Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Thür, Gerhard (Graz)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Thür, Gerhard (Graz)" )' returned 361 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Adeia

(75 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἄδεια; ádeia). Generally freedom from fear; juristically freedom from punishment or prosecution, wherein the state waives per se legitimate demands for prosecution. This waiver was declared in Athens by popular edict (Demosth. 24,45; And. 1,77; 1,12; Lys. 13,55; IG I3 52B16; 370,31+33; 370,64, as an exception by council edict (And. 1,15). In papyri also: protection from injustice, discretion, permission, safety. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography A.R.W. Harrison, The Law of Athens II, 1971, 199.

Paranoias graphe

(234 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (παρανοίας γραφή; paranoías graphḗ). 'legal action on account of insanity'. As in Rome, the squandering of an inheritance (but not of property acquired in other ways) was linked also in Athens to mental instability and led to a procedure for interdiction. For this Plat. Leg. 929d requires also infirmity, old age or an uncommonly violent temperament in addition to profligacy. Athenian law provided for a public action against the spendthrift ( graphḗ [1]) (Aristot. Ath. pol. 56,6), which was normally raised by a relative entitled to …

Amblosis

(72 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἄμβλοσις; ámblosis).  Abortion, recommended by Plat. Pol. 461c and Aristot. Pol. 1335 b 25 under certain circumstances, besides abandonment of the newborn, but regarded in Greece in general opinion as reprehensible (Hippoc. 4,630,9 f.). However, there is no evidence of amblosis as a punishable offence in the area of either Greek or (see, however, Cic. Clu. 32) Graeco-Egyptian law.  Abortio;  Abortion Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography E. Cantarella, L'ambigno malanno, 21985, 66 f.

Magic, Magi

(7,505 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Frans (Amsterdam) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Et al.
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General The magic of the ancient Orient and of Egypt is based on a view of the world that runs counter to that of religion. In the world-view of magic, men, gods and demons are tied to each other and to the cosmos by sympathies and antipathies, whereas in the religious world view everything is created by the gods for their own purposes; the relations between men and the cosmos are the result of deliberate actions of the gods. In the practice of religion, however, b…

Legal koine

(401 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] As with the koine in Greek historical linguistics, legal koine (LK) refers to a phenomenon of Hellenism analyzed by legal history after the event: the spontaneous merging of various Greek legal concepts, especially in Ptolemaic Egypt. Institutions of different poleis ( Polis) blended there in the legal world through the mingling of elements of the Greek population among each other [4. 140] without the authorities working towards unity (in this way also in [3. 50 f.]). As examples…

Biaion dike

(91 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (βιαίων δίκη; biaíōn díkē). A private action that could be brought in Athens against robbery, rape of a free person (male or female), or abduction of a free person for the purpose of illicit sexual relations. In the 6th cent. BC Solon had established a monetary fine for this offence; later, on grounds of public interest, the fine paid to the injured party was accompanied by one of the same amount to the state. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography D. Cohen, Law, violence, and community in classical Athens, 1995.

Zweckverfügung

(347 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] A term used in modern scholarship, from Ancient Greek law. Hans Julius Wolff (1902-1983; obituary [4]) discovered in the contract law of the Greek poleis and Hellenism a fundamental doctrinal concept, which departs in essential respects from modern conceptions modelled on Roman law: it is not the consensus between the parties to an agreement that creates the right to claim on the part of the 'creditor' and the liability on the part of the 'debtor', but, indirectly, the felony of injury (βλάβη/ blábē) against the creditor’s assets occasioned by the debtor’s beha…

Asylia

(128 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀσυλία; asylía). Protection of persons and things, at first within the sanctified precincts of the ἱερὸν ἄσυλον ( hieròn ásylon). The foreigner, ξένος ( xénos), was in especial need of asylia because he was subject to another legal jurisdiction, and had to obtain legal protection in the host country in order to be safe from violent attack. In this connection cf. the bilateral agreement between Oeanthea and Chalium in c. 450 BC [1; 2]. It is possible that all secular asylia and even the μετοικία ( metoikía) had their origins in the sacral asylia. [3; 4]. Thür, Gerhard (Gra…

Hedna

(125 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἕδνα/ hédna, ep. ἔεδνα/ éedna). Common only in the collective plural, in Homer they are the bridegroom's  presents to the bride's father (idea of the ‘purchase marriage’) or to the bride herself (similar to the Germanic jointure). Differently to Hom. Od. 1,277 and 2,196: endowing of the bride by her father (related to the   parápherna or the   phernḗ ), sometimes also to be interpreted as a ‘dowry’ (  proíx ). Unclear: Od. 2,53 (verb); Il. 13,382 (deverbative noun). Presumably, the hedna is based on the archaic idea of arranging social relationships by means o…

Pherne

(333 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (φερνή; phernḗ). Movable goods brought by the wife into the marriage as 'dowry' (φέρειν, phérein), were known throughout the Greek world as pherne. The pherne needs to be distinguished from the προίξ ( proíx ), i.e. the dowry mainly comprised of plots of land and slaves, which was common in the Greek poleis. The lines between these concepts were blurred through the valuation of the ammount to be returned in terms of money, though the two terms cannot be regarded as synonyms [1. 2040f.]. Classical Greek authors used the term pherne only when referring to mythical and n…

Endeixis

(163 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἔνδειξις; éndeixis). Literally ‘charge’: in Athens the endeixis was a special form of public intervention by a private person that resulted in the immediate arrest of the accused or an order for a material surety by the head of the court (the ‘Eleven ’, the Árchōn Basileús or the thesmothétai;  archontes). It was permissible against persons (state debtors, exiles and átimoi ( atimia) who visited places (their home town, the public assembly, council, courts, sanctuaries, the market) that they were forbidden to visit by law or popular resol…

Dialysis

(187 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(διάλυσις; diálysis). [German version] [1] Procedural law The procedural law of the Greek states was based on the principle of the reconciliation of both parties involved (διαλύειν, dialýein). Only after the failure of that step a formal verdict was to decide on the matter. Dialysis proceedings thus constituted the first procedural step in ‘preliminary proceedings’, irrespective of whether heard by a magistrate (  anákrisis ) or by public or private   diaitētaí , in international arbitration or in proceedings heard by ‘foreign judges’ called from one or more cities to decide on a case. T…

Oath

(846 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Since the second half of the 3rd millennium BC [1. 63-98; 2. 345-365], a distinction was made in Mesopotamia between promissory (assuring) oaths in contract law and assertory (confirming) oaths taking effect in lawsuits. A promissory oath served as an absolute assurance of a renunciation or intended action and was performed by invoking the king or a god, or both. An assertory oath had probative force as an oath for witnesses or parties, e.g. an oath of purification …

Gnome

(3,863 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[1] Literary history I. Greek [German version] A. Meaning of the word As a nomen actionis the noun γνώμη (not found in Homer or Hesiod), with its originally extraordinary comprehensive range of meaning must be considered together with the verb γιγνώσκω ( gignṓskō) [11; 37. 491; 27. 32 (also with regard to etymology)]. The verb with its meanings ‘to recognize’, ‘to form an opinion’, ‘to decide’ and ‘to judge’ falls between two poles: ‘the ability to recognize a state of affairs’ and ‘the consequences of this recognition’ [40. 20-39, esp.…

Cheirographon

(108 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (χειρόγραφον; cheirógraphon), literally ‘handwriting’ (handwritten note). Along with the   syngraphe the most common form of private document in the Egyptian papyri. Entering the Roman world from the 3rd/2nd cents. BC onwards, the cheirographon tends towards the style of the private letter, and is not restricted to any particular type of transaction. Witnesses were a customary feature. The cheirographon would usually be in the hands of the person authorized by it. In the Roman period, the cheirographon could by δημοσίωσις ( dēmosíōsis: incorporation in an offi…

Katalysis

(183 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κατάλυσις; katálysis). Literally the ‘dissolving’ of the constitution (τοῦ δήμου, toû dḗmou), meaning high treason, which could be persecuted by any citizen in Athens either through graphḗ or eisangelía . It is contested whether an eisangelía of this sort goes back to Solon (6th cent. BC) and was judged by the Areopagus (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 8,4). According to the council's oath transmitted in Dem. Or. 24,144, the boulḗ had the right to intervene in the katalysis. After the law on eisangelía was revoked in 411 BC (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 29,4), katalysis was regulated in det…

Prorrhesis

(120 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (πρόρρησις/ prórrhēsis, literally 'proclamation'). Prorrhesis is originally a means of blood feud against somebody accused of a bloody deed. If somebody is addressed publicly as a murderer (Homicide) by somebody who according to Draco's Law is justified in blood feud (IG I3 104,20-33; Dem. Or. 42,57), he has to stay away from the Agora and all sacred sites until the case ( phónos ). In all there were three occasions for prorrhesis: at the grave of the victim, in the Agora and by way of the basileus (C.) (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 57,2). Only the last had t…

Timetos agon

(222 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (τιμητὸς ἀγών/ timētòs agṓn, 'legal action with assessment'). In Athens every case to be decided by a dikastḗrion was either 'non-assessable' or 'assessable'. In the first case ( atímētos agṓn ), by statute a particular sanction, whether the death penalty, banishment or a fixed fine, was linked to the verdict; in the second case ( timētaì díkai ) after deciding the verdict, if it was ìaffirmed the jury had to agree again, i.e. on the extent of the punishment or on the amount of the sum adjudicated. In their 'assessment' (τίμησις/ tímēsis) the jury could only side with o…

Antigraphe, -eus

(319 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(ἀντιγραφή, -εύς; antigraphḗ, -eús) The expression, like all litigation terms in Greek law not formulated by jurists, is imprecise [1]. It can mean: [German version] 1. Counterplea a) in the sense of a defendant's written counterplea, submitted by the defendant to the authorities responsible for the preliminary examination. He had to swear to the accuracy of the allegations contained in it right at the beginning of the ἀνάκρισις ( Anakrisis) (Poll. 8,58; Demosth. 45,46; 45,87, therefore the expression ἀντωμοσία ( Antomosi…

Menysis

(199 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (μήνυσις; mḗnysis). A ‘charge’ or ‘application’ in certain criminal proceedings The Greek polis functioned on initiatives of private citizens. In criminal law, too, the principle for accusations was considered to be 'no plaintiff, no judge'. In cases of high treason and blasphemy, which endangered the state, the Athenians nevertheless found ways of compensating for the lack of an official public prosecutor. Thus, in special cases state investigative commissioners (ζητηταί, zētētaí) were appointed and in others a reward was offered to encourage the lodging of a men…
▲   Back to top   ▲