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Ḥasan al-Uṭrūs̲h̲

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, Abū muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-As̲h̲raf b. ʿalī zayn al-ʿĀbidīn [see zayn al-ʿābidīn ], born about 230/844 at Medīna of a K̲h̲urāsān slave girl, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 304/beginning of 917 at Āmul as ruler in Ṭabaristān, is still recognized under the official name of al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr as Imām by the Zaydiyya [ q.v.] in the Yemen. Al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ came to Ṭabaristān in the reign of the ʿAlid al-Dāʿī al-Kabīr al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [see al-Ḥasan b. Ẓayd b. muḥammad ];¶ his brother and successor al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥammad b. Zayd distrusting him, he endeavoured …

Nafīsa

(484 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, al-Sayyida , a mausoleum situated to the south of the Fāṭimid city of al-Ḳāhira in the northern part of the cemetery area of the City of the Dead (al-Ḳarāfa), to the south of the Mosque of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn in the direction of the sepulchral mosque of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Among the female saints [see walī ] in Cairo next to Sayyida Zaynab bint Muḥammad [ q.v.] and “Sitt Sekīna” (Sukayna) “Sitt Nefīsa” takes a very prominent place. In the official recitations of the Ḳurʾān, al-Sayyida Nafīsa, where the reading is held on Sundays, takes third place among them all, imme…

al-Tanāwutī

(665 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s of the Ibāḍiyya [ q.v.] referring to the Tanāwut, a Berber tribe of the Nafzāwa country in southern Tunisia and Wargla (Wārd̲j̲alān). To the 5th/11th century belongs: 1). Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī, who often appears in later tradition. His son 2). Ismāʿīl, but still more his grandson 3). Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl, had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: 4). Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Y…

al-Mufīd

(562 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. al-Nuʿmān al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī, also called Ibn al-Muʿallim, a distinguished Twelver scholar of Bag̲h̲dād under the Būyids, was born at the end of 333 or 338 (945 or 950), and came of an old Ḳurais̲h̲ family which, as his second epithet shows, had a reputation for scholarship; he himself became, as his epithet shows, the teacher from whom all “later students have derived advantage”. While he took little active part in politics, he was a very prolific author. His correspondence, usually replies to queries, came from Mawṣil, Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān, Dīnawar, Raḳḳa, Ḵh̲wār…

Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Riḍā

(714 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, ninth imam of the Twelver S̲h̲īʿa, was born in Ramaḍān 195 (June 811) in Medīna. As, according to Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī, Maḳātil al-Ṭālibīyīn (Teheran 1307), p. 195, 18, he was of negroid appearance, it may be true that his mother, a slavewoman, variously called Sabīka, Durra and Ḵh̲aizurān, was a Nubian; to give her an honourable pedigree it was added “of the family of Maria the Copt”. When al-Maʾmūn attached ʿAlī al-Riḍā to his court, he married the boy to one of his daughters, Umm al-Faḍl, who was taken to …

al-Mahdī’s

(519 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a dynasty of Zabīd in the Yaman. When the founder of the dynasty, ʿAlī b. Mahdī [q. v.], died in the middle of 554 (1159) soon after the taking of Zabīd, the power of .the dynasty which had been concentrated in his personality, was seriously threatened, especially as his sons Mahdī, ʿAbd al-Nabiʾ and ʿAbd Allāh quarrelled. It is not quite clear whether Mahdī at first obtained the throne (so ʿOmāra in Kay [see Bibl.], p. 129) or whether he ruled jointly with ʿAbd al-Nabiʾ, the latter taking charge of civil and the former of military affairs (so Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī in Kay, p.…

Ziyādī

(645 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a Yaman dynasty of 204 to 371 (819—981) or 409 (1018) with capital in Zabīd [q.v.]. They were regarded as descendants of Ziyād b. Abīhi [q. v.]. But as the latter’s genealogy is uncertain, so not even the name of the father of the founder of the dynasty, Muḥammad, has been handed down with certainty. The caliph Maʾmūn was harassed by his uncle Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī; at the same time tribes in the Yaman became rebellious. The fact that there were ʿAlid schemes afoot there and indeed shortly before Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲azzār, a brother of ʿAlī al-Riḍā [q. v.], had been plundering in Ṣanʿāʾ, may ¶ have decid…

al-Nāṣir Li-Dīn Allāh

(762 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, honorific title of several Zaydī imāms . I. Among the Caspian Zaydīs, this title was borne by 1. al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ [see Ḥasan al-uṭrūs̲h̲ ] and his great-grandson 2. al-Nāṣir al-Ṣag̲h̲īr al-Ḥusayn b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī . The latter gained for himself a dominion beginning in Hawsam, where he could find associations with the earlier period of Zaydī rule. He laid great emphasis on the religious character of Zaydism; he gave out of the state treasury funds to support people who learned the Ḳurʾān by he…

al-Ẓāhirīya

(1,288 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a school of law, which would derive the law only from the literal text ( ẓāhir) of the Ḳurʾān and Sunna. In the “branches” of law ( furūʿ al-fiḳh) it still further increased the number of contradictory detailed regulations by many divergencies, peculiar to it alone. More important is its significance for the principles of legislation ( uṣūl al-fiḳh), the development and elucidation of which it considerably furthered by its uncompromising fight against raʾy, ḳiyās, istiṣḥāb, istiḥsān and taḳlīd [q. v.]. In the ʿIrāḳ the Ẓāhirī mad̲h̲hab, also called Dāʾūdī after its founder [see dāʾūd b.…

Taḳīya

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(a.), caution, fear (see Glossarium to Ṭabarī, s.v. t-ḳ-d) or keitmān, “disguise”, is the technical term for dispensation from the requirements of religion under compulsion or threat of injury. Muḥammad himself avoided suffering in the cause of religion in dogmatics by docetism (Sūra iv. 156) and in everyday life by the hid̲j̲ra and by allowing in case of need the denial of the faith (Sūra xvi. 108), friendship with unbelievers (iii. 27) and the eating of forbidden foods (vi. 119; v. 5). This point of view is general in Islām. But, as he at the …

al-Manṣūr

(1,164 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
bi ’llāh al-Ḳāsim, the name of two Zaidī imāms of the Yemen. I. al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī al-ʿAiyānī (? according to others al-IIyānī). His genealogy goes back through a certain ʿAbd Allāh and a Muḥammad to al-Ḳāsim b. Ibrāhīm Ṭabāṭabā (d. 246 = 860), the spiritual founder of Zaidism in the Yemen; he is however not a descendant of the latter’s grandson, al-Hādī Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusain, the creator of the secular power of the Zaidīs in the Yemen. The latter was succeeded in the imāmate by his two sons: the weak Muḥammad al-Mu…

al-Mahdī li-Dīn Allāh Aḥmad

(2,399 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a title and name of several Zaidī Imāms of the Yaman. About 250 years after al-Hādī Yaḥyā, the founder of the Zaidīya [q. v.] dynasty of the Yaman, his direct descendant, the Imām al-Mutawakkil ʿala ’llāh Aḥmad b. Sulaimān had, between 532 and 566 (1134—1170), restored the kingdom to its extent in al-Hādī’s period, with Ṣaʿda, Nad̲j̲rān and for a time also Zabīd and Ṣanʿāʾ. A generation later (593—614 = 1197—1217) the hill country from Ṣaʿda to Ḏh̲amār was again ruled by one man, al-Manṣūr bi’llāh ʿAbd Al…

al-Saiyida Nafīsa

(435 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a mausoleum outside Cairo, south of the Mosque of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn in the direction of the sepulchral mosque of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Among the female saints [cf. walī] in Cairo next to Saiyida Zainab bint Muḥammad [q. v.] and “Sitt Sekina” (Sukaina) “Sitt Nefisa” takes a very prominent place. In the official recitations of the Ḳurʾān, al-Saiyida Nafīsa, where the reading is held on Sundays, takes third place among them all, immediately after Imām al-S̲h̲āfiʿī and Imām al-Ḥusainī (see Bergsträsser, in Isl., xxi. [1933], 110 sq.). The sanctuary is visited by both men and women, especiall…

Tas̲h̲bīh

(2,732 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
assimilating, comparing (God to man), anthropomorphism, and taʿṭīl, emptying, divesting (God of all attributes), are the names of two opposite views of the doctrine of the nature of God in Islām; both are regarded as heresies and grave sins in dogma. The fierce dispute over these conceptions, by which even the dogma of the Ḳurʾān is influenced, is explained by the central position of the doctrine of the nature of God in Islām. The formal cause is to ¶ be found in the Ḳurʾān, which strongly emphasises the absolute uniqueness nf God and yet at the same time naively describe…

Banū Nad̲j̲āḥ

(1,176 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
a dynasty of Abyssinian Mamlūks at Zabīd [q. v.] from 412 to 553 (1022—1158). When the last Ziyadī [q. v.] had been put to death in the vizierate of the Abyssinian Mard̲j̲ān by one of his Mamlūk governors Nafīs, the other Nad̲j̲āḥ came forward to avenge him. After desperate fighting, Nafīs was slain and Nad̲j̲āḥ in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 412 (Feb. 1022) entered Zabīd where he had the vizier built alive into a wall in exact revenge for the Ziyādī. As his rival Nafīs had already done, Nad̲j̲āḥ assumed the insignia of royalty, struck his own coins and inserted his own name in the k̲h̲uṭba after that of the ʿ…

S̲h̲īʿa

(9,188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the general name for a large group of very different Muslim sects, the starting point of all of which is the recognition of ʿAlī as the legitimate caliph after the death of the Prophet. The Motives of the S̲h̲īʿa and the Earlier Period Islām is a religious and a political phenomenon as its founder was a prophet and statesman. The development of the community of Islām into separate sectional groups was therefore a natural result of the different possible relations which the political constitution and religious belief might bear to one an…

Ḳāʾim

(437 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
al-Zamān (a.) i. e. “Lord of the Age”, a S̲h̲īʿa term. The phrase includes the two theological meanings of “representative of God on earth” and “Deputy” of the Prophet. Among the earlier S̲h̲īʿīs for example the Imām is called “the ḳāʾim”, “our ḳāʾim” or “the ḳāʾim of his age”, synonymous with ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲a or k̲h̲alīfa. The political application of the word brought in the meaning of “rebellious”, current among all the seceding sects, c. g. also among the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs. Through chiliasm the name is given to the Mahdi as “resurrected” from (apparent) death who is active in the “age” through the na…

Ṣanʿāʾ

(3,575 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the capital of Yaman, lies on the eastern Sarāt in a mountain valley which is open to the west as far as the chain which belongs to the Ḏj̲abal ʿAibān, while immediately to the east the town is overshadowed by the Ḏj̲abal Nuḳum which rises 1600 feet above it. Its situation is 15° 23′ N. Lat. and 44° 12′ E. Long. As the town is 7200 feet above sea-level the climate is temperate, particularly as in summer regular winds blow through the day. In winter the temperature falls to zero at night which …

al-Uṭrūs̲h̲

(1,517 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿOmar al-As̲h̲raf b. ʿAlī Zain al-ʿĀbidīn [s. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain], born about 230 (844) at Medīna of a Ḵh̲urāsān slave girl, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 304 (beginning of 917) at Āmul as ruler in Ṭabaristān, is recognised under the official name of al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr as Imām by the Zaidīs, and also by those of Yemen. Al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ came to Ṭabaristān in the reign of the ʿAlid al-Dāʿī al-Kabīr al-Ḥasan b. Zaid [see al-Ḥasan b. Zaid b. Muḥammad]; his brother and successor al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥammad b. Zaid distrusting him, he endeavoured to…

Karam

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(Banu ’l-), a dynasty of ʿAden, from 476—533 (1083—1138) conducted an Ismāʿīlī condominium — at first as viceroys of the Ṣulaiḥids of Ṣanʿāʾ — in two branches, the Banū Masʿūd and the Banū ʿAbbās Abi ’l-Zuraiʿ; from 533—569 (1138—1173) the latter alone — the Zuraiʿids, also called Banu ’l-Ḏh̲iʾb (sons of the wolf) — held the now independent sultanate, only recognising the Caliphate of the Fāṭimids. The Banu ’l-Karam belonged to the Ḏj̲us̲h̲am clan of the tribe of Yām in the Ḥamdān group and were closely related to the Ṣulaiḥids [q. v.]. They were therefore the principal supporters of ¶ the fo…
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