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Tamīm b. al-Muʿizz Li-Dīn Allāh

(698 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
, Abū Alī , poet and Fāṭimid prince, born in al-Mahdiyya (present-day Tunisia) in 337/949, died in 374/985 in Egypt (but Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī and Ibn Kat̲h̲īr mention his death sub anno 368/978-9). Though Tamīm was al-Muʿizz’s eldest son, he was passed over as walī al-ʿahd , successor to the Fāṭimid throne in the newly-founded capital al-Ḳāhira. The official reason given by al-Maḳrīzī ( al-Muḳaffa , ii, 588), was the fact that Tamīm did not have any male offspring necessary to avoid problems for the dynasty in future, the throne being inhe…

al-S̲h̲arīf al-ʿAḳīlī

(506 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. Ḥaydara b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad, from the genealogical line of ʿAḳīl b. Abī Ṭālib [ q.v.]. Since ʿAḳīl was a half-brother of ʿAlī (the Prophet’s nephew), al-ʿAḳīlī was seen to belong to the S̲h̲arīfian nobility, and therefore was entitled to a regular income. As a poet of independent means, al-ʿAḳīlī lived ca. 350-450/960-1060 in the old town of al-Fusṭāṭ, next to the then newly-founded city of al-Ḳāhira (Cairo). Apart from a short poem in praise of a chancellor who was in the service of the Fāṭimid al-Ḥākim bi-amr Allāh, …

al-Maʿarrī

(10,129 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
, Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Sulaymān , famous Arabic poet and prose author of the late ʿAbbāsid period, was born in 363/973 in Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān [ q.v.], a town between Aleppo and Ḥimṣ in the northern part of Syria, where he also was to die in 449/1058. The Banū Sulaymān, his forefathers, belonged to the notable families of Maʿarra. As S̲h̲āfiʿī ʿulamāʾ , they held the office of ḳāḍī , which post was for the first time successfully claimed by a grandfather of Abu ’l-Alāʾ’s grandfather. In addition, some of the Banū Sulaymān are menti…

al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ī

(789 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Mālikī al-Andalusī , the author of a long poem which contains a versified treatise on Arabic metrics. This poem, entitled al-Rāmiza al-S̲h̲āfiya fī ʿilmay al-ʿarūd wa ’l-ḳāfiya , is popularly known as al-Ḳaṣīda al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲iyya . The K̲h̲azrad̲j̲iyya is a didactic poem of 96 verses composed in ṭawīl metre containing the essence of al-K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad’s theory of metrics, and was thus originally meant to be learnt by heart. Many manuscript versions of this work have been…

al-Mag̲h̲ribī

(3,033 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
banū , a family of Persian origin who performed in the course of two succeeding centuries (the 4th/10th and 5th/11th centuries) the influential functions of wazīr , kātib or intendant ( mudabbir ) at several princely courts throughout the Middle East, in Bag̲h̲dād, Aleppo, Cairo, Mawṣil, and Mayyāfāriḳīn. In the collections of ak̲h̲bār concerning the vicissitudes of this family, the respective representatives of four succeeding generations are mentioned in particular. The first three of these are described in the ak̲h̲bār concerning the family and also in this article, as …

al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ī

(684 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
, Diyāʾ al-dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Mālikī al-Andalusī, auteur d’un long poème qui est un traité en vers de métrique arabe, al-Rāmiza al-s̲h̲āfiya fī ʿilmay al-ʿarūḍ wa-l-ḳāfiya ou, plus communément al-Ḳaṣīda al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲iyya. Ce poème didactique destiné à être appris par cœur, compte 96 vers en ṭ awīl et contient l’essentiel de la théorie d’al-Ḵh̲alīl b. Aḥmad [ q.v.]; de nombreux mss en ont été conservés, mais on ne sait presque rien de son auteur que Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa cite sans donner de renseignements sur sa vie; il paraît avoir vécu au VIIe/XIIIe siècle dans…

al-Mag̲h̲ribī

(1,786 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
, Banū —, famille d’origine persane dont quatre générations successives remplirent, aux IVe et Ve/Xe-XIe siècles les fonctions de wazīr, kātib ou mudabbir (intendant) dans plusieurs cours princières du Proche-Orient (Bag̲h̲dād, Alep, Le Caire, al-Mawṣil et Mayyāfāriḳīn). Dans l’introduction à son édition (Damas 1948) du Kitāb fi l-Siyāsa écrit par le quatrième membre des Banū l-Mag̲h̲ribī, le wazīr Abū l-Ḳāsim, S. al-Dahhān a retracé l’histoire plutôt aventureuse de la famille, que l’historien d’Alep, Ibn al-ʿAdīm [ q.v.] permet de compléter. I. L’arrière grand-père, Abū l-Ḥ…

al-Maʿarrī

(7,797 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
, Abū l-ʿAlāʾ Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Sulaymān, célèbre poéte et prosateur arabe de l’époque ʿabbāside, qui naquit en 363/973, à Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān [ q.v.] et mourut dans sa ville natale en 449/1058. Il appartenait à une famille notable de ʿulamāʾ s̲h̲āfiʿites, les Banū Sulaymān, qui, après le grand-pére d’Abū l-ʿAlāʾ, occupérent le poste de ḳāḍī de Maʿarra et parmi lesquels on compte plusieurs poétes assez éminents (voir ʿImād al-dīn al-Iṣfahānī, Ḵh̲arīdat al-ḳaṣr, II (Syrie), II, 49, éd. S̲h̲ukrī Fayṣal, Damas 1959, avec une table généalogique dans l’Introd. de l’éd…

Tamīm b. al-Muʿizz Li-dīn Allāh

(698 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
, Abū ʿAlī, poète et prince fāṭimide né à al-Mahdiyya (Tunisie actuelle) en 337/949 et mort en 374/985 en Egypte (mais Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī et Ibn Kat̲h̲īr mentionnent sa mort sub anno 368/978-9). Tamīm était le fils aîné d’al-Muʿizz, pourtant on l’ignora en tant que walī al-ʿahd, successeur du trône fāṭimide dans la capitale récemment fondée d’al-Ḳāhira. La raison officielle fournie par al-Maḳrīzī ( al-Muḳaffā, II, 588) était que Tamīm n’avait pas la ¶ progéniture mâle nécessaire pour éviter à la dynastie tout problème pour l’avenir, le trône s’héritant de père en fil…

al-S̲h̲arīf al-ʿAḳīlī

(469 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. Ḥaydara b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad, de la lignée de ʿAḳīl b. Abī Ṭālib [ q.v.]. ʿAḳīl étant le demi-frère de ʿAlī (neveu du Prophète), al-ʿAḳīlī était considéré comme faisant partie de la noblesse s̲h̲arīfienne, et partant titulaire d’un revenu régulier. Poète doté des moyens de vivre, al-ʿAḳīlī vivait vers 350-450/960-1060 dans la vieille ville d’al-Fusṭāṭ, près de la ville nouvellement fondée d’al-Ḳāhira (le Caire). A part une pièce en l’honneur d’un chancelier au service du Fāṭimide al-Ḥākim bi-amr Allāh, et quelques po…