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Callimachus

(3,899 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lehnus, Luigi (Milan) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος; Kallímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 490 BC archon and supreme commander at Marathon Athenian, árchōn polémarchos ( Archontes) in 490 BC, supreme commander at  Marathon (490 BC). It is disputed if C. was appointed polémarchos by lot (Hdt. 6,109). Aristotle's claim (Ath. Pol. 22,5) that the archontes were first selected by lot in 487/86 appears preferable. But perhaps areas of responsibility were already distributed among them by lot after 509/8. C. only nominally held supreme command, but he was a voting mem…

Melanchrus

(89 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Μέλαγχρος; Mélanchros) was able to establish himself as tyrant during the internal conflicts in Mytilene around 600 BC, probably with the support of a hetairia . Another of these aristocratic groups, to which Pittacus and the brothers of the poet Alcaeus [4] belonged, however, soon managed to overthrow him again (Alc. fr. 331 Voigt; Strab. 13,2,3; Diog. Laert. 1,74). E.S.-H. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, vol. 1, 91f., vol. 2, 572 L. de Libero, Die archaische Tyrannis, 1996, 315.

Leontiades

(211 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λεοντιάδης; Leontiádēs). [German version] [1] Theban leader at the Battle of Thermopylae, 5th cent. BC Theban, leader of the contingent which, on the order of Leonidas [1], had to take part in the battle about the Thermopylae (480 BC). The Thebans were suspected of pro-Persian sympathies, and during the battle they did indeed defect to the Persians (Hdt. 7,205; 233). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Theban politician, c. 400 BC (Plut.: Λεωντίδης/ Leōntídēs), Theban politician, leader of a party of pro-Spartan property owners (Hell. Oxy. 15 Barto…

Cylon

(336 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κύλων; Kýlon). [German version] [1] Athenian aristocrat, victor in Olympia in 640 BC, attempted to establish tyrannical rule in 632 BC Athenian aristocrat, son-in-law of  Theagenes of Megara, became Olympic victor in 640 BC. C. and his hetaireíahetairía  [2]) occupied the Acropolis in Athens around 632 in order to establish  tyrannical rule there -- possibly with support from Megara. C. did not manage to mobilize the population to support him. The rebels initially were besieged by a contingent of citizens, b…

Adeimantus

(325 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀδείμαντος; Adeímantos). [German version] [1] Corinthian (5 cent. BC) Corinthian, son of Ocytus, fled in a cowardly manner, according to Herodotus (8,94), in the war against Xerxes with the Corinthian contingent before the naval battle at  Salamis in 480 BC. In fact, he was probably supposed to guard an area apart from the scene of the battle, namely the western entrance to the gulf, and then became involved in the battle (cf. ML 24; Dio Chrys. 37,18; Plut. Mor. 870b-871a). His son Aristeas (Aristeus) c…

Epicrates

(390 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἐπικράτης; Epikrátēs). [German version] [1] Democratic Athenian c. 400 BC Athenian who fought with the democrats against the oligarchy in 403 BC. In 397 he and  Cephalus advocated collaboration with Persia and a clean, quick break with Sparta, even at the risk of a new war (Hell. Oxy. 10, 1-2 Chambers). After Conon's victory in the Aegean in 394, he accompanied Phormisius to the Persian king as emissary of Athens. On his return he was accused of corruption but acquitted. In 392/1 he went to Sparta as an …

Lelantine War

(412 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] Modern term for a military dispute between the Euboean cities of Chalcis [1] and Eretria [1] over the Lelantine Plain ( Lēlántion pedíon ) situated between their respective territories. Today the conflict is generally dated to the period around 700 BC. The Lelantine War (LW) obviously dragged out over several decades. The surrender of the city of Lefkandi on the eastern edge of the plain that is dated to c. 700 on the basis of archaeological findings was probably a consequence of the war. The LW is first mentioned in Archilochus. There he states t…

Agesias

(150 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Ἀγησίας; Agēsías). [German version] [1] Seer and captain in the service of Hieron I of Syracuse (5th cent. BC) Son of Sostratus, stemming from one of the branches of the Jamides, who had migrated from Stymphalus (in Arcadia) to Syracuse and functioned in Olympia as priests of Zeus. Active as a seer and captain in the service of  Hieron I of Syracuse, A. was killed by the people after Hieron's death in 467 BC (schol. Pind. Ol. 6,165). Pindar's sixth ode celebrates A.'s victory with the mule team, which probably occurred during the Olympic games in 468. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2…

Aristocracy

(1,692 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
The term aristocracy, when used for ancient societies, must be distinguished from the term aristocracy used in the Middle Ages and in modern times. The aristocracy of antiquity is lacking lordly property as the basis of rule over people who work the land, and also, in principle, an authority that can justify aristocratic status. Heredity and exclusive class thinking are especially weakly pronounced in the Greek areas, even if often through the handing down of property and personal connections, e…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Ietragoras

(51 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἰητραγόρας/ Iētragóras, Ἰητραγόρης/ Iētragórēs) of Miletus, was assigned by the rebellious Ionians in 499 BC with waylaying the Persian fleet returning from Naxos and capturing the pro-Persian tyrants on the ships (Hdt. 5,36f.). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography U. Walter, Herodot und die Ursachen des Ionischen Aufstandes, in: Historia 42, 1993, 257-278.

Medontidae

(117 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Μεδοντίδαι; Medontídai). Aristocratic Athenian family, whose ancestor Medon [5] renounced the royal title in 1069 BC, and was supposedly the first to hold the archonship ( árchontes) for life. The office was then said to have become hereditary within his family, until the term of office was limited to ten years in 753. The ten-year archonship was also said to have been held exclusively by the M. down to 713 (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 3,3; Paus. 4,5,10). However, there is no authentic evi…

Epicydes

(179 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἐπικύδης; Epikýdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Euphemides of Athens c. 480 BC Son of Euphemides of Athens. In 480 BC, he ran for the office of strategos but  Themistocles supposedly bribed him into withdrawing his candidacy (Plut. Themist. 6; Mor. 185A). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Confidant of Hannibal Brother of Hippocrates, grandson of Arcesilaus, a Syracusian exile in Carthage. E. grew up in Carthage as the son of a Carthaginian woman (Pol. 7,2; Liv. 24,6; Iust. 22,8). He was a confidant of Hannibal and, in 214 B…

Orthagoras

(445 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ὀρθαγόρας/ Orthagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sicyon, 6th cent. BC O. of Sicyon is said to have established the tyrannís there around 650 BC. The ruling dynasty thus established was called the 'Orthagorids' after him. An anonymous ‘history of tyranny (FGrH 105 F 2) preserved on papyrus, and probably deriving from Ephorus, reports that O. had first distinguished himself as a border guard on the frontier with a neighbouring city, and later rose to become commander of the watch and polémarchos . Whether he had the support of the hoplítai for his seizure o…

Aristides

(3,776 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης; Aristeídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician and srategos (beginning of the 5th cent. BC) Of Athens, son of Lysimachus. He was one of the most prominent politicians and strategoi of Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. In the battle of Marathon, he probably served as a strategos. In 489/488 BC, he was the eponymous archon (Plut. Aristides 1,2, cf. IG I3 1031). In 482 BC, he was ostrazised ( Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristides 7,1 ff.). His rivalry with  Themistocles, documented already in Herodotus (8,79), …

Helixus

(59 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἕλιξος; Hélixos). Strategos from Megara. In 411 BC, H. led a fleet contingent of the  Peloponnesian League, which caused Byzantium to break away from Athens (Thuc. 8,80). When the city was later besieged by the Athenians, H. defended it until it capitulated in the winter of 409/8 (Xen. Hell. 1,3,15; 17; 21). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Medismos

(229 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (μηδισμός/ mēdismós). The term medismos was used to describe the voluntary collaboration of individual Greeks or whole cities with the Persians, whom the Greeks often referred to as ‘Medes’. Apart from active political-military collaboration with the Great King, the verb mēdízein also refers to the adoption of Persian customs and practices together with a luxurious way of life. Medismos was perceived as a graver offence than the betrayal of the home town to another Greek town, because it affected pan-Greek interests as well as the intere…

Hippocrates

(5,685 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Potter, Paul (London, Ontario) | Gundert, Beate (London, Ontario) | Et al.
(Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs). [German version] [1] Father of Peisistratus, from Brauron Father of  Peisistratus. H. is presumed to have come from Brauron, the later deme of Philaidai, and traced his ancestry back to Neleus (Hdt. 1,59; 5,65; Plut. Solon 10; 30). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography Traill, PAA 538385. [German version] [2] Son of Megacles from Athens, approx. 6th cent. BC Son of the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonids)  Megacles from Athens, born around 560 BC, H. was the brother of Cleisthenes, the father of  Megacles and Agariste [2] and thus th…

Isagoras

(246 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἰσαγόρας; Isagóras). [German version] [1] Son of Teisander, Cleisthenes' competitor after the fall of the tyrants Son of Teisander, he fought  Cleisthenes for supreme power in Athens after the fall of the tyrants. The conflict was initially between their hetairiai ( Hetairia). It was only when I. was elected archon for the year 508/507 BC, that Cleisthenes was successful in winning the support of the dḗmos. I. too had to mobilize additional sources of power and in traditional aristocratic manner had his guest  Cleomenes I of Sparta intervene in Attica and e…

Arthmius

(177 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἄρθμιος; Árthmios). Son of Pythonax, probably proxenos of the Athenians in his home town of Zeleia in Propontis. Between 477 and 461 BC, he worked in the service of the Persians and was sent with bribe money to the Peloponnese in order to fan the flames of resentment against the Athenians and thus reinforce the rivalry between the Greek cities. Following this expedition, the city of Athens took measures against A. by declaring him and his entire lineage as dishonoured and as an enemy ( átimos,  Atimia). This measure was probably requested by  Cimon and applied no…
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