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X. Greece and Rome

(36,238 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm | Meier, Mischa | Eder, Walter | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig
X. 1. Archons of Athens According to Aristotle ( Ath. Pol. 3), the kings of Athens were replaced by archons (Archontes [I]), who were first elected for life, then for ten years and in the end for one year only. This statement is clearly based on nothing more than the conjectures of the Atthidographic tradition (cf. Atthis). Still, the introduction of the archonship, the establishment of the powers associated with the office and the regulations regarding the installation of magistrates may have been the result of a longer pr…

XIII. Bishops and Patriarchs

(7,131 words)

Author(s): Geerlings, Wilhelm | Strothmann, Meret
The episcopate took shape relatively quickly in the old Church. Ignatius [1] of Antioch (around 120/175, precise dating debated) already defended the ideal of a single bishop (monoepiscopacy). In the Traditio Apostolica ( ca. 210, cf. Hippolytus [2]) the internal structure of the Church has reached its full complexity: the sole bishop is surrounded by presbyters and deacons and by holders of various non-clerical ( klḗros, Bd. 12/2) offices (widows, sub-deacons, ostiarii, etc.). This “monarchist episcopate” spread throughout the entire Church. The episcopate was further strengthened by the organisation of synods ( synodos II). The selection and ordination of bishops as well as the authority to regulate matters of doctrine and discipline were the unquestioned prerogative of the bishop ( episkopos [2], Lat. episcopus). The names of those Christian communities (and their bishops) that were in full communion with the home community were read a…

XIII. Bischöfe und Patriarchen

(6,569 words)

Author(s): Geerlings, Wilhelm | Strothmann, Meret
Das Bischofsamt bildete sich in der Alten Kirche relativ schnell aus. Bereits Ignatios [1] von Antiocheia (um 120/175, Datierung umstritten) propagierte das Ideal des Einzelbischofs (Monepiskopat). In der Traditio Apostolica (ca. 210, vgl. Hippolytos [2]) ist die Kirchenstruktur voll entwickelt: Der Einzelbischof ist umgeben von Presbytern und Di…

X. Griechenland und Rom

(35,165 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm | Meier, Mischa | Eder, Walter | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig
X. 1. Archonten von Athen Laut Aristoteles (Ath. Pol. 3) wurden in Athen die Könige durch Archonten ersetzt ( árchontes [I]), die ihr Amt zunächst auf Lebenszeit, dann auf zehn Jahre und schließlich für ein Jahr ausgeübt haben sollen. Es handelt sich hierbei freilich um bloße Kombinationen der atthidographischen Tradition (vgl. AtthísA). Allerdings kann die Einführung des Archontats sowie die Fixierung der hiermit verbundenen Kompetenzen ebenso wie die Regelungen zur Einsetzung der Amtsträger in einem längeren Prozeß erfolgt sein (vgl. [1]). Das…