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Front Matter

(1,818 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
CONTENTS   Foreword List of illustrations List of maps Abbreviations   Luis Bernabé Pons, Introduction:  Empires, wars, and languages. Islam and Christianity in 17th-century western and southern Europe Manuel Lomas, Trade and religious dogma José Maria Perceval, Attraction and repulsion of the other. The case of Muslim descendants in the Spanish kingdoms   Works on Christian-Muslim relations 1600-1700 Iberia France Italian states German states Central Europe   Index of names   Index of titles   FOREWORD David Thomas Christian-Muslim relations. A bibliographical history vo…

Front Matter

(1,497 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
CONTENTS   Foreword List of illustrations List of maps Abbreviations   Claire Norton, Introduction Eugenia Kermeli, Christian communities under the Ottomans in the 17th century Dariusz Kołodziejczyk, Christians in the Safavid Empire Aurélien Giraud, European missionaries in the Levant   Works on Christian-Muslim relations 1600-1700 The Ottoman Empire The Safavid Empire   Index of names   Index of titles   FOREWORD David Thomas This volume of Christian-Muslim relations. A bibliographical History ( CMR 10) is one of the four that make up the history of relations betwe…

 Tuḥfat al-mujāhidīn

(1,474 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Tuḥfat al-mujāhidīn‘Gift to those fighting in the way of God’ Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Zayn al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī; Zayn al-Dīn Makhdūm II Date: 1577 Original Language: Arabic Description Tuḥfat al-muhājidīn fī baʿḍ akhbār al-Burtughāliyyīn (‘Gift to those fighting in the way of God, on elements of reports about the Portuguese’; this also appears as  Tuḥfat al-muhājidīn fī baʿḍ aḥwāl al-Burtughāliyyīn, ‘Gift to those fighting in the way of God, on elements of the circumstances of the Portuguese’) is the earliest Muslim detailed account of the arriva…

Abbreviations and Foreword

(1,441 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
  FOREWORD David Thomas Christian-Muslim relations. A bibliographical History 6 ( CMR 6) continues the history of relations between Christians and Muslims as recorded in original sources in the period 1500-1600, following the same general approach as the earlier volumes in the series.  CMR 6 focuses on works from the 16th century in the countries of Western Europe, and shows that, while many of the preoccupations that dominated the Middle Ages were still prominent, particularly issues of political and religious relations between Christianity…


(387 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Zayn al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī; Zayn al-Dīn Makhdūm II Date of Birth: Early 16th century Place of Birth: Chombai, near Mahe, northern Malabar Date of Death: Uncertain; after 1583 Place of Death: Ponnani, Malabar Biography Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Zayn al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī was born in northern Malabar, on the south-west coast of India, to a Sunnī family from Yemen. They had emigrated to Maʿbar on the east coast of India, and then in the early 16th century to Malabar. His grandfather, named Zayn al-Dīn Makhdūm (1467-1521;  makhdūm, ‘the one who is served’,…

Gospel, Muslim conception of

(3,142 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
The Muslim conception of the Gospel (Ar. Injīl) is of a revelation originally given to Jesus for the Christian community but later either corrupted in some way or lost and reconstructed and therefore no longer accessible in its original form. Muslims have adopted a range of attitudes towards the Gospel as Christians hold it, ranging from acceptance, depending on proper interpretation, to wholesale rejection because the text is distorted beyond recovery. The Qurʾān refers to the Injīl (the original, true Gospel) in several places, always as a revelation sent down by God.…
Date: 2019-07-18

Ibrāhīm b. Isḥāq al-Ḥarbī

(774 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm b. Isḥāq b. Ibrāhīm b. Bashīr (or Bishr) b. ʿAbdallāh b. Daysam al-Marwazī al-Ḥarbī (198–285/813–98) was a ḥadīth expert in Baghdad and was known as a man of piety and asceticism. He was a pupil of Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal (the founder of one of the four Sunnī schools of law, d. 241/855) and was sometimes compared with him in respect to his scholarship, piety, and simplicity of life. Al-Ḥarbī explained that his family came from Merv and that his mother was from the Taghlib tribe, which was Christian, and most of his maternal uncles were Christian. This bei…
Date: 2019-07-18

Christian religion (premodern Muslim positions)

(2,981 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
The attitudes of Muslims towards Christianity and Christians are strongly influenced by what they find in the Qurʾān. The details that the first generations of Muslims derived from encounters with Christians led them to believe that Christians had lost the pristine purity of their faith and fallen into serious doctrinal errors based on corrupt readings of their scriptures or, more often, corrupt transmission of the scriptural text. It fell to Muslims themselves, as the guardians of revealed truth, to…
Date: 2019-07-18

Abū ʿĪsā al-Warrāq

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad b. Hārūn b. Muḥammad al-Warrāq was an independent thinker active in the mid-third/ninth century, best known for his writings on major beliefs and for his scepticism about religious claims. He was a native of Baghdad (al-Masʿūdī, 7:236), but further details about his life are scanty. His exact dates are unknown, but an early third/ninth-century floruit is suggested by a report that he spoke with a companion of Hishām b. al-Ḥakam, who died sometime before 200/815 (al-Ashʿarī, 33), and by evidence that he was a contemporary of the early…
Date: 2019-07-18


(512 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Taqī l-Dīn Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn ʿAbd al-Kāfī l-Subkī Date of Birth: 1284 Place of Birth: Subk, Nile Delta, Egypt Date of Death: 1355 Place of Death: Cairo Biography Taqī l-Dīn al-Subkī (the father of Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī) was born in one or other of the villages named Subk in the Nile Delta. He studied law in Cairo under Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn al-Rifʿa (d. 1310; q.v.), and then himself taught in Alexandria and Cairo. In 1338/9, he was appointed chief judge of Syria and moved to Damascus, returning to Egypt just before his death. In the course of his career as judge, al-Subkī issued a numbe…


(324 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Sadīd al-Dīn Maḥmūd ibn ʿAlī ibn Ḥasan al-Ḥimmaṣī l-Rāzī Date of Birth: Unknown; probably mid-12th century Place of Birth: Unknown; in or near Rayy Date of Death: After 1204 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Maḥmūd ibn ʿAlī ibn Ḥasan al-Ḥimmaṣī (who is sometimes confused with the 14th-century figure Maḥmūd ibn ʿAlī ibn Maḥmūd al-Ḥimmaṣī) was an Imāmī Shīʿī jurist and theologian whose activities spanned the latter part of the 12th century. He is not well known, though, since he taught Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī (q.v.), his influence may have been greater than it first appears. In theology, al-Ḥ…

 Kitāb fīhi l-kalām ʿalā l-Naṣārā mimmā yaḥtiju bihi ʿalayhim min sāʾir al-kutub allatī yaʿtarifuna

(244 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
A book containing arguments against the Christians from what can be brought against them from all the books they acknowledge Al-Ashʿarī Date: Unknown, between 932 and 935 Original Language: Arabic Description Since this description appears in Ibn Fūrak’s additions to al-Ashʿarī’s own list, which Ibn ʿAsākir incorporated into his ( Tabyīn, p. 135, McCarthy, Theology, p. 227, no. 86), the work can be dated to the last few years of al-Ashʿarī’s life. It appears to have focused expressly on Christian scripture, rather than doctrines, and al-Ashʿarī mus…

 Al-Naqḍ ʿalā man uḍīfa ilā l-Yaʿqūbiyya... wa-ʿalā bāqī ṣunūf al-Naṣārā

(212 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
The invalidation of those who are related to the Jacobites ... and of other Christian groups Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad ibn Hārūn ibn Muḥammad al-Warrāq Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description At the end of the Radd (see Thomas, Early Muslim polemic, pp. 276-77), Abū ʿĪsā declares that he plans a separate work in which he will refute the monophysite sects of the Julianists and Eutychians, together with other sects such as the Maronites, Sabellians, Gregorians, Macedonians, Apollinarians, Arians, Eunomians, Photinians and followers …


(400 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Qaḥṭabī Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Before 940 Place of Death: Unknown Biography The author of a refutation of Christianity that is virtually unknown is himself almost completely unknown. Ibn al-Nadīm links an al-Qaḥṭabī with a certain Ibn al-Baṭrīq, saying that the latter translated a work of the Greek physician Alexander of Tralles for him ( Fihrist, p. 352), and he also lists the Christian sects that appeared in al-Qaḥṭabī’s refutation of Christianity (p. 405). In addition to this, Abū Manṣūr al-Baghd…

Ibn al-Labbād

(314 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Muwaffaq al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Laṭīf ibn Yūsuf al-Baghdādī Date of Birth: 1163 Place of Birth: Baghdad Date of Death: 1232 Place of Death: Baghdad Biography In his biographical notice, Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa sums up Ibn Labbād as distinguished in the study of Arabic language and expert in theology and medicine. The list of his works shows that his interests went far beyond these three subjects, embracing most of the disciplines of his time. He was encyclopedic in his pursuits, and one of the most accomplished scholars of his day. Ibn al-Labbād was born in Baghdad, where he studied th…

 Al-masā'il al-Baghdādiyyāt

(312 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Al-BaghdādiyyātBaghdad questions Abū Hāshim al-Jubbāʾī Date: Before 933, and if written after Abū Hāshim’s move to Baghdad late in his life, not much earlier Original Language: Arabic Description According to al-Juwaynī ( Al-shāmil fī uṣūl al-dīn, ed. A.S. al-Nashshār, F. Budayr ʿAwn and S. Muhammad Mukhtār, Alexandria, 1969, p. 471), this lost work consisted of a series of Questions in which views of the Baghdad school of the Muʿtazila were discussed. Extracts in later works show that many of these were concerned with difference…

 Kitāb fī l-nubuwwa

(235 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
On prophethood Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdallāh ibn Shabīb al-Basṛ ī Date: Unknown, mid-9th c. Original Language: Arabic Description The work is lost. It is mentioned only in passing by ʿAbd al-Jabbār ( Tathbīt dalāʾil al-nubuwwa, ed. ʿA.K. ʿUthmān, Beirut, 1966, p. 511) together with similar works by other authors, including Abū l-Hudhayl (q.v.) and al-Jāḥiẓ, in the context of a discussion about miracles of Muḥammad. ʿAbd al-Jabbār refers simply to ‘their books which they composed about prophethood concerning miracles which are not in the Qurʾān’. The original title of the w…

 Radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā

(278 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Refutation of the Christians Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Iskāfī Date: 1st half of the 9th c. Original Language: Arabic Description This work, of which the title ‘Refutation of the Christians’ is unlikely to be original, is lost. According to ʿAbd al-Jabbār ( Tathbīt dalāʾil al-nubuwwa, ed. ʿA.-K. ʿUthmān, 2 vols, Beirut, 1966, i, p. 148; cf. p. 198), it may, together with a number of other works, have referred to the popular Christian belief that God took Mary in the way that a man takes a woman as wife. It may also have contained two arguments quoted from al-Iskāfī by Abū a…

 Maqāla fī baʿth nubuwwa Muḥammad min al-Tawrāt wa-l-falsafa

(256 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Treatise on the dispatch of the prophetic mission of Muḥammad from the Torah and philosophy ʿAlī ibn Riḍwān Date: Unknown; before about 1060 Original Language: Arabic Description The work is lost, and is known only from Ibn Abī Usaybiʿa’s list of ʿAlī’s works ( ʿUyūn al-anbaʾ, p. 567). Its title indicates that it was an apology for the prophethood of Muḥammad, and thus an example of dalāʾil al-nubuwwa works, though with the particular feature of philosophical arguments in addition to the traditional biblical proof-texts. Since the latter came only from the Tora…

 Adillat al-waḥdāniyya fī l-radd ʿalā l-milla l-Naṣrāniyya

(588 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
‘Proofs of divine unity in refutation of the Christian community’ Al-Khaṭīb al-Iskandarī Date: Between 1218 and 1237 Original Language: Arabic Description The work has not been edited or even studied closely since the time of Fritsch. This description must, therefore, rely on what he says (pp. 18-20). After an introduction in which al-Iskandarī explains the circumstances in which he wrote, the work is divided into four parts. In the first, where Christian mouthpieces are employed, he sets out the main Christian topics he intends to refute: t…
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