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Somnus

(491 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan
[English version] (auch Sopor, griech. ῞Υπνος/ Hýpnos=H.). Als göttliche Personifikation des Schlafes begegnet H. bereits in der Ilias, als Hera ihn auf Lemnos aufsucht und bittet, Zeus einzuschläfern (Hom. Il. 14,230-360). Dafür verspricht sie ihm die Charitin Pasithea [2] (vgl. Catull. 63,42 f.). H. hatte sich, als er dies schon einmal getan hatte, damit Hera nach der ersten Zerstörung Troias Herakles Schaden zufügen konnte, vor Zeus' Zorn zu Nyx (Nacht) flüchten müssen. Deshalb verbirgt er sich nun…

Seelenwägung

(249 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan
[English version] (Psychostasie). Bereits in der äg. Rel. begegnet eine S., bei der unter Aufsicht des Osiris das als Gedächtnis der Taten aufgefaßte Herz der Toten mit einer Feder aufgewogen wird [1. 321-323]. Grundverschieden ist die griech. Vorstellung der S.: Sie findet vor dem Tod statt und bewertet nicht nach moralischen Kriterien. Gewogen werden hier die Todeslose von Menschen (κήρ, kēr ), wodurch über Leben und Tod entschieden wird (Kerostasie). Diese Form kannte wohl schon die Aithiopís , von der die Ilias das Motiv übernahm [2. 316-318]. In …

Xuthos

(284 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan
(Ξοῦθος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Hellen und der Orseis/Othreis Sohn des Hellen und der Orseis/Othreis, Bruder des Doros und des Aiolos [1] (Hes. cat. 9; Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 125; Apollod. 1,49); X. ist myth. Ahnherr des Stammes der Ionier (Iones). Mit Kreusa [2], der Tochter des athen. Königs Erechtheus, zeugt er Ion [1], Achaios [1] und Diomede (Hes. cat. 10a,20-24; Hdt. 7,94; 8,44; Apollod. 1,50). X. wird von seinem Vater aus Thessalien fortgeschickt und gelangt nach Attika. Dort gründet er die T…

Tantalos

(372 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan
[English version] (Τάνταλος, lat. Tantalus). Myth. König am Sipylos, Sohn des Zeus (Eur. Or. 5; Paus. 2,22,3) oder des Tmolos (schol. Eur. Or. 4) und der Pluto [1], als Gemahl der Dione oder Euryanassa Vater von Broteas, Niobe und Pelops [1]. In der griech.-röm. Lit. und der bildenden Kunst wird T. hauptsächlich neben Ixion, Sisyphos und Tityos als einer der Büßer in der Unterwelt dargestellt. Nach Homer steht T. dort im Wasser, kann jedoch nicht davon trinken, da es immer wieder zurückweicht. Ebens…

Tatius, T.

(235 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan
[English version] Sagenhafter König der Sabiner (Sabini) in der Stadt Cures. T. führte gegen die Römer Krieg wegen des Raubs der Sabinerinnen (Varro ling. 5,46; Liv. 1,10,1 f.). Durch den Verrat der Tarpeia, die von T. bestochen bzw. in ihn verliebt war, gelang es ihm, das röm. Kapitol (Capitolium) zu besetzen (Liv. 1,11,6; Prop. 4,4; Dion. Hal. ant. 2,38-40; Plut. Romulus 17,2-4). Der Krieg gegen Rom wurde beigelegt, indem Romulus [1] und T. einen Vertrag ( foedus) schlossen (Cic. rep. 2,13; Verg. Aen. 8,635-641; Dion. Hal. ant. 2,46,1 f.). Beide regierten als gleichb…

Philoctetes

(460 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Φιλοκτήτης/ Philoktḗtēs; Lat. Philoctetes). Thessalian hero, son of Poeas (Hom. Od. 3,190) and Demonassa (Hyg. Fab. 97,8); outstanding archer and companion of Heracles [1]. P. is distinguished by his bow, a token of thanks from Heracles for igniting his funeral pyre on Mt. Oeta (Soph. Phil. 801-803). In Apollod. 3,131 and Hyg. Fab. 81, P. is counted among the suitors of Helena [1]. Party, with seven ships, to the Greek campaign against Troy (Hom. Il. 2,716-725), he is bitten by a sn…

Tatius, T.

(240 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] Legendary king of the Sabines (Sabini) in the city of Cures. T. waged war with the Romans because of the rape of the Sabine women (Varro Ling. 5,46; Liv. 1,10,1 f.). Through the treachery of Tarpeia, who was either bribed by T. or in love with him, he succeeded in occupying the Roman Capitol (Capitolium; Liv. 1,11,6; Prop. 4,4; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,38-40; Plut. Romulus 17,2-4). The war with Rome was settled when Romulus [1] and T. concluded a treaty ( foedus; Cic. Rep. 2,13; Verg. Aen. 8,635-641; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46,1 f.). The two ruled the city toge…

Xuthus

(309 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
(Ξοῦθος; Xoûthos). [German version] [1] Son of Hellen and Orseis/Othreis Son of Hellen and Orseis/Othreis, brother of Dorus and Aeolus [1] (Hes. fr. 9 MW; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 125; Apollod. 1,49); X. is the mythical ancestor of the tribe of the Ionians (Iones). With Creusa [2], the daughter of the Athenian king Erechtheus, he fathered Ion [1], Achaeus [1] and Diomede (Hes. fr. 10a,20-24 MW; Hdt. 7,94; 8,44; Apollod. 1,50). X. is sent away from Thessaly by his father and journeys to Attica, where he founds …

Metion

(81 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μητίων; Mētíōn). Son of Erechtheus and Praxithea, brother of Cecrops (Apollod. 3,15,1). His sons, the Metionids, drive Pandion, the son and heir of Cecrops, from power in Attica, but are in turn overthrown by his sons (Paus. 1,5,3f.; Apollod. 3,15,5). Daedalus [1] was both M.'s grandson, as the son of Eupalamus (Apollod. 3,15,8), and M.'s son (Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 146; Diod. 4,76,1 with M. as the son of Eupalamus and grandson of Erechtheus). Stenger, Jan (Kiel)

Nemesis

(609 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Νέμεσις/ Némesis). Greek goddess and personification of retribution, avenger of hýbris , daughter of Nyx/Night (Hes. Theog. 223f.). As a mythical figure, N. played a role in the ‘Cypria (Kypria) as the mother of Helen [1]. Beset by aidṓs (shame) and némesis (a feeling of internal reluctance), N. tried to flee from Zeus, who pursued her over sea and land to mate with her. On her flight she transformed herself into all kinds of land and sea creatures (Cypria F 7 EpGF). When she had taken on the form of a goose, Zeus overc…

Nectar

(321 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (νέκταρ/ néctar, Latin nectar). Nectar (derived from the Egyptian ntry, ‘divine’ [1]) together with ambrosia [2] served as the food of the gods of Olympia, who, according to Hom. Il. 5,339-341, neither ate bread nor drank wine. In the main, nectar is imagined to be a beverage whilst ambrosia is a food (e.g. Hom. Od. 5,93), though there is also the reverse view; in Alcm. fr. 42 PMG and Anaxandrides fr. 58 PCG nectar is food. Originally nectar and ambrosia had the same consistency (cf. Hom. …

Meges

(93 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μέγης/M égēs). Son of Phyleus, sailed with 40 ships from Dulichium to Troy (Hom. Il. 2,625ff.), where he killed several enemies (e.g. ibid. 5,69; Q. Smyrn. 1,276ff.). He is one of Odysseus's men who fetched the propitiatory gifts for Achilles from Agamemnon's tent (Hom. Il. 19,238ff.), and one of those in the Wooden Horse (Quint. Smyrn. 12,326). M. is also mentioned as one of Helen's suitors (Apollod. 3,129). According to Apollod. Epitome 6,15a he is one of the many who died on Euboea during the return voyage. Stenger, Jan (Kiel)

Lytaea

(53 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Λυταία; Lytaía). One of the Hyacinthides. L., together with her sisters Antheis, Aigleis and Orthaea, is sacrificed in Athens on the grave of Geraestus, the Cyclops, when the city is under siege by Minos and suffering from hunger and plague (Apollod. 3,212; cf. Diod. Sic. 17,15,2). Stenger, Jan (Kiel)

Somnus

(509 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (also Sopor, Greek  ῞Υπνος/ Hýpnos). As a god personifying sleep, Hypnos (= H.) is already mentioned in the Iliad, where Hera visits him on Lemnos and asks him to lull Zeus to sleep (Hom. Il. 14,230-360). In return she promises him Pasithea [2], one of the Graces (cf. Catull. 63,42 f.). Once he had done this, so that Hera could inflict harm on Heracles after the first destruction of Troy, H. had to flee from Zeus's anger to Nyx (Night). He then hides from Zeus in the form of a night b…

Peleus

(787 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Πηλεύς; Pēleús). Son of Aeacus (Hom. Il. 21,189) and the daughter of Chiron, Endeis, brother of Telamon (Ov. Met. 7,476f.; cf. Pind. P. 8,100; in Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 60, they are only friends), husband of the Nereid Thetis, father of Achilles [1]. As P. and Telamon intentionally kill their half-brother Phocus (Alcmaeonis F 1 EpGF; Apollod. 3,160), they are banished from their homeland of Aegina by Aeacus. P. goes to Phthia, to Eurytion [4] who purifies him and gives him his daught…

Rhipaia orē

(470 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥιπαῖα ὄρη; Rhipaîa órē). Mythical chain of mountains on the northern edge of the world, already known from Alcm. fr. 90 PMGF with a somewhat different name form. Sophocles, who used it to denote the north (Soph. OC 1248 with schol.; cf. Aesch. TrGF 3 F 68), also knew it as Rhípai. Both these authors, and others as well, associate the Rhipaia orē (RO) with night (Nyx). This has its roots in speculations about the path of the sun: according to a commonly held theory, the sun goes around the Earth after setting, but in doing so is …

Minos

(824 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μίνως, Mínōs). Mythical king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europe [2]; Asterius (Asterion [1]) is said to be his mortal father (Apollod. 3,1,2). M. is the brother of Rhadamanthys (Hom. Il. 14,321f.) and already in Hes. Cat. 140 also of Sarpedon; as Pasiphae's husband, he is the father of Deucalion, Ariadne, Phaedra and other children, from other liaisons as well (their names are listed in Apollod. 3,1,2). Diod. 4,60,3 distinguishes between two rulers named M., grandfather and grandson. M. is particularly well known for his role as a judge and as the first law-m…

Minotaurus

(461 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μινώταυρος; Minṓtauros). Hybrid of man and bull (probably as early as in Hes. Cat. 145), with the animal half generally more prominent. The Minotaur is the product of the union of Pasiphae, the wife of Minos, with the bull that Poseidon sends Minos to consolidate his rule. Daedalus [1] prepares Pasiphae a hollow wooden cow as a disguise to enable congress with the bull (Bakchyl. 26). Minos shuts the resulting Minotaur up in the Labyrinth, where either it is generally fed with huma…

Mantichoras

(127 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (μαντιχώρας; mantichṓras, also martichoras, μαρτιχώρας; martichṓras). According to Ctesias (in Aristot. Hist. an. 2,1, 501a 24ff.), an Indian animal with the body of a lion and the face of a human, with three rows of teeth. The fur was vermilion and the tail was shaped like a scorpion's so that the mantichoras could shoot deadly spines like arrows. The voice sounded like a mixture of a shepherd's pipe and trumpet. The mantichoras is described as fast, wild and man-eating (the meaning of the name, which is of Persian origin; cf. Ael. NA 4,21). Accordi…

Messeis

(96 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μεσσηίς; Messēís). A spring mentioned in Hom. Il. 6,457. Hector prophesies to Andromache, that one day she will fetch water from the springs Messeis and Hypereia in Argos. According to Strab. 9,5,6, the inhabitants of Pharsalus pointed out a town, Hellas (cf. Heraclides 3,2), entirely in ruins, which was 60 stadia from their own town and in whose vicinity the two springs were to be found. Plin. HN 4,8,30 locates a spring Messeis in Thessaly, whereas Paus. 3,20,1 claims to have seen a well Messeis at Therapne in Laconia. Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
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