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X. Greece and Rome

(36,238 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm | Meier, Mischa | Eder, Walter | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig
X. 1. Archons of Athens According to Aristotle ( Ath. Pol. 3), the kings of Athens were replaced by archons (Archontes [I]), who were first elected for life, then for ten years and in the end for one year only. This statement is clearly based on nothing more than the conjectures of the Atthidographic tradition (cf. Atthis). Still, the introduction of the archonship, the establishment of the powers associated with the office and the regulations regarding the installation of magistrates may have been the re…

XIII. Bishops and Patriarchs

(7,131 words)

Author(s): Geerlings, Wilhelm | Strothmann, Meret
The episcopate took shape relatively quickly in the old Church. Ignatius [1] of Antioch (around 120/175, precise dating debated) already defended the ideal of a single bishop (monoepiscopacy). In the Traditio Apostolica ( ca. 210, cf. Hippolytus [2]) the internal structure of the Church has reached its full complexity: the sole bishop is surrounded by presbyters and deacons and by holders of various non-clerical ( klḗros, Bd. 12/2) offices (widows, sub-deacons, ostiarii, etc.). This “monarchist episcopate” spread throughout the entire Church. The episcopate was further stren…