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Sikandar S̲h̲āh

(229 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
, Sultan of Bengal, son of Ilyās S̲h̲āh, the founder of the independent Sultanate in Bengal that lasted nearly two centuries. During his long rule (759-92/1358-90), Bengal enjoyed a steady growth and prosperity. Soon after his enthronement, Bengal was invaded by Fīrūz S̲h̲āh Tug̲h̲luḳ, the mighty Dihlī Sultan. In order to avoid direct confrontation, Sikandar S̲h̲āh retreated to Ekdala fort near his capital Pand́uʾā [ q.v.] and finally reached a peaceful settlement with Fīrūz S̲h̲āh. Except for two years of exile in Sonārgāʾon, the famous Čis̲h̲tī S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿ…

Sundarban

(302 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
, a thick forest region on the coastal region of the Gangetic delta mainly in the southernmost part of the present division of Khulna in Bangladesh and in the district of 24 Parganas in the West Bengal state of India. Once extending much deeper into the mainland, Sundarban bears traces of early human settlement. Non-Aryan nomad aborigines roamed in this region, who were gradually influenced by Hinduism, Buddhism (through rulers such as Dummanpal around the 12th century), and finally, by Islam. T…

Yāg̲h̲istān

(683 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
(p.), lit. “the land of the rebels”, ( yāg̲h̲ī “rebel”, istān “region”) referred to different sanctuaries used by Mud̲j̲āhidūn [see mud̲j̲āhid ] against the British authorities in the 19th and early 20th centuries, in the various independent tribal areas, mainly inhabited by the Pak̲h̲tūns, in the hinterland of what became the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of British India such as the Mohmand Agency, Bunēr, Dīr, Swāt, Kohistān, Hazāra and Čamarkand (extending into the Kunār province of Afg̲h̲ānistān and Bad̲j̲…

Ruhmī

(329 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
, a name given in early Islamic geographical, travel and maritime literature to an eastern region of South Asia, most likely in the ancient Suhma region in the western part of Bengal [see bangāla ]. There is considerable confusion about its location; readings vary from Ruhmī (al-Yaʿḳūbī, 106) to Rahma (Ibn al-Faḳīh, 15) and Dahum ( Sharaf al-Zamān Ṭāhir Marvazī on China , the Turks and India, ed. and tr. V. Minorsky, London 1942, text 35). Of these, the closest to Bengali is Dharma (a spelling used by Sulaymān al-Tād̲j̲ir), a possible reference to a famous Ben…

Tribenī

(261 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
(lat. 22° 59′ N., long. 88° 26′ E.), in Sanskrit Tri-veṇī or “Three braids” referring to the convergence of the Bhagirathi, Jamuna and Saraswati rivers, a place in the district of Hooghly, West Bengal, India, an ancient place of Hindu pilgrimage and Sanskrit learning, mentioned in classical Greek (e.g. Pliny’s Natural history), Sanskrit (e.g. Dhoyī’s Pavanadūta ), Bengali sources (e.g. Cvandimangala ), and early European travel accounts. Conquered by Ẓafar K̲h̲ān G̲h̲āzī towards the end of the 7th/13th century, Tribenī (also known by the Muslims as Fīrūzābād af…

Ruhmī

(329 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
, nom donné dans la littérature géographique, de voyage et maritime de l’Islam ancien à une région orientale de l’Asie du Sud, située très probablement dans l’ancienne Suhma, région à l’Ouest du Bengale [voir Bangāla]. Sa localisation est extrêmement confuse. Les lectures vont de Ruhmī (al-Yaʿḳūbī, 106) à Rahma (Ibn al-Faḳīh, 15) et à Dahum ( S̲h̲araf al-Zamān Ṭāhir Marvazī on China, the Turks and India, éd. et trad. V. Minorsky, Londres 1942, texte, 35). Parmi ces noms, celui qui évoque le plus le bengali est Ḏh̲arma (forme utilisée par Sulaymān al-Tād̲j̲ir)…

Tirhut

(413 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
, souvent appelé Mithila dans l’épopée indienne, nom historique de la partie septentrionale de l’actuel État du Bihar (25° 28’ – 26° 52’ de lat. N., 84° 56’ – 86° 46’ de long. E.; environ 16 428 km2) de l’Union Indienne, le long du Népal, comprenant Darbhanga (persan Dār-i Bang «porte du Bengale»), Muẓaffarpur et les districts voisins, s’étendant parfois vers l’Est jusqu’à la rivière Mahananda (Purnabvaba) du Bengale. Située dans l’actuel district de Champaran, Simarāon fut l’une des plus anciennes capitales de la région. L’Empire Pāla (vers 7…

Tribenī

(293 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
(22° 59' de lat. N, 88° 26' de long. E.), en sanskrit Trivenī ou «Trois tresses» allusion à la convergence des trois rivières, la Bhagirathi, la Jamuna et la Saraswati, localité du district de Hooghly, Bengale occidental, Inde, ancien lieu de pèlerinage hindou et d’enseignement du sanskrit, mentionné en grec classique (par ex. Histoire naturelle de Pline), en sanskrit (par ex. Pavanadūta de Dhoyī) et dans les sources en bengali ( Čandimangalā) amisi que dans les récits des premiers voyageurs européens. Conquise par Ẓafar Ḵh̲ān G̲h̲āzi vers la fin du VIIe/XIIIe siècle, Tribenī (connue…

Silhet

(334 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
, couramment Sylhet, célèbre ville, district et division dans la partie la plus orientale du Bengladesh. L’actuelle Division de Sylhet (District avant le 1er aoūt 1995) couvre environ 12 400 km2 et comprend les Districts de Sylhet, Sunamganj, Maulvi Bazar et Habibganj. Elle se situe à 23° 58′-25° 12′ de long. N., 91°-92° 38′ lat. E. Avant l’arrivée de l’Islam, Sylhet faisait partie de la région de Samatata (Djuzdjani l’appelle Suknāt; voir Ṭabaḳāt-i Nāṣirī, éd. Ḥabībī, I, 426, trad. Raverty, I, 557-8). Elle était divisée en petits royaumes (Laor, Jayantia, Gauda) gou…

Yāg̲h̲istān

(724 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
, (p.) littéralement terre des rebelles, yāghī «rebelle», istān «région» se réfère à différents refuges utilisés par les Mud̲j̲āhidūn [voir Mud̲j̲āhid], contre les autorités britanniques au XIXe et au début du XXe siècles, dans les différents territoires de tribus indépendantes, habités principalement par les Pak̲h̲tūns/Pashtounes, dans l’arrière pays de ce qui devint la Province Frontière du Nord-ouest¶ (NWFP) de l’Inde Britannique: Mohmand Agency, Bunēr, Dīr, Swāt, Kohistān, Hazāra, et Čamarkand (qui s’étend jusque dans la province de Kunār en Afg̲h…

Silhet

(329 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
, conventional form Sylhet, a famous city, a district and a division at the easternmost part of Bangladesh. The present Division of Sylhet (a District prior to 1 August 1995) covers approximately 4,785 square miles (lat 23° 58′-25° 12′ N., long. 91°-92° 38′ E.) and comprises the districts of Sylhet, Sunamganj, Maulvi Bazar and Habibganj. Before the advent of Islam, Sylhet formed part of Samatata region (D̲j̲ūzd̲j̲ām mentions it as Suknāt; see Ṭabaḳāt-i Nāṣirī , ed. Ḥabībī, i, 426, tr. Raverty, i, 557-8) and was divided into small kingdoms (i.e. L…

Tirhut

(387 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
, often referred to as Mithila in Indian epic, historic name of the northern tract of the present Indian state of Bihar (lat. 25° 28′-26° 52′ N., long. 84° 56′-86° 46′ E.; roughly 6,343 sq. miles) bordering Nepal, comprising Darbhanga (Persian Dār-i-Bang “gateway to Bengal”), Muẓaffarpur and the adjoining districts, sometimes extended as far eastwards as the river Mahananda (Purnabvaba) in Bengal. Located in the present district of Champaran, Simarāon was one of the oldest capitals of the region. The Pala empire ( ca. 750-1161) of Bengal dominated the area from time to time. S…