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Acciaiuoli, Donato

(409 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Italian Humanist. Born 15. 3. 1429 in Florence, died 28. 8. 1478 in Milan. Studied Greek, Latin and mathematics. Political assignments and appointments for Florence, and various embassies (to Milan, Rome, Siena). 1474 Florentine Gonfaloniere di Giustizia. Died at Milan during a diplomatic mission to Paris. Work and influence From the 1450s, A. was regularly sent on diplomatic missions, and he held high offices in the Florentine Republic. His political career in the service of the Medici was all the more extraordinary given that the Acciaiuoli …

Buonaccorsi, Filippo

(407 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Italian Humanist. Born San Gimignano 2. 5. 1437, died Krakow 1. 11. 1496. 1460–1462 studied at Venice, then secretary to Cardinal Studium Bartolomeo Roverella at Rome. Fled Rome 1468, reaching Poland in 1470. Active at Univ. of Krakow from 1472, from 1474 as secretary and councillor at the court of King Kasimir II. Work and influence B.’s Humanist education took place in San Gimignano under the supervision of Mattia Lupi, then at Venice from 1460 to 1462, and finally in the circle of Pomponius Laetus at Rome, where he was also in contact with Bartolo…

Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés

(480 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Spanish Humanist, historian and philosopher. Born Córdoba or (more probably) Pozoblanco (Province of Córdoba) 1489/90, died Pozoblanco 1573. Initial studies in Córdoba and, from 1510, at Alcalá de Henares; 1515 travelled to Bologna, entering the Dominican Order and studying ( artes, philosophy, law and Greek) there until 1523. 1535, after staying in various places in Italy (including Rome, Naples), returned to Spain. Tutor to the future King Philip II. 1536 named Imperial historian. 1550 dispute with Bartolomeo de las Casas on the leg…

Vives, Juan Luis

(847 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Joan Lluís, Latin Ioannes Ludovicus V.; Spanish Humanist. Born Valencia 6. 3. 1492, ¶ died Bruges 6. 5. 1540. 1508 studied at Valencia; 1509–1512 studied philosophy and theology at Paris. Moved to Bruges 1512; from 1517 in Leuven, where he obtained a permit to teach at the Catholic Univ. in 1520. From 1523 Lector of Corpus Christi College, Oxford; 1528 – after moving several times between England and the Netherlands, finally settled at Bruges, where with short interruptions he spent the rest of his life. Career V. was a child of Jews who had been forcibly converted. He himself re…

Sambucus, Ioannes

(390 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Zsámboky, János; Hungarian physician, historian and philologist. Born Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia), July 1531, died Vienna 13. 6. 1584. Studied from 1542 in Vienna, then 1543 in Leipzig, 1545 in Wittenberg and Ingolstadt, 1550 in Strasbourg, 1551–1552 in Paris. 1558–1564 travelled to Venice, Padua, Genoa, Naples, Milan, Ghent and Antwerp. 1555 doctor of medicine at Padua; from 1564 doctor and historian at Vienna. Work and influence The Humanist S. was skilled at pursuing political objectives through literature. His publishing speciality lay in the relati…

Filelfo, Francesco

(438 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Franciscus Philelphus; Italian Humanist. Born Tolentino 25. 7. 1398, died Florence 31. 7. 1481. Initial studies at Padua under Gasparino Barzizza; 1417 cathedra of rhetoric and moral philosophy at Venice, then Vicenza. 1421–1426 secretary at Constantinople for the Republic of Venice; at the same time diplomatic missions for Murad II, Emperor Sigismund and King Vladislav II of Poland. Returned to Venice 1427. Moved to Bologna 1428, finally 1429–1434 prof. at Studio Fiorentino. Flight to Siena 1434 as an opponent of the Medici, remaining there until 1438. 1438 at Bol…

Nebrija, Elio Antonio de

(847 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Aelius Antonius Nebrissensis; also Antonio de Lebrija etc. Spanish Humanist. Born Lebrija (province of Seville) in 1441 as Antonio Martínez de Cala y Jarava, died 2. or 4. 7. 1522 in Alcalá de Henares. 1459–1460 studied at Salamanca, 1460–1470 Bologna (theology). 1470–1473 in Seville in the service of the archbishop as tutor and secretary. 1473–1487 prof. of grammar and rhetoric at Salamanca. From 1488 in the service of the master of the order of Alcántara with various postings. 1504 secretary t…

Reuchlin, Johannes

(1,640 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Also Kapnion, Capnio; German Humanist and philosopher. Born Pforzheim 29. 1. 1455, died Stuttgart 30. 6. 1522. 1470 studied at Freiburg, 1473 at Paris, 1474 at Basel. MA 1477 Basel. 1477–1478 in Paris; 1479 studying Greek and law at Orléans, continuing at Poitiers 1480/81. 1481 orator and councillor at the court of Eberhard of Württemberg; 1482 studied at Tübingen, then travelled in Eberhard’s retinue via Florence to Rome. 1484 Doctor legum; 1492 ennobled; 1490 and 1498 further journeys to Italy. At Heidelberg 1496; from 1498 again in Württemberg. 1502–1513 judge …

Rabelais, François

(420 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
French poet, physician and philologist. Born 1483 (probably) or 1494, died Paris 9. 4. 1553. 1510/11–1520 novice in the Franciscan Couvent de la Baumette, then from 1520 a monk in the Franciscan Friary of Puy-Saint-Martin à Fontenay-le-Comte; 1524 switched to the Benedictine Order. 1528–1530 secular priest in Paris. 1530 studied medicine at Montpellier; 1532–1535 physician in Lyon. Thereafter mainly in the employ of the Bishop and subsequently Cardinal Jean du Bellay, whom he accompanied on seve…

Calderini, Domizio

(830 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Latin Calderinus/De Caldarinis or Calderiis, Domitius/Dominicus; Italian Humanist. Born 1446 (1444/45?) in Torri del Benaco (Verona), died between January and May 1478 at Rome. Studied grammar at Verona with Antonio Brognoligo/Brognanigo, then ca. 1464 in Venice with Benedetto Brugnoli di Legnago. Moved to Rome 1466; secretary there to Cardinal Basilios Bessarion and teaching position at Studio Romano ( Studium Urbis). 1470 prof. of rhetoric (and Greek), 1471 Apostolic Secretary; 1472 mission to France accompanying Bessarion. Returned to Rome after Bess…

Della Fonte, Bartolomeo

(438 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Also Fonzio, and Latin Bartholomaeus Fontius; Florentine Humanist, translator and poet. Born 1446 in Florence, died Montemurlo 1513. School and studies at Florence. 1469–1471 at Ferrara; 1471–1483 at Florence; from 1481 prof. at Studio Fiorentino; 1483–1484 in Rome; 1484–1490 travelled via Ragusa to Buda; 1490 back at Florence; priest at Montemurlo from 1494. Works and influence D. F. studied Greek and Latin with Cristoforo Landino, John Argyropoulos, Bernardo Nuti and others. He forged contacts with Hungarian Humanists that led him to play a central…

Neo-Latin Literature—The German Regions

(2,081 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
¶ When Christian Klotz published his Carmina omnia in Latin in 1762 and 1766, the critics were not vicious, but they complained that he had written in a ‘tote Sprache’ (dead language). Adelbert von Chamisso …

Neo-Latin and the Vernacular: Poetry

(8,444 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Introduction ¶ Side by side with classical antiquity, Neo-Latin poetry has long been cited to explain the development of the vernacular poetic culture of the early modern era. The impact of the vernacul…

Filelfo, Francesco

(423 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Franciscus Philelphus; ital. Humanist. Geb. am 25. 7. 1398 in Tolentino, gest. am 31. 7. 1481 in Florenz. Erste Studien in Padua unter Gasparino Barzizza; 1417 Cathedra für Rhetorik und Moralphilosophie in Venedig, dann in Vicenza. 1421–1426 im Auftrag der Republik Venedig Sekretär in Konstantinopel; gleichzeitig diplomatische Aufträge bei Murad II., Kaiser Sigismund und König Wladislaw II. von Polen. 1427 Rückkehr nach Venedig; 1428 Umzug nach Bologna, schließlich 1429–1434 in Florenz Prof. am …

Acciaiuoli, Donato

(394 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Ital. Humanist. Geb. am 15. 3. 1429 in Florenz, gest. am 28. 8. 1478 in Mailand. Studium des Griechischen, Lateinischen und der Mathematik; polit. Aufträge und Ämter für Florenz sowie diverse Gesandtschaften (nach Mailand, Rom, Siena); 1474 Gonfaloniere di Giustizia von Florenz. Auf einer Gesandtschaftsreise nach Paris in Mailand verstorben. Werk und Wirkung A. wurde seit den 1450er Jahren immer wieder auf diplomatische Missionen geschickt und hatte hohe Stellungen der florent. Republik inne. Seine polit. Karriere im Dienst der Medici war inso…

Vives, Juan Luis

(789 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Joan Lluís, lat. Ioannes Ludovicus V.; span. Humanist. Geb. am 6. 3. 1492 in Valencia, gest. am 6. 5. 1540 in Brügge. 1508 Studium in Valencia; 1509–1512 Studium der Philosophie und Theologie in Paris; 1512 Umzug nach Brügge; ab 1517 in Löwen, 1520 Lehrerlaubnis an der dortigen Katholischen Univ. Ab 1523 Lector des Corpus Christi College in Oxford; 1528 nach mehrfachem Wechsel zwischen England und den Niederlanden endgültige Rückkehr nach Brügge, wo er mit kurzen Unterbrechungen den Rest seines Lebens verbrachte. Werdegang V. war das Kind zwangsgetaufter Juden; er selbst …

Calderini, Domizio

(787 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Lat. Calderinus/De Caldarinis bzw. Calderiis, Domitius/Dominicus; ital. Humanist. Geb. 1446 (1444/45?) in Torri del Benaco (Verona), gest. zwischen Januar und Mai 1478 in Rom. Grammatikunterricht in Verona bei Antonio Brognoligo/Brognanigo, um 1464 in Venedig bei Benedetto Brugnoli di Legnago. 1466 Wechsel nach Rom; dort Sekretär des Kardinals Basilius Bessarion und Lehrtätigkeit am Studio Romano ( Studium Urbis). 1470 Prof. für Rhetorik (und für Griechisch), 1471 apostolischer Sekretär; 1472 Frankreichreise als Begleiter Bessarions. Nach dessen Tod …

Della Fonte, Bartolomeo

(413 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Auch Fonzio bzw. lat. Bartholomaeus Fontius; florent. Humanist, Übersetzer und Dichter. Geb. 1446 in Florenz, gest. 1513 in Montemurlo; Schulbesuch, Studium in Florenz. 1469–1471 Aufenthalt in Ferrara; 1471–1483 in Florenz; ab 1481 Prof. am Studio Fiorentino; 1483–1484 in Rom; 1484–1490 Reise über Ragusa nach Buda; 1490 zurück in Florenz; ab 1494 Priester in Montemurlo. Werk und Wirkung D. F. studierte Griechisch und Latein u. a. bei Cristoforo Landino, Johannes Argyropoulos und Bernardo Nuti. Er knüpfte Kontakte zu ungar. Humanisten, die dazu führten…

Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés

(440 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Span. Humanist, Historiker und Philosoph. Geb. 1489/90 in Córdoba oder (eher) Pozoblanco (Provinz Córdoba), gest. 1573 in Pozoblanco. Erste Studien in Córdoba sowie ab 1510 in Alcalá de Henares; 1515 Reise nach Bologna, Eintritt in den Dominikanerorden und bis 1523 Studium (Artes, Philosophie, Rechte und Griechisch) ebda.; 1535 nach verschiedenen Stationen in Italien (darunter Rom, Neapel) Rückkehr nach Spanien, Erzieher des zukünftigen Königs Philipp II.; 1536 Ernennung zum kaiserlichen Chronis…

Buonaccorsi, Filippo

(398 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Ital. Humanist. Geb. am 2. 5. 1437 in San Gimignano, gest. am 1. 11. 1496 in Krakau. 1460–1462 Studium in Venedig, dann in Rom Sekretär des Kardinals Bartolomeo Roverella. 1468 Flucht aus Rom, 1470 nach Polen. Ab 1472 an der Univ. von Krakau tätig, ab 1474 als Sekretär und Rat am Hof König Kasimirs II. Werk und Wirken B.s humanistische Ausbildung fand in S. Gimignano unter Mattia Lupi statt, 1460–1462 in Venedig und danach im Kreise des Pomponius Laetus in Rom, wo er auch in Kontakt zu Bartolomeo Sacchi (Platina) stand und sich den Humanistennamen …
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