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The Achaemenid Kingdom (6th to 4th cents. BC)

(2,101 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M. | Wiesehöfer, J. | Klinkott, H. | Sommer, M.
The Achaemenid Empire was more than just the first great Persian empire; for under the rule of the Teispids (i.e. the kings before Darius I) and the Achaemenids (from Darius I), it unified for the first time all of the Near and Middle East and then kept it together, mostly in peace. It lasted from c. 550 (conquest of the Median kingdom) until 330 BC, when it was itself conquered by Alexander the Great. The Persians created an exemplary infrastructure comprising a network of roads, a uniform currency, an official language and an efficient and durable administrative system. I. The expansion of…

The Phoenician and West Phoenician/Carthaginian world in the western Mediterranean area (9th–2nd cents. BC)

(1,477 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M. | Niemeyer, H.G. | Sommer, M.
Not only does the map cover a lengthy period (9th-2nd cents. BC), but it also brings together two separate phases of Phoenician presence in the western Mediterranean. Firstly, there is the period of early Phoenician settlements, trading posts and agrarian communities initiated and controlled by the Levantine mother-cities, notably Tyre (9th-7th/6th cents.). Secondly, what is conventionally referred to as Punic or Carthaginian foundations, are all the Western Phoenician settlements on the African…