.] as peoples of Arabia, now vanished ( al-ʿArab al-bāʾida ), accounted by some genealogists as being among the “true, original” Arabs ( al-ʿArab al-ʿarbāʾ or al…