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Ḥasan al-Uṭrūs̲h̲

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, Abū muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-As̲h̲raf b. ʿalī zayn al-ʿĀbidīn [see zayn al-ʿābidīn ], born about 230/844 at Medīna of a K̲h̲urāsān slave girl, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 304/beginning of 917 at Āmul as ruler in Ṭabaristān, is still recognized under the official name of al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr as Imām by the Zaydiyya [ q.v.] in the Yemen. Al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ came to Ṭabaristān in the reign of the ʿAlid al-Dāʿī al-Kabīr al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [see al-Ḥasan b. Ẓayd b. muḥammad ];¶ his brother and successor al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥammad b. Zayd distrusting him, he endeavoured …

Nafīsa

(484 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, al-Sayyida , a mausoleum situated to the south of the Fāṭimid city of al-Ḳāhira in the northern part of the cemetery area of the City of the Dead (al-Ḳarāfa), to the south of the Mosque of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn in the direction of the sepulchral mosque of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Among the female saints [see walī ] in Cairo next to Sayyida Zaynab bint Muḥammad [ q.v.] and “Sitt Sekīna” (Sukayna) “Sitt Nefīsa” takes a very prominent place. In the official recitations of the Ḳurʾān, al-Sayyida Nafīsa, where the reading is held on Sundays, takes third place among them all, imme…

al-Tanāwutī

(665 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s of the Ibāḍiyya [ q.v.] referring to the Tanāwut, a Berber tribe of the Nafzāwa country in southern Tunisia and Wargla (Wārd̲j̲alān). To the 5th/11th century belongs: 1). Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī, who often appears in later tradition. His son 2). Ismāʿīl, but still more his grandson 3). Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl, had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: 4). Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Y…

al-Mufīd

(562 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. al-Nuʿmān al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī, also called Ibn al-Muʿallim, a distinguished Twelver scholar of Bag̲h̲dād under the Būyids, was born at the end of 333 or 338 (945 or 950), and came of an old Ḳurais̲h̲ family which, as his second epithet shows, had a reputation for scholarship; he himself became, as his epithet shows, the teacher from whom all “later students have derived advantage”. While he took little active part in politics, he was a very prolific author. His correspondence, usually replies to queries, came from Mawṣil, Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān, Dīnawar, Raḳḳa, Ḵh̲wār…

Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Riḍā

(714 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, ninth imam of the Twelver S̲h̲īʿa, was born in Ramaḍān 195 (June 811) in Medīna. As, according to Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī, Maḳātil al-Ṭālibīyīn (Teheran 1307), p. 195, 18, he was of negroid appearance, it may be true that his mother, a slavewoman, variously called Sabīka, Durra and Ḵh̲aizurān, was a Nubian; to give her an honourable pedigree it was added “of the family of Maria the Copt”. When al-Maʾmūn attached ʿAlī al-Riḍā to his court, he married the boy to one of his daughters, Umm al-Faḍl, who was taken to …

al-Mahdī’s

(519 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a dynasty of Zabīd in the Yaman. When the founder of the dynasty, ʿAlī b. Mahdī [q. v.], died in the middle of 554 (1159) soon after the taking of Zabīd, the power of .the dynasty which had been concentrated in his personality, was seriously threatened, especially as his sons Mahdī, ʿAbd al-Nabiʾ and ʿAbd Allāh quarrelled. It is not quite clear whether Mahdī at first obtained the throne (so ʿOmāra in Kay [see Bibl.], p. 129) or whether he ruled jointly with ʿAbd al-Nabiʾ, the latter taking charge of civil and the former of military affairs (so Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī in Kay, p.…

Ziyādī

(645 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a Yaman dynasty of 204 to 371 (819—981) or 409 (1018) with capital in Zabīd [q.v.]. They were regarded as descendants of Ziyād b. Abīhi [q. v.]. But as the latter’s genealogy is uncertain, so not even the name of the father of the founder of the dynasty, Muḥammad, has been handed down with certainty. The caliph Maʾmūn was harassed by his uncle Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī; at the same time tribes in the Yaman became rebellious. The fact that there were ʿAlid schemes afoot there and indeed shortly before Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲azzār, a brother of ʿAlī al-Riḍā [q. v.], had been plundering in Ṣanʿāʾ, may ¶ have decid…

al-Nāṣir Li-Dīn Allāh

(762 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, honorific title of several Zaydī imāms . I. Among the Caspian Zaydīs, this title was borne by 1. al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ [see Ḥasan al-uṭrūs̲h̲ ] and his great-grandson 2. al-Nāṣir al-Ṣag̲h̲īr al-Ḥusayn b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī . The latter gained for himself a dominion beginning in Hawsam, where he could find associations with the earlier period of Zaydī rule. He laid great emphasis on the religious character of Zaydism; he gave out of the state treasury funds to support people who learned the Ḳurʾān by he…

al-Uṭrūs̲h̲

(1,517 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿOmar al-As̲h̲raf b. ʿAlī Zain al-ʿĀbidīn [s. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain], born about 230 (844) at Medīna of a Ḵh̲urāsān slave girl, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 304 (beginning of 917) at Āmul as ruler in Ṭabaristān, is recognised under the official name of al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr as Imām by the Zaidīs, and also by those of Yemen. Al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ came to Ṭabaristān in the reign of the ʿAlid al-Dāʿī al-Kabīr al-Ḥasan b. Zaid [see al-Ḥasan b. Zaid b. Muḥammad]; his brother and successor al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥammad b. Zaid distrusting him, he endeavoured to…

Karam

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(Banu ’l-), a dynasty of ʿAden, from 476—533 (1083—1138) conducted an Ismāʿīlī condominium — at first as viceroys of the Ṣulaiḥids of Ṣanʿāʾ — in two branches, the Banū Masʿūd and the Banū ʿAbbās Abi ’l-Zuraiʿ; from 533—569 (1138—1173) the latter alone — the Zuraiʿids, also called Banu ’l-Ḏh̲iʾb (sons of the wolf) — held the now independent sultanate, only recognising the Caliphate of the Fāṭimids. The Banu ’l-Karam belonged to the Ḏj̲us̲h̲am clan of the tribe of Yām in the Ḥamdān group and were closely related to the Ṣulaiḥids [q. v.]. They were therefore the principal supporters of ¶ the fo…

al-Tanāwutī

(687 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the Abāḍīs [q.v.]. To the fifth (eleventh) century belongs: Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī who often appears in later tradition. His son Ismāʿīl but still more his grandson Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Wārd̲j̲alānī. He came of a wealthy family and had an allowance of 1,000 d…

Zaid b. ʿAlī

(988 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Zain al-ʿĀbidīn [q. v.] gave his name to the Zaidīya [q. v.] who revere him as a political and religious martyr; he was the first ʿAlid after the catastrophe which overwhelmed his grandfather al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī ¶ [q. v.] at Kerbelāʾ to endeavour to deprive the Umaiyads of the caliphate by armed rebellion when he placed himself at the disposal of the Kūfans as Imām. Except for an interval of two months when he was secretly seeking adherents in Baṣra, he spent a year in preparation in Kūfa, hidden in constantly changing hiding-places…

al-Zaidīya

(2,548 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the practical group of the S̲h̲īʿa, distinguished from the It̲h̲nā ʿAs̲h̲arīya [q. v.] and the Sabʿīya [q. v.] by the recognition of Zaid b. ʿAlī. After the latter’s death they took part in several ʿAlid risings but were not a united body. Writers on heresy distinguish eight schools among them: from Abū ’l-Ḏj̲ārūd, who combined warlike activity with apotheosis of the imāms and belief in a Mahdī, to Salama b. Kuhail whose Zaidism was watered down to a simple S̲h̲īʿa point of view. It was the sa…

Taʿziya

(2,178 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(a.), a. expression of sympathy in general, b. the passion play of the S̲h̲īʿīs. The word, a verbal noun from ʿaziya II, is not found in the Ḳurʾān (but cf. ʿizīn in lxx. 37), but occurs in all schools of fiḳh at the end of the book on public worship in the section, or in the separate book, al-d̲j̲anāʾiz = burial, where sympathy is requested for the relatives. Among the S̲h̲īʿīs it means in the first place the lamentation for the martyred imāms, which is held at their graves and aiso at home. In particular, however, it is mourning for Ḥusain. The tābūt, a copy of the tomb at Kerbelāʾ, in popular…

Zabīd

(881 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a town in the Tihāma of Yaman, on the road running from north to south from Mecca to ʿAden, halfway between the Yaman highlands and the Red Sea, about 16 miles from the coast. At this distance the country is suitable for agriculture in view of the better water-supply, and the town itself is adjoined by two wādīs, in the north the Wādī Rimaʿ and the south the perennial Wādī Zabīd, from which it has taken the name which has replaced the original al-Ḥusaib. In contrast to the rest of the Tihāma it is famous for its gardens with date-palms, ¶ a little corn, indigo and various medicinal plants; th…

Yaʿfur

(372 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (also al-Raḥīm) b. Kuraib al-Ḥiwālī (on the disputed vocalisation cf. the poem in van Arendonk [see Bibl.], p. 232, note 3), founder of the dynasty of Yaʿfurids or Ḥiwālids who claimed to be descended from the Tubbaʿs, the ancient Ḥimyarite kings. Their ancestral home S̲h̲ibām, called S̲h̲ibām Aḳyān or S̲h̲ibām Kawkabān to distinguish it from other places of the same name, is described by geographers as a well cultivated hilly country. In the caliphate of al-Muʿtaṣim, i. e. before 227 (842), Yaʿf…

al-Muḥammadīya

(547 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a name of several heretical schools, notably the ultra-S̲h̲īʿī Muḥammadīya. As the example of the Kaisānīya [q. v.] shows, at an early date some S̲h̲īʿīs transferred the imāmate to ʿAlids who were not descendants of the Prophet’s daughter Fāṭima and then to those who were not ʿAlids at all. The Manṣūrīya revered such an one in Abū Manṣūr al-ʿId̲j̲lī, whom Yūsuf b. ʿOmar al-T̲h̲aḳafī, governor of the ʿIrāḳ, executed in the reign of the Caliph His̲h̲ām, i. e. before 125 (743). Abū Manṣūr, rejected by the I…

T̲h̲anawīya

(1,798 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Dualism, means the doctrine that light and darkness are the two equal eternal creative principles. There is not a regular T̲h̲anawīya sect or school in Islām. The term, as the characteristic name of a school of thought, is limited to three non-Muslims and their adherents: Ibn Daiṣān, Mānī and Mazdak [see these three articles]. A danger arose to Islām through the tendency to dualism within its ranks from the mass conversions of Persians, as was seen for example at the beginning of the ʿAbbāsid period in the disturbing figure of Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ. He w…

Tūrāns̲h̲āh

(953 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
b. Aiyūb al-Malik al-Muʿahẓhẓam S̲h̲ams al-Dawla Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn, founder of the Aiyūbid dynasty of the Yemen. He was born at the beginning of Rad̲j̲ab 569 (February 1174); two years before, the death of the last Fāṭimid ʿĀḍid [q. v.] had formally made Saladin lord of Egypt; the relationship of vassal and overlord between him and the Zangid Atābeg Nūr al-Dīn Maḥmūd had now become unnatural and threatened to end in war; King Amalrich of Jerusalem, with whom Saladin had been fighting, was still unsubdued; the Crus…

Mūsā al-Kāẓim

(970 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
the seventh Imām of the Twelfer S̲h̲īʿa, son of Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad al-Ṣādiḳ [q. v.], was born about 128 (745) at al-Abwāʾ [q. v.], the traditional burial-place of Āmina, mother of the Prophet. He grew to manhood in his father’s house in Medīna and remained there as Imām after the latter’s death in 148 (765) without playing any part in politics. In particular he took no share in the great rising of the Ḥasanid ʿAlids which collapsed at Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ in 169 (786). Nevertheless the caliph was suspi…
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